Exotic Technology Witnessed

Exotic Technology Witnessed

(a casual paper)
by
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 18 2016

 

map4

Map of Witnessed Light-Energy Sources
Sonoran Desert National Monument, Arizona
December 27, 2015
(source : modification of google maps)

The events witnessed and recorded in this report have precedent.  The general area of Gila Bend, Arizona is known to be the source of unusual “lights” in the night sky over a period of many decades; casual research and investigation will verify that fact.  There are also indications that Native Americans may have witnessed similar events over periods that span hundreds of years in the past, but I have no insight to verify this as of yet.  Such eyewitness accounts are difficult to record because of the conditions of observation and the remoteness of the area.  The account provided here appears to be unique in the level of detail that has been captured through careful observation and favorable camera work.  It is of value to provide this information to the public record in demonstration that the accounts of sighting are credible, repeatable, verifiable, and of unique dimension and character.

The essentials of location are shown in the map above.  The point of observation is within the Sonoran Desert National Monument, approximately 30 miles southeast of Gila Bend, Arizona.  The region is one of remoteness and lack of civilization.  It is characterized by a vast expanse of desert, punctuated with several prominent mountain ranges within, including the Sand Tank Mountains as shown on the map.  It is also important to note that west and southwest of the point of observation lies a significant military presence known as the Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range.  This area appears, not surprisingly, to host a series of advanced military interests, operations and technologies.

GEImage of Paired Lights – Energy Sources
Transformation of Internal Energy Structure Visible in Light to Right

The events shown here occurred on the night of January 27, 2016 at approximately  1930 (7:30 PM), about 45 minutes after sundown.  There were two personal witnesses to all affairs described on this date, and they are each in agreement about the details that are presented.  The evening skies were clear and without interruption.  The camera used has a significant optical zoom (~30x) and it was able to consistently able to focus on the lights in detail because of their brilliance and size.  The lights have a uniform and rich orange color, and they are quite distinctive from any common light source in the night skies, including that of aircraft.  The pattern of appearance in the sky is instantaneous and without obvious or apparent motion.  The lights appear sometimes singly, sometimes in unison, and sometimes in geometric formation.  They appear at different altitudes, but they remain close to the horizon; in this case the light sources were never more than 5 degrees above the horizon and remained stationary during the periods of observation.  The lights, after an unpredictable period of time, vanish or extinguish themselves as if a fuel or energy source (e.g., ions, plasma) was exhausted.  The lights have absolutely no rational similarity to the behavior of “flares”, as has been purported by certain individuals on the fringes of reason.  The light and energy sources are truly unique, and the photographs here capture at least certain portions of that uniqueness that are not to be denied.  The lights frequently remain visible for a period of several minutes in stationary form, extinguish themselves, and then reappear at a different location within the same general vicinity of the sky.

GEIncreased Detail of Light – Energy Source
(Image on Right of Previous Photo)

GEImage of Paired Lights – Energy Sources
Variations in Internal Energy Structure Increasingly Apparent

The primary witness here has a strong background in the professions of surveying and photogrammetry.  There is no inclination or predisposition to exaggerate any of the details of measurement or observation; all estimates originate from seeking the accuracy and error estimates that are characteristic of such work.

The primary focus of this paper is the detail captured in the energy source that occurred closest to the point of observation, as shown within the map.  It is the proximity of this light source to the observer and the camera that distinguish this record.  The best estimate of the distance to this particular light source is between a range of five to ten miles.  A small cinder cone three miles away on roughly the same line of site (approx. N80W) had been hiked to six  days prior; this served as important reference point for distance.  The Sand Tank Mountains behind the light source served equally well for reference points of both altitude and distance.  The primary light sources shown here fall between these two reference points for distance.

 

GEClose Up Image of Light Light – Energy Source
Internal Structure Apparent

The primary light source shown here was both low to the ground and bright.  The energy from the light was brilliant enough that ground level was partially illuminated.  It was also apparent that this illumination extended equally in the opposite direction in all directions and upward into the night sky.  There was certainly the sense of close proximity and direct experience within this event.  It was of such immediacy that at one point the partner witness was asked what actions would be taken if it were to take shape directly overhead; there was no response to the question.  Apparently captivation by the witness from the event was the priority at the moment.

The primary light source remained visible for approximately 12 – 15 minutes.  It remained stationary during that entire period.  The brightness during this period did vary to some degree.  The light source was repeatedly photographed with success, and only a portion of that image library is presented on this paper.  A maximum of five lights were seen at one time; three in linear formation and a pair of lights at a separated distance.  The images shown are the unique record from this event, and it is hoped that they will inspire the further investigations that they deserve.  In total, the experience from various lights, in various locations and formations, of varying intensity but always stationary upon appearance, lasted close to an hour on this evening.

There are some additional and ancillary details of this experience that bear mentioning.

The first has to do with some “additional lights” that accompany the bright energy sources that have been photographed and shown here.  The best description that I can offer of these additional lights is that of “pinpoint fireworks”.  These small lights repeatedly flash in random patterns in the general vicinity of the primary lights; in this case the majority of them occurred along the horizon to the west – southwest in the apparent vicinity of the Sand Tank Mountains.  These lights do not show any linear motion or pattern characteristic of aircraft; they are numerous, of random pattern, momentary, and without any linear or obvious geometric motion.  These lights appear to develop and become active in proportion to the intensity and number of primary light sources visible, i.e., they were at a maximum during the time of five primary lights being simultaneously visible.  The role or source of these accompanying lights to the primary lights is in no way obvious.

The secondary comment concerns the repetition of the events that are described above.  These repetitions are now known to have spanned more than a month in time, and to have occurred in an additional location.

The first incidence of repetition is in regard to the “additional lights” mentioned immediately prior.  On the night of December 26, 2015 I also noticed an identical light pattern of “pinpoint fireworks” on the western horizon after dark from the same vantage point as that of December 27th, 2015.  There were no “primary lights” witnessed on that same night.  I mentally noted the observations as being unusual, but I dismissed the significance of the observations in “deference to conservatism”.  I attempted to rationally attribute the unusual momentary light pulses to that of aircraft, even though the number of lights visible would defy any rationale interpretation, even in the presence of military training grounds in the remote desert.  The events of December 27 now place that experience into the broader context of an extraordinary event that was to follow on the next evening.

The next incidence of repetition occurs on the night of February 8th and 9th in a location known as Synder Hill, which lies in the fringe of the Tucson urban area, but nevertheless also under a darkened desert sky.  The location is a curious blend of remoteness juxtaposed with urban sprawl and housing developments.  It is a fair statement to say that the identical light patterns were observed again and it was only previous experience that confirmed their uniqueness amongst the urban impulses that dot the horizon and introduce chaos into the desert skies.  The specifics of the case define this particular affair.  The orange, stationary, appearing and disappearing lights appeared on the low horizon on an estimated bearing of N50W approximately 80 miles distant.  It will be found that this matches the Gila Bend observation location as close as reasonable estimates will allow.  It is only the previous experiences from two weeks prior that prompted the attention and details of observation.  The evidence here is that the events are not singular in nature, and the history of record for the “Gila Bend lights” supports that claim.

