Clifford E Carnicom
September 17 2000
The following are conditions that are expected to be satisfied in
identifying certain particles or compounds regularly emitted into the
atmosphere from recorded aircraft aerosol operations since the
beginning of 1999. This set of conditions is not intended to
encompass all phases of the operations, and they do not exclude
further consideration given to materials of a fibrous or gel-like
nature, along with biological components that have been identified
within received samples. These conditions will be revised as
circumstances, information or research requires.
1. The material of concern is most likely a salt, since salts are
the most effective cloud condensation nuclei, and most of them absorb
moisture starting at relative humidities of 70% or greater.
2. The salt form that is being searched for absorbs water at
relative humidities as low as 30%, due to repeated observations of
this occurrence in the southwest U.S. high desert regions. That such
salts do exist is evidenced by such examples as strontium chloride, a
salt form which will absorb water at relative humidities as low as
27%. Special attention should be given to elements in the same group
(Group IIA) of the periodic table of the elements for this same
characteristic. Examples of the elements included within this group are magnesium,
calcium, and barium.
3. The salt form is expected to form a hydroxide when combined with
moisture in the atmosphere, due to recent pH testing which indicates
a higher alkaline level than is expected. At this stage of the investigation,
the results are statistically significant. Additional pH test results are
urgently needed from across the country to confirm or to refute this
It is emphasized once again that:
"The single most important chemical species in clouds and
precipitation is the hydrogen ion (H+), whose concentration can be
indicated by specifying the solution's acidity, or pH value. You may
recall from high school chemistry that the pH scale ranges from 0 to
14, low pH values indicating high acidity (high concentrations of H+)
and high pH values indicating high alkalinity (low concentrations of H+)"
from Atmosphere, Climate, and Change by Graedel and Crutzen,
Scientific American, 1997.
4. The salt form is expected to be highly soluble.
5. The salt form(s) is expected to be white in color, both before
and after the hydration occurs, and is expected to be of a powder or
6. The reaction involving hydration is expected to be exothermic in
nature, releasing heat to the surroundings.
7. The salt form is expected to have commercial applications for
dessication, or drying.
8. The pressure of the water vapor within the hydrated compound at
equilibrium at -50deg C. is expected to be approximately .0143 torr,
based upon the assumption of moisture at a relative humidity level of
1. It remains the case that the linked set of compounds that includes
barium oxide, barium hydroxide and barium hydrate, appear thus far
to satisfy the conditions stated above.
2. An anonymous, but stated to be reliable source, has stated that
barium salts are used within the aerosol operations.
3. In consideration of item 2 of the conditions stated above, there
are four prominent salt forms that occur within Group IIA of the
periodic table of the elements:
Salt Solubility Constant
The solubility of BaOH2 stands as unique amongst the group,
especially when compared with the absorption properties of strontium
chloride referenced above. The metallic nature of the elements
increase from the top toward the bottom of the list.
Based upon the results above, an urgent need exists for environmental
trace metal testing and pH testing of rainwaters in order to confirm
or refute the hypotheses which are presented.
Clifford E Carnicom
September 17 2000
Authored at Lake Heron, NM
Please also refer to:
A Case For Testing
pH Test Alert
pH Test Results
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