The third and final form of repetition occurs from an entirely separate location, this time in the remote desert stretches of New Mexico.  At the marvelous and unique location of City of Rocks (NW of Deming, NM) amidst the clear and dark skies of February 29, 2016, the event bears another mark.  In this occasion, the event lasted no more than 30 seconds with a singular orange and stationary glow low on the horizon.  The appearance and extinguishing of the light is a unique characteristic of identification, along with color and lack of motion.  The details of observation here are as follows:

The estimated bearing is N70E.  Estimated distance is approximately 80 miles (such estimates are not difficult with star navigation).

It will be found that this location estimate leads to another point of interest, the White Sands Space Harbor.  Suffice it to say that White Sands is another region of the country that is richly steeped in military history, including the detonation of the first atomic bomb (Trinity Site) and development of the U.S. space and missile programs.

And finally, it should be mentioned that at the close of the Sonoran Desert National Monument event, the silhouette of two fighter jets circling almost directly overhead could be seen as they turned an arc from the observation site toward the southeast, apparently in return towards Davis Monthan Air Force base in Tucson, AZ.  The aircraft appeared to be of the A-10 “Warthog” model, and what was noticeably odd was the extreme quiet of the planes under the circumstances.  It seemed as though the aircraft were essentially in an idle mode, as they were at fairly low altitude and yet barely audible.  Not characteristic of fighter aircraft flight, it would seem.  The aircraft specifications include, however,  high maneuverability at low speed and low altitude (less than 1000 ft.) as well as “loitering” capability,  so all does appear to be fitting under the circumstances.

Where this excursion into “exotic technology” leads is, of course, subject to speculation, intrigue and potential covert affairs where we are unlikely to learn the details that we seek.  My speculation may certainly be no better than yours, and I claim no expertise in that matter.  My primary motive here is to get the data on the record, let you see the photographs that have been fairly captured, and to give some specifics from the measurement point of view.

We must admit, however, that the issue is ripe for inquiry, and I will do at least some casual justice to that expectation that you may have.  What we do know, with a fair degree of confidence is:

1) The “lights” are hardly just lights.  The historic record and eyewitness accounts have, until now, only been able to justify that claim because of insufficiency in detail.

2) The lights are certainly not flares; you will have to do your own homework on that account or take a trip to Gila Bend and wait long enough to settle the question for yourself.  I consider myself lucky with respect to timing for this observation, but suffice it to say I did spend a couple of weeks under that particular night sky before the camera came to life for you.

3) It certainly appears that these energy sources may favor military locations with their presence.  You can play that card either way, of course, and cast your die for either military origination or “external” origination.  I personally can allow for either side of the equation until I have a bit more data.  A spectral signature of the energy source might be a good start, for example…

4) If we try to force a slightly conventional physical explanation into the issue, the closest that I can offer at this time would be on the likes of a “plasma” ball.  Some of us may recall the attention given to the “foo fighters” of decades past.  Either way, the source, means of creation, control of location, appearance, disappearance, and purpose would all have to be opening questions in the matter.  Concentrated energy sources or weapon development might be another line of pursuit.

5) We know that there is internal structure and geometry to the energy source.  This is probably the most remarkable characteristic as it does imply a level of intelligence in the matter.  Until we can get into the innards and dissect the electrons in traditional western scientific fashion (or gain metaphysical insight from the Native Americans, as an alternative) we must remain in a state of frustrated ignorance in the matter.  I do not expect a fund-raising campaign to get to the truth of the matter to be successful, but I will keep the dream alive.

6) Another tantalizing conjecture concerns the prospect that the energy source is an “external” monitoring device or system.  Heaven knows that there are plenty of things to be curious about at our military facilities these days.  Many years ago I was privileged to see an unusual video (I thank the individual that pulled me aside for those moments, I apologize that I can not give you proper credit) that showed evidence of such a device or system.  In this case, the daylight “orb”, as it were, appeared to demonstrate the motive of sampling certain particulates that were deliberately introduced into the upper atmosphere via aircraft; my interpretation of it being a sensor is based upon certain hesitations in motion during the path of transit.  Either way, I am certainly willing to take the notion seriously enough to hope that the fund-raising campaign for truth succeeds someday.

And there you have it…  another mystery for the world in the annals of scientific observation.  I would hope that you will consider it “fair and balanced reporting”.  My job has been done in letting you know that something unusual occurred, I bear witness to it, I have provided a modicum of evidence to that effect, and you now have another problem on your hands to solve.  I will keep working on it myself.

Best regards,

from

Clifford E Carnicom
March 18, 2016


ADDENDUM: additional info provided by a reader, YouTube video at bottom.

 

Greetings Clifford,

As a concerned member of and for humanity, I often study up on the LIE being perpetuated against us – chemtrails, UFOs, Hybrids, DUMBs, etc.. My reading has lead me to your excellent website and article (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/exotic-technology-witnessed/) after finding a YouTube video on the Geo/Bio engineering through aerial spraying, which is extremely prevalent where I live, near San Francisco.

After browsing your website, I immediately noticing something familiar in the exotic  technology article. I have seen those lights before, from 30,000 feet aboard United Flight 380 from IAH to SFO, at 10:59 PM on February 11, 2016, the flight path of which is pictured in the attached JPG and well north of where your sighting took place. The photos on your website are precisely what I viewed.

My account of the sighting is as follows:

I had been asleep for about an hour or so when at 10:58 PM, I had a strong mental sensation to wake up and look out of my starboard window; a sensation that I knew, even before seeing anything, that I’d see something out the window. Sure enough, the very second I put my forehead against the clear plastic and looked down, there were 5 large, brilliant balls of light in a cluster-like spread, in various degrees of size and brightness, emanating light in a fairly rapid but fluid pulsating manner, almost as if they were communicating with one another. One in particular, the largest, was the most active. It/they were so bright, that it was evident they were above the ground, perhaps anywhere from 50 to 400 feet, given they were lighting up the desert floor, causing stark, visible shadows against the surrounding mountain terrain. It was clear they were not tied to any kind of structure or pipe, as their increasing and decreasing glowing moved back and forth between each of them, the light being cast on the terrain where the others had been previously showed no silhouettes, structures, vehicles or roads at all. It was very difficult to gauge the size or diameter of them from 30,000 feet but if I had to guess, the largest may have been 200 to 400 feet and the smallest, perhaps 50 – 100 feet. Some math of the camera used, the altitude and size of the light could probably figure it out. At the very moment I began to reach for my iPhone to take a video, the largest light fluidly extinguished itself, followed immediately by the others. Two of the smaller ones appeared in a different but nearby location, pulsed lightly back and forth a few times, as if whispering to each other, and then went out for good. The shape of these lights ranged from stark, hard circular shapes to that of what looked like organized flames within a ball-like structure, just as what you have pictured on your website.

I did manage to capture one of the smaller orbs during its final pulse of light before all went dark. I’ve attached a video of it here at 400% magnification, which came off an iPhone 6s video camera.

Are there any other sightings, photos or videos of these things? I’d love to find out what they are.

Keep up the great work and write-ups. Love the site.

Best Regards,

David Goedde

 

Exotic Technology Witnessed. Nevada Desert Lights : https://youtu.be/5IZDzVaBtiY

 

CDB: Growth Progressions

CDB : Growth Progressions

Clifford E Carnicom
Jun 13 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

This paper will outline specific, identifiable and repeatable growth stages of the cross-domain bacteria (CDB) and its associated forms.  It will be seen that a wide variety of growth forms will ultimately emerge from what appears to be a simple, non-descript spherical living entity; as such the term ‘pleomorphic’ is fully justified in this presentation.  This is the case even when the study is restricted to the most primitive form of existence (i.e., the CDB) and this sets the stage to for us anticipate a high level of survivability and adaptability for the organism.  Thus far, this has certainly been proven to be the case, as the means to eradicate or destroy the organism in any meaningful way appears to be unavailable under the current state of knowledge.

The outline of presentation is based primarily upon chronology.  The simpler and more primitive states of existence will be introduced first; these will  be followed by more complex or advanced stages of growth.  In general, the time period of examination here covers up to approximately two months of time under controlled culture conditions.  It is understood that abundant reports of even more diverse and less understood growth formations exist, and those studies await us by the moment.  The objective here, however,  is to introduce in a systematic way that which can be replicated and documented under known conditions.

CDB - Primitive Form

CDB – Primitive Form
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

This image above represents the basis of all subsequent work here.  It is an explicit image of the cross-domain bacteria (CDB) themselves, as the term has been tentatively adopted by this researcher.  The evolution of that terminology, along with the rationale for its use, has been described in greater detail within the paper entitled Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation (Mar 2014).  The terminology, as expressed, is not intended to be restrictive in any sense and future discretions should and will allow this terminology to modify itself should circumstances and knowledge dictate.  What has been done is to introduce and force into the discussion a reference point from which earnest discussion and progress in the scientific community, and in society as a whole, can be made.  Fair-minded terminology at this stage of waiting (i.e, more than a decade) does not restrict us; in contrast, it will force us to discover what is true or not.  If the educated propositions turn out to be incorrect and require revision so be it; we will ultimately be the better for it as it means that the actual progress that is required and overdue will have been made. The process of CDB isolation is also described in more detail in that same paper.  

The above image is a clear and unhindered presentation of the CDB as they have been isolated.  They are visually not of dramatic form or impact and they could easily be passed over as one of the nuances of the microscopic world.  As in the case of the filament studies described exhaustively on this site, however, there appears to be an important story and set of events that are held within the simplistic structure above and it is our duty to make these characteristics, behaviors and capabilities known.  It is not an overstatement to say that such advanced knowledge appears to be at the heart of understanding the changes in biology now underway on this planet and that we should make haste and be earnest in the pursuit of it.

CDB Cellular Division Captured

CDB Cellular Division Captured

CDB Cellular Division Captured.  Two Hour Time Interval.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

The photograph above is an important one and it has been difficult to capture.  The existence of this image makes the case for a form of reproduction and growth that is understood and accepted within conventional biology, i.e., cell division.  All efforts to understand the nature of this organism are to be based upon such conventional knowledge, reason and processes unless the circumstances or situation requires otherwise.  Any observations or processes that fall within conventional reference frames of knowledge of science will allow certain assumptions to be more readily considered and they will act as a governor to unwarranted or disproven speculative discourse. If the situation requires an extension of our creative and imaginative talents they will be employed, but not without due and fair consideration to the eons of effort and hard work that has been given to us by our scientific predecessors.  The issue of artificial constructive devices to growth are not required at this point based upon the demonstration of cellular division above; all evidence collected to date continues to support the argument for a living organism operating under the framework of known biology.  This biology may hold numerous surprises for us and they may well involve processes of manipulation (e.g., human, genetic, engineering, etc.) but any such proclamations will need to be supported by rational and convincing scientific presentation.  The unknowns here obviously are many, and it is to our advantage to use known science to understand and interpret our discoveries instead of imaginative discussion that can lead to confusion and misinformation and that causes more harm than good.

What are the known methods of reproduction?  How does the above observation fit within that spectrum?  Is the observation above consistent with the primitive form designated as a “cross-domain bacteria“?

The perpetuation of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell division1.

Two types of cells exist : prokaryotic and eukaryotic.  Prokaryotes are non-nucleated and, in general, single celled organisms but there are some exceptions such as cyanobacteria and  myxobacteria.  The prokaryotes include the bacteria and archaea domains of life; these domains have been introduced elsewhere on this site (see Morgellons : A New Classification (Feb 2010)).  

Eukaryotes are nucleated and contain organelles within the cell and are therefore generally more complex in nature.  Eukaryotes include all life except the prokaryotes, such as plants, animals, fungi, algae, and protists (most protists are unicellular and all are eukaryotes).  

We can see that classification systems themselves have their own complications, and these difficulties were undoubtedly a driving force toward the three-domain system developed by Carl Woese in 1978 (as referenced in the mentioned paper).  

Three types of cell reproduction exist : binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.  Binary fission, as the name implies, refers literally to the division of a single cell into two parts and is asexual.  Mitosis is the division of the nucleus2 and is also asexual.  Meiosis is also a process of nuclear division (sexual) that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cells3.

For the current situation, we need to find what fits best with what is observed.  For the time being, this is binary fission, which happens to occur under the domains of the Bacteria and Archaea.  We have in our case an apparent single celled non-nucleated organism without organelles of an appropriate size that is splitting in two.  Again,  our discussion is restricted at this stage to the most primitive known form of the organism, i.e., the CDB.  The most common form of reproduction by bacteria is that of binary fission.  Additional arguments for the introduction of the cross-domain bacterial terminology (primitive form of the organism only) are substantial and they are outlined further in the Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation paper.  In addition, a great deal more information has accumulated over history on the Bacteria vs. Archaea (5,000 – 15,000 species  vs. a few hundred; these represent a small fraction of the total thought to exist) and the Archaea domain itself is a relatively recent taxonomic creation.

Bacteria can also vary their state of existence and their genetic nature4 by a process known as recombination.  This comes in three forms : conjugation, transformation, or transduction.  Conjugation involves the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through a tubular physical connection.  Transformation involves the assimilation of DNA from the environment.  And lastly, transduction is an exchange of DNA through bacteriophages, a type of virus that is specific to bacteria.  The methods of observation for these advanced methods of alteration does not exist within the Institute at this time.  

Archaea also reproduce by binary fission, and they remain under consideration from that perspective as well as others.  As we shall see, the term “cross-domain” has been introduced specifically for the prospect of allowance, if not expectation, of sharing other significant attributes of the remaining domains of life.  This argument is presented in force within the Morgellons : A New Classification  paper referenced earlier.  The discussion before us will only become increasingly complex as we proceed, and it is the reason that the discussion and study remains so highly focused on this most primitive form of existence of the organism that has been identified to date.

Eukaryotes cells divide by the processes of mitosis and meiosis, which involve a nucleus within a cell.  At this point there is not the means or observational equipment to identify a nucleus within this primitive form (because of its size); in addition, an expanded discussion on the case for tentative bacterial classification (primitive form only) has already been made.  At the current level of knowledge, a binary fission characteristic of a prokaryote is sufficient and reasonable to propose as the the form of cell division for the CDB.  The photograph above provides further justification for this argument.

 

Linear Alignment Process Prior to Filament Formation

CDB – Linear Alignment Process Prior to Filament Formation
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

 

The next photograph above ushers in an important transitional state, and this is the alignment of the individual cocci  into a linear arrangement.  The knowledge and observation of the transformation process towards the filament form is a crucial piece of information to acquire and this has now been captured on repeated occasions.  The specific process by which this alignment takes place is not known, however, it can be projected that biochemical charge dynamics could easily be at play here.

The term ‘self-assembly’ has certain connotations that may be helpful to discuss and elaborate upon.  The term ‘self-assembly’ is often used with that of an ‘artificial’ process implied, frequently to the point of insinuating robotic, engineered or mechanical methods in the ‘construction’ process.  If such mechanisms are observed and documented they will be reported on.  There is, however, a biochemical reference and interpretation for the term which is much closer at hand and that is more sensible and rational to introduce with the photograph above.  The vast majority of the dynamics of chemistry (and bio-chemistry, for that matter) is governed and determined by charges; i.e., the classic interaction between positive and negative charges that are at the very essence of dynamic interactions within the cosmos.  The understanding of the essence of those forces remains enough of a mystery to mankind,; we may not need to seek a human or ‘artificial’ construct to explain states of nature that are not completely understood by humans to begin with.  The explanation here may best be made with example and simulation (which, incidentally, has been helpful to my own understanding) as to what ‘self-assembly’ actually means from the conventional biochemical perspective.  The following demonstration that is available at the Concord Consortium replaces much of a verbal discussion with simple and observable dynamics; it is suggested that the reader become familiar with both the simplicity, magic and power of this process in nature.  Self-assembly is likely to become an important aspect of future research and discussion as it relates to the growth stages of this organism.

Visit the Concord Consortium to view the self-assembly simulation using the Molecular Workbench software (Java based).

Excerpts from a simulation of self-assemblage at the Concord Consortium
with the use of the Molecular Workbench Software.
(Link to the Concord Consortium here)

The forces at work in the ‘self-assembly’ discussed here are the fundamental attractive and repulsive forces of electrons and protons.  Since these forces drive the vast majority of chemical reactions and energy transfer within living organisms, it should not come as a surprise to us that we will encounter  this process in our future study.  Clearly, there remains much work to be done to identify the nature, location and driving mechanisms of any charge interactions and this research remains immediately before us.  With that knowledge also comes the prospect of interfering with those charge dynamics that are likely involved in the growth of the organism; this offers potential benefits that are not difficult to recognize.  In fact, there are numerous prospects for disruption and interference to the the life cycle of the organism, and the knowledge sought by this Institute and other researchers hopefully will be supported by those that understand these potential benefits.  

Electromagnetic studies of the CDB that are underway do indicate a possible separation of charge within cultures that are under investigation.  If this charge separation is verified there may be a relationship between this and the ‘assembly’ or alignment process that is shown above.

 

 Filament Development with Internal CDB

 Filament Development with Internal CDB
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

The next stage of growth that is shown above represents an important transgression from the usual propagation of a bacteria within its own species.  We see in the case above that not only is there an alignment process that can take place;  there is also the development of a filament structure that eventually can encase the CDB and ultimately create a more complex and protective form of growth.  The CDB have shown themselves to be quite resistant to traditional methods of breakdown or disintegration; the appearance of a surrounding filament sheath makes this even more so.  It is not impossible for filaments to associate with bacterial development but it is not especially common.  It is for this and other reasons that the modifier and extension of  “cross-domain” has been added once we begin to examine beyond the primitive and original form of growth and existence.   CDB terminology is  proposed simply as a common reference point for discussion and further study and as the original, most primitive, known and identifiable form of existence for the organism. 

Let us start by identifying some of those cases where filaments are known to be associated with bacterial growth:

The first case that I am aware of that shares this property is that of some fossilized remains.  In Tortora’s Microbiology, An Introduction5, a photograph (copyright protected) of a fossilized filamentous prokaryote from western Australia that is 3.5 billion years old is shown.  We know, therefore, that filamentous prokaryotes can date back essentially to the origin of the earth.  Whether or not coccus forms can be seen internally in that particular case is a different matter, as the image of the remains is simply not of sufficient quality to determine this.

There is another novel case of filamentous bacteria found recently deep underground in a South African mine and this likely indicates an ancient origin as well.  Under more contemporary circumstances, the cyanobacteria  exist as a rather unusual class of “nonproteobacteria gram-negative bacteria”.  This group is unique in that they are morphologically and physiologically distinctive from other bacteria and their classification is based upon genetic origins per the breakthoughs by Carl Woese discussed in earlier papers.  They were once called blue-green algae but they are currently classified as bacteria, however, and they can exist in at least three different forms.  Photographs are, as usual, helpful to visualize the level of variance involved here:

 

non-filamentous

filamentous cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

The non-filamentous form of cyanobacteria. As this form of the bacteria is approximately 8-10 microns in diameter, it is clear that this remains a separate species from that under study. Image source : wikimedia.org.

The filamentous form of cyanobacteria.  This image shows that various bacteria can indeed develop into a filament form.  In addition, there appears what are called heterocysts (the larger and more circular cells) which are specialized for fixing nitrogen gas.  This type of variation can be important within the current studies as will be seen later within this paper. Image source : waterboards.ca.gov.

This is the branching form of cyanobacteria.  Although the dimensions of this species are radically different from that of the CDB, the variation of form is nevertheless especially interesting and calls to attention the broad diversity of structure and form that can occur within the bacterial domain.  Image source : world.edu.

There is also a case of a ‘sheathed’ bacteria that is interesting and potentially relevant to introduce.  The species is that of Sphaerotilus natus and it appears as follows:

Sphaerotilus natus

 Sphaerotilus natans bacteria.  This bacteria is rod shaped and, therefore, does not match the CDB in form as well as in size.  It is of interest, however, in the fact that it produces an enclosing sheath in which to live.  The sheaths are of a protective nature and it is thought that they aid in nutrient accumulation.  It also stains as Gram negative and has an alternative common name of “sewage fungus” as it is often found in sewage locales. Image source : vt.edu.

 

What we can see in these cases, therefore, is that the bacteria can actually vary fairly widely in their form and structure.  Some bacteria create filament structures, some create unique and specialized cells, and some rarely encase themselves in a protective sheath; these cases are exceptions to the rule but we see that they are possible and known to exist.  It certainly is more typical to regard filament structures and multi-celled structures as representative of the fungi and eukaryotes but that presumption must be reserved until additional information becomes available.   The lines of definition have already become blurred at this stage.  The introduction of genetic classification systems has radically altered our views that are based upon visible morphology and physiology.  We can see that the “classification of life” is under a state of continuous revision and that exceptions abound to the attempts that are made to place the biology of the planet into a set of tidy boxes.  The introduction of genetic manipulation by human beings has opened up its own Pandora’s Box in this regard, and it is unlikely that the classification systems of the past will ever entirely serve the complexities of our future.

 

Early Stages of Filament Development

Early Stages of Filament Development

 Early Stages of Filament Development with Internal CDB.  Development of reddish (probable protein aggregation) conglomerates along filaments.  Original Magnification Approx. 5000x.

 

The stage of growth shown above appears to be important in the development of structural mass for the organism.  In this case, additional material of a reddish-brown color can be seen to accumulate around and within the CDB-filament complex that precedes it.  The composition of this material is unknown at this time.  There is, however, a presumption in place that this material could easily be of a proteinacous nature.  The color of the material is also highly suggestive of an iron complex that is included; it is known that iron compounds eventually become a significant compositional compound of the organism growth.  This particular material is not especially reactive to hydrogen peroxide but further developments that are highly reactive to hydrogen peroxide will be described below.  A reasonable supposition, for the time being, is that this material may be dominated by the presence of an proteinaceous-iron complex.  It is also known from previous work and studies that the filaments themselves are most likely constructed largely of proteins, with keratin based materials as the strongest candidate.  In terms of function, it is reasonable that proteins will be a major component to the growth processes that are being recorded here.  The nature and identity of such proteins is a major pursuit of research for Carnicom Institute.

 

time lapse

 Time Lapse of CDB – Filament Growth Stage on Agar Culture
Original Magnification Approx. 500x

 

The animated image above represents a time lapse capture of the filament growth under relatively low magnification.  This particular growth has been recorded from an agar based culture.  The period of time covered by the time lapse movie is two hours and it is compressed into an interval of 40 seconds.  The growth appears to be uniform and  substantial.  The rate of growth for the organism at this stage and under these conditions is estimated at approximately 200 microns per hour.  This growth rate, if undisturbed and unrestrained, translates to approximately 5 inches in length per month of time under the conditions shown.  The impact of this type of growth within a suitable environment or within a host organism (e.g., a human body) is obviously of serious concern.  Any knowledge or or means to inhibit such growth can equally be of obvious benefit; it may be of interest and value for the health professions and communities to evaluate and further research the inhibition and mitigation strategies that have been developed within this site.

 

Agar Culture Vacuum Testing.

7 Days Filament Form

Agar Culture Vacuum Testing.
CDB readily progress to filament form directly.   Vaccum environment does not promote growth.

Agar Culture Growth Stage – Approx. 7 Days
Filament Form.

 

The images above are of agar culture trials and two points of interest, as a minimum, are demonstrated ..  The first is the development of cultures in a highly specific fashion that are essentially free from contamination of other organisms such as common molds and fungi.  This is the result of work and study that have gradually isolated  a set of conditions that are favorable for growth; these will be identified in greater detail within separate writing.  Many non-specific culture environments, both liquid and agar based, have been investigated and the results presented on the site over a period of many years.  One advantage of the current progress is that it allows for a more accurate assessment of the early growth processes that are specific to this particular organism.  It is expected that this process can and will be refined further as the research extends itself within the health professions and laboratory environments.

The second illustration is of the importance of both moisture and the atmosphere to the growth process.  Significant decreases in atmospheric pressure have been applied to the culturing process and in all cases a corresponding marked decrease in growth and proliferation is observed.  This leads us to understand that the composition of the atmosphere is, in some fashion, beneficial and important to growth.  The most obvious and likely beneficial candidates to consider here will be that of oxygen and nitrogen.  Additional work to be described further increases the evidence for favoritism towards an oxygen rich environment, but that result is not exclusive in any way to the potential importance or role of additional gases during growth.  

It should also be understood that a growth benefit is an entirely separate issue than that of a growth requirement.  The above information does not, in any fashion, demonstrate that the atmosphere is required for the existence or even perpetuation of the organism -only that it appears to be beneficial and favorable for growth or for growth to proceed more quickly.  As a matter of act, the evidence to date indicates that the organism can exist in stasis indefinitely under especially harsh or severe environmental conditions.  These conditions could well include that of a vacuum, a complete lack of moisture, and extremes in temperature.  The subject of exobiology may ultimately be relevant to this discussion as there remain many unknowns as to what that final limiting environment may be.  Readers may wish to investigate the topic of the attempted destruction of microorganisms and how it relates to our own space exploration programs from earth.  It may be a surprise to learn how ‘hardy’ life has shown itself to be and even the role of humans themselves in ‘seeding’ the cosmos, let alone studying the prospect of cosmic intrusion of life forms onto and into this planet.   Ames Research Center, as one of the early visitors to the body of research here, may be a place to start the inquiry.  There is, obviously, room for discussion on these subjects and on the origins of life in general.  It is probably of benefit to us a species that we no longer regard the theories of panspermia as being novel.

 

 Advanced Filament Form

 Advanced Filament Form
 Advanced Filament Form  Advanced Filament Form

 Advanced Filament Form – Cellular Production.  Cells amass additional CDB within.  Also note the CDB saturated filament form in addition to cellular production.  Sheathed bacterial forms, heterocytes and ‘erythrocytic‘ related formations are under current consideration.  All possibilities that provide for a transition from an apparent single-celled organism to a multi-cellular organism will be considered in the study process.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x.

 

The images above show a series of remarkable developments that take place; it is at this point that the conventional boundaries of growth become radically challenged.  What occurs, in general, is the transformation from an apparent single celled primitive form (CDB) to a multi-celled organism that demonstrates increasingly sophisticated growth forms and specialization.  Many important unknowns immediately make their presence with the transformations that are shown above.  

It is possible that we still remain in the domain of the heterocyst and the cyanobacteria, as it has been introduced, earlier in this paper.  Certainly the variation in form of the cyanobacteria is a remarkable and unusual case in the study of bacterial evolution; we must recall that they were once called ‘blue-green’ algae in a period of earlier understanding.  In either case, it can be seen that the case of the cyanobacteria required specialized and extensive study to account for the morphological changes, not the least of which required a knowledge of its genetic origin.  It is expected to be no different in the case of the CDB, as the mysteries within are not likely to be evident from any conventional or external study.  There is only so far that we will be able to go with the microscope.  

What is shown above appears to be more than the case of a heterocyst.  We also can recognize that there may be some similarities, however, so it is in our interest to understand the function and nature of the heterocyst.  The primary function of the heterocyst (a specific form of cell development that is apparently unique to cyanobacteria) is to fix, or utilize, nitrogen.  Nitrogen fixation is a process whereby a cellular form uses nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to ammonium that the organism can then use for nourishment.  Nitrogen fixation is a definite field of study that is immediately germane to the investigations underway with the CDB.  We recall from the vacuum studies mentioned above that both nitrogen and oxygen are at the forefront of nutrient investigation and they are of equal interest.  Therefore, the creation of a specialized cell for the purpose of nitrogen fixation does exist as a distinct and real possibility.  The following two points are also of high interest with regard to the development shown above:

1.  All of the nitrogen-fixing organism are prokaryotes, i.e., bacteria6.  This fact increases the interest and attention on the primitive form (i.e., CDB) as having a core of origin within the bacterial domain.

2.  It is of special interest to note that iron-protein complexes (ferridoxins), in light of the previous statements made, play an essential role in the nitrogen fixation process by bacteria.  Readers may recall that iron-sulfur proteins have been introduced as a subject for further study within earlier research papers.

It does seem, however, that there are also some complications to this singular focus, based upon what we see and what is known about CDB behavior.  The function, capability and form of the heterocyst does not appear to be sufficient to explain all that is observed as well as the subsequent development of the organism.  The function of nitrogen fixation, however, could certainly be implicit within the transformations that are shown above.  At this time, there simply remains no known visual documentation of the growth process that is shown above.   

It also appears that the heterocyst is a specialized cell that develops separately and distinct from the non-filamentous cyanobacteria form.  In our case, the three different entities:  CDB, filament, and cellular construct, all seem to be joined and intermingled in about any way that is conceivable.  In the case above, the filament has become densely packed with the CDB.  In the live view of this particular case, the CDB were so numerous as to form a ‘river’ or a ‘stream’ of continuous and flowing CDB within the filament.  Subsequently what we see is the filament forming internal cellular divisions across its length.  These cellular divisions eventually segregate from the filament  in essentially perfect circular form.  It will then be seen that the separated circular cells are in turn themselves densely packed with the CDB, where they continue to develop and and presumably accomplish additional function at a more sophisticated level.  It should also be understood that the images above are not a normal and daily occurrence of development; they required protracted and difficult culture circumstances to develop.  Any casual study made of the organism would not likely even reveal the potential, let alone the expression of the growth forms that have been documented above.

We must also, at this point, introduce the uncanny similarity and potential relationships to the ‘erythrocytic’ forms that have been repeatedly presented on this site within in earlier work (e.g., see “Blood Issues Intensify“, Apr 2009 and “Morgellons : 5th, 6th & 7th Match“, Jan 2008, “Artificial Blood?“, Aug. 2009).  Any possible association between the unusual imagery immediately above with that of earlier work shown immediately below is not to be ignored.  Let us recall some of that early work with the limited imaging equipment that was available at the time.  It should also be realized that the culture methods employed in that work differ from the methods under current use and that the issue of pleomorphism, as it can be aptly demonstrated, must be taken into account with any comparisons that we can make from the limited knowledge base that is available to us.

 

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

 2008-2009 Filament – Erythrocyte Research Images.

Biconcavity visible in top right and lower left photos. Earlier tests for hemoglobin within these previous cultures produced a positive presumptive result by two different methods in addition to visual analysis and measurement. Image at lower right is of human erythrocytes subjected to the Gram stain process; excessive CDB are within. Please refer to earlier referenced papers for the details of those studies.  Limited CCD imaging capability – Original magnification approx. 9000x.

 

heterocyte

erythrocytic

Enlargement of cellular structure (“heterocyte” – see below) after separation from filament transformations and as based upon the current culture work (2014 : shown above).  Similarity to “erythrocytic” forms as shown in 2008 – 2009 work is evident.  Cellular structure is embedded with CDBs similar to human erythrocyte documented above (post Gram stain process).  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Reconstituted “erythrocytic” structure as described in the August 2009 paper entitled “Artificial Blood?”.  The similarity of size, shape, form and presence of CDB within to that of the current culture developments is evident and remarkable.
Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Human blood cell (erythrocyte) that demonstrates cellular and membrane damage from CDB (red arrows) adhesion and intrusion. Image excerpted from “Advances in Microscopy“, (Nov. 2013).  Original magnification approx. 12,000x.

 

Studies to investigate any potential relationships between heterocysts, “erythrocytic” forms and hemoglobin tests will continue with respect to this novel life form and organism.  During this interim of understanding, I shall refer to the unique cellular formation from the CDB as a “heterocyte” (i.e., as in a different, or other cell, and as opposed to heterocyst).  It is now clear that these cells originate from the CDB and the term CDB heterocyte may also be used during this research stage.

 

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form – reddish aggregation (probable protein nature) with internal CDB and cellular production.  Lower image shows combination of primitive CDB-filament form, larger filament dominated by streaming CDB and external cellular development.  Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

 

From this point on there appears to be increasing variability in the forms of growth that can be assumed by the organism.  The CDB and the heterocytes appear to be at the root of each of these forms that subsequently develop and they remain, therefore, at the core of study. Some of the variations shown are repeatable and controllable; others are incidental and the conditions only partially defined.  The combination of all circumstances shown above observed in a single session is more akin to the latter; the heterocyte cellular division from the filaments remains as a rare event thus far.  In the filaments shown within these images the densely packed streaming and flowing version of the CDB does occur.  This has been recorded on more than one occasion and it represents massive CDB production within the filaments.  Heterocyte production within a filament appears to be enhanced under these concentrated CDB conditions; the heterocytes can be seen as units of division and development within the second row of the image set.  What also makes this observation group unusual is the appearance of an enclosing sac which then itself contains a cluster of heterocytes.  This can be seen most clearly in the right photograph of the second row.  There is reason to believe, as mentioned before, that this reddish-brown material (most clearly demonstrated in the top left image) may well be an iron-protein complex.  Work will continue on identifying the nature of the various forms and substrates that are being observed.  The bottom image contains a representative cross section of various forms within one image: a primitive filament enclosing a single linear array of the CDB, a larger branching filament filled with concentrated and streaming CDB, a few isolated CDB in the interstitial space, and an isolated heterocyte in the lower left of the image.  In the main, the patterns of growth are highly repeatable and identifiable, especially those that involve the CDB, the encasing filament structures and the production of the heterocytes.

 

blue compound

blue compound

A blue compound that forms in combination with CDB cultures and growth forms.  This compound has a direct affinity for oxygen; spherical structures in both images are oxygen pockets within an electrolysis culture.  Notice that both red and blue hues are common with advanced filament production, especially those associated with skin growth samples.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

 

The images above will be provided primarily as a matter of record while the phenomena is studied further.  The case above falls within a culture that was subjected to electrolysis.  Significant efforts have been extended to include a series of electromagnetic investigations upon growth behavior; these studies will need to be developed and presented in future days.  For now, the immediate observation to record is that of an apparent preference by the CDB for an oxygen rich environment; this has been demonstrated by a migration of the CDB to the anode during electrolysis tests.  It is a curious affair that the rich blue compounds were intermittently observed during this same period of testing.  It is quite possible that oxygen pockets or bubbles are an important part of the process and color formation.  There is also an interest in any role that copper (as well as other metals) may play within the growth process.  This issue will simply be revisited as circumstances permit; the apparent preference for an oxygen rich environment will be discussed further in the more immediate future.

 

Gel

Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction Original Magnification

CDB – Advanced Culture Development

Gel Diameter Approx. 6 cm.

Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction with Gel
Magnification Approx 200x 

Original Magnification Approx. 5000x 


The final set of observations here record the culmination of culture studies over an extended time period.  These results are biologically impressive but potentially quite dangerous  because of the scale of growth.  The photo on the left is the final stage of a liquid broth culture that was allowed to mature for approximately one month.  This culture did progress with the onset of CDB growth and was followed by filament growth as it has been aptly demonstrated throughout this paper.  At the more mature stage of growth, a gel like material formed at the top of the culture and is shown on a watch glass.  The amount of sheer mass here is of consequence; what is shown is growth on on the order of inches rather than the customary microns or nanometers that are involved at the origin.  Readers may wish to recall the time lapse record above to realize that the scale of growth postulated there is not hypothetical.  This amount of mass developing within a favorable environment or host is of consequence.  Reports of individuals with internal masses or filaments on the order of scale shown are to be taken quite seriously as this report proves that it can and will happen under the appropriate conditions.  The nature of the material is partially ambiguous and partially known; further studies will hopefully present that result in due time.  Material of a protenaceous nature is under strong consideration.

It will also be noticed that a bright red hue exists across a portion of the surface; this is an evolution beyond the ruddy reddish-brown compounds that have been mentioned above.  It has been observed and reported on earlier; please see “Biofilm, CDB & Vitamin C“, (Apr 2014).  The photo in the center of the group shows the reaction of this reddish material to hydrogen peroxide, and the reaction is vigorous.  The same reaction is shown in kind within the paper referenced above.  The most direct interpretation here is that of a positive catalase reaction.  Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen and it  decomposes hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen gas and water7.  Clearly, we may conclude that we are dealing with a living organism but this fact has already become evident.  We are therefore each obligated to find out what the true nature and extent of this organism is, as it been equally and clearly demonstrated to be affecting the biology of the entire planet.  It is of more than passing interest that this gel material is of a bright red color and that it combines with hydrogen peroxide to produce the vigorous reaction.  Many readers may also be familiar with the reaction of hemoglobin with hydrogen peroxide and the similarity should not escape us since it also involves catalase8.  This preliminary reaction with peroxide was the basis for additional presumptive hemoglobin tests during research of past years; it should be recalled that the results of these tests for the presence of hemoglobin within the cultures were positive.  Regardless of where this research will lead to in future days, the nature of this material and this reaction should be of concern to each of us.

The final photograph on the right shows this same material under the microscope at reasonably high power.  What we find is a structurally more advanced and rigorous construct of the crossing filament and CDB embedded network in a familiar display  The reddish hue material is also abundant here and these observations further support the hypothesis of an iron-protein complex that is under formation.

This paper has introduced a roadmap of increasing complexity to each of us.  The path that emerges, regardless of the many branches that we choose, ultimately must return to the origin of growth as it is identified.  This, in all cases examined thus far, is indeed the CDB, or “cross-domain bacteria” as they have been tentatively designated.  This identified point of origin remains the focal point of current research by the Institute; each individual on this planet has the concomitant obligation to seek the truth on these matters and to make this same truth known to all. 

Clifford E Carnicom
Jun 07 2014

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19 1953


References:

1. Biology, Neil A. Campell, Benjaming/Cummings Publishing Company, Third Edition, 1993. p. 221.

2. Modern Biology, Albert Towle, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1999. p. 149.

3. Ibid., Towle, p 153.

4. Bacterial Reproduction, Regina Bailey, www.biology.about.com

5. Microbiology, An Introduction.  Gerard J. Tortora. Benjamin Cummings Publishing, 2001. p 281.

5. Wanger, G; Onstott, TC; Southam, G (2008). “Stars of the terrestrial deep subsurface: A novel ‘star-shaped’ bacterial morphotype from a South African platinum mine”. Geobiology 6 (3): 325–30. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2008.00163.x.

6. The Microbial World: The Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Fixation, Jim Deacon, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh,  University of Edinburgh, www.ed.ac.uk (archive copy).

7. Catalase, wikipedia.org

8. Why Does Hydrogen Peroxide Foam When You Put It On a Cut?, science.howstuffworks.com.

The New Biology

The New Biology

Clifford E Carnicom

 Jan 18 2014
Edited Apr 09 2014
Edited Nov 28 2015

It is generally perceived that the so-called “Morgellons” issue is primarily, if not exclusively, a human condition. It is not. It will be found that this condition actually represents a fundamental change in the state and nature of biology as it is known on this earth. The evidence now indicates and demonstrates that there is, at the heart of the “condition”, a new growth form that transcends, as a minimum, the plant and animal boundaries.

The precedent for this argument was made some time past in the paper entitled “Morgellons: A New Classification” (Feb 2010); the central theme of that paper remains valid at this time. The very classification of the domains of life is central to that paper. Readers may also wish to refer to the papers entitled, “Animal Blood” (Jan 2010) and “And Now Our Children” (Jan 2008), where additional precedents were established. The August 2011 video presentation, “Geo-Engineering & Bio-Engineering: The Unmistakable Link” is also relevant here.

It is to be accepted that this growth form appears to be ubiquitous in the environment, food supply, plants, and animals and that the reference frame for its existence must be fundamentally changed to be in accord with this reality.

 

oral potato  rejuvenated

Macro view of variable source culture growths. Human oral filament culture to left, potato filament culture in middle and to the right, the rejuvenation of a dormant culture from a three year old lye extract solution.  Dormancy is established with extremes in temperature, lack of moisture, or caustic chemical environments, as reported earlier.  Growth medium in all cases is a fructose and iron sulfate solution under incubation.  The cultures are identical in view, structure and growth characteristics.  Period of development and growth is approximately 2 weeks.   Click on photos to enlarge.

culture 2 culture 1  culture 3

Microscopic views of the three variable culture types from above (left-oral sample culture, center- potato culture and right-rejujvenated dormant culture) under high magnification.  All cultures are identical to the sub-micron level including external sheath and internal bacterial-type form.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

calf liver 3 calf liver 4

calf liver 1 calf liver 2

Calf liver examined.  Calf liver shows presence of identical filament and bacterial-like structures.  Growth forms are not unique to the human species; the food supply, animal and plant kingdoms are under equal consideration for the presence of the live form.  Abundant fat cells observed embedded with countless bacterial structural form, as in top left image.  Image to top right shows presence of filament form, fat cells and embedded bacterial forms in large numbers.  Lower left photograph demonstrates primary filament form with secondary filament structure under development.  Lower right photograph shows sub-filament structure within primary filaments.  All forms and structures identical to those observed within human samples. Two separate slide preparations examined; filament structures located after extensive study of both slides. This liver sample has also rapidly produced a viable and representative filament culture growth within the span of a few days.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

ninhydrin 1 ninhydrin 2

Comparison of ninhydrin visible light spectrometric analysis of oral filament sample culture and potato filament culture.  Results are identical to a remarkable level.  Method involves: 1. Incubation of cultures for approximately 2 weeks in a fructose-iron sulfate solution.  2.Cultures extracted and placed within a sodium hydroxide-potassium hydroxide boiling water bath for approximately 15 minutes; a rich burgundy solution will result from the essentially colorless filament form (refer to paper entitled, “Environmental Filament Penetration, C.E. Carnicom, Jan. 2013).  3. Further extract approx. 15 drops of this colored solution into approx. 4 ml. distilled water with 5 drops ninhydrin solution added; heat again for approx. 15 minutes in hot water bath.  4.  Second deep-colored reaction will occur due to amino acids present in solution; spectral analysis is then conducted at this stage.  This method further substantiates the identical visual, metric, and chemical comparisons of the incubated oral and plant based filament culture forms.

potato 1 potato 2

Examination, to the left, of thin (”organic”) potato slice showing background cellular structure and several starch cells in the upper right quadrant.  Notice presence of intermeshed filament stucture overlayed or crossing cell wall boundaries.  Microphotograph to right demonstrates equally the presence of an internal sub-micron filament network.  This photographic examination prompted the more thorough investigation of plant and food supply issues, and the development of alternative cultures for comparison to human sample cultures.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

carrot_III_dec_07_2013

Time lapse microscopic views of carrot cells.  Motile bacterial-like structures are especially visible and evident in cell in lower right quadrant.   Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

swine lung 3 swine lung 1 swine lung 2
swine lung 6 swine lung 4  swine lung 5

Microscopic views of dried swine lung sample.  Extensive filament network exists within sample; the filament forms are identical in structure, form and size to plant, human and animal samples.  The pig lung also rapidly produces a viable and identical filament culture within the sucrose-iron fluid environment.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

swine lung controlReference prepared slide of lung tissue from www.anatomyatlases.org.  No extensive filament network visible at this level of magnification or known source for its existence in a control photograph.

rhododendron

Diseased rhododendron leaf received for observation and study with respect to the bacterial-like forms.  This sample is to be examined under the microscope to further assess the extent of distribution on the conditions reported above.

rhododendron micro rhododendron micro 2

Identical bacterial-like forms located within the rhododendron sample.  The rhododendron leaf is a more difficult sample to prepare due to the thickness and density of the leaf; sufficient visiblity was acquired, nevertheless, with the use of the microtome.  Ease of observation and examination occurs primarily at the leaf edge, and numerous regions of the bacterial-like forms were identified.  Isolated examples are shown above as outlined.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

Perpetuation and confirmation of the original growth form within the rhododendron leaf through the culturing process.  The existence of bacterial-like forms within an additional plant form, i.e., ornamental, is confirmed.  The age of the culture is one day. The rhododendron culture has also produced the filamentous form within approximately one week of time; it is therefore in keeping with all observations and conclusions stated on this paper.  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

rhododendron micro 3

This work demonstrates that the “Morgellons” situation has been completely understated and underestimated in its significance and distribution.  It is no longer to be considered as unique to any life form or species.  The term itself, as commonly interpreted to represent a condition or disease,  is inadequate to encompass the scope of impact to the biology of the planet.  The nominal attention to classification and nomenclature of the life form by the scientific community is also long overdue, and this community will soon be forced to enter into that review process.  It is recommended that such nomenclature capture the true nature of this life form, as it is now known to cross the domains of biological existence on this planet.

Note: Appreciation is extended to Ryan Hannigan for his provision of the rhododendron sample for comparative analysis.  Readers may wish to stay attuned to any further developments from Ryan’s research that is under development, including that of botanical study.  CEC

MORGELLONS : A THESIS

MORGELLONS : A THESIS
Clifford E Carnicom
October 15  2011
Edited Dec 01 2011
Edited May 10 2013

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

Abstract:

A substantial body of research has accumulated to make the case that the underlying organism (i.e., pathogen) of the so-called “Morgellons” condition, as identified by this researcher, is using the iron from human blood for its own growth and existence.  It will also be shown  that the bio-chemical state of the blood is being altered in the process.  The implications of this thesis are severe as this alteration affects, amongst other things, the ability and capacity of the blood to bind to oxygen.  Respiration is the source of energy for the body.  

This change is also anticipated to increase the number of free radicals and to increase acidity in the body.  This process also requires and consumes energy from the body to take place; this energy supports the growth and proliferation of the organism.  The changes in the blood are anticipated to increase its combination with respiratory inhibitors and toxins.  The changes under evaluation may occur without any obvious outward symptoms.  It is also anticipated that there are consequences upon metabolism and health that extend beyond the functions of the blood.  This change represents essentially a systemic attack upon the body, and the difficulties of extinction of the organism are apparent.  Physiological conditions  that are in probable conjunction with the condition are identified.  Strategies that may be beneficial in mitigating the severity of the condition are enumerated.


This paper will present this case progressively, and it will build upon the information that has been presented in previous papers.   The paper will sequence through the following topics of discussion:

1. A Brief Introduction to the Chemistry of Iron

2. Beginning Observations

3. Qualitative Chemical Analysis

4. An Introduction to Bonding : Ionic, Covalent, Polar Covalent and Coordinated Covalent Bonds

5. The Structure of the Heme Molecule and the Role of Ligands

6. Qualitative Chemical Analysis of the Oral Samples : Two Methods to Verify the Existence of Ferric Iron

7. A Method to Extract the Oxidized Iron within the Filament Growth Structure

8. A Discussion of Ligands

9. Spectral  Analysis of the Blood and a Comparison to the Growth Spectrum

10. Methemoglobinemia and Hypoxia

11. Ionization and Bond Disassociation Energy : The Cost of Oxidation

12. Bacterial Requirements for Iron in the Blood

13. The Oral Filament and Red Wine Reaction Resolved

14. Some Health Implications; The Value of the Holistic Approach to Medicine

15. Identification of physiological conditions that are in probable conjunction with the condition.

16. A Proposed Spectral Analysis Project

17. A Review of Proposed Mitigation Strategies

As we continue with our discussion, there will be three different general approaches that will be used in a combined sense to reach the conclusions that have been stated above.  The first of these will be direct observation, the second will be qualitative chemical examination, and the last will be the use of spectral analysis and analytics.  A synthesis of each approach will give us the understanding of the situation that we require.  Let us begin with some discussion on the chemistry of iron and then follow with a few of the qualitative iron tests that are helpful in the methods that have been developed.

 

1. A Brief Introduction to the Chemistry of Iron:

Let us start with an introduction to iron.  Iron exists in three primary forms in nature, the first in its elemental form with no net charge, and the other two as compounds, known as ferrous and ferric compounds.  It is these latter two states of iron that will be of interest to us in terms of human biochemistry.

Ferrous compounds involve iron in a charged state, known as Fe2+, and ferric compounds involve iron in the valence state of 3, or Fe+3.  The term valence refers to the number of electrons lost or gained in a chemical reaction.  For example, a loss of two electrons from an atom will leave the atom in a charged state of +2.  A charged atom or compound is called an ion or ionic compound, respectively.

Why is this important to us and why should we learn about the chemistry of iron?  It is because iron is in our bodies and it is absolutely crucial to our lives and our health.  The charged state of the iron in our bodies and our blood is of the utmost importance in understanding the changes to human health that are occurring.

Now let us start focusing upon the iron in blood.  Your blood needs iron to function.  Not only does your blood need iron to function but it needs the iron to be in a particular state for your blood to work properly.   The iron in your blood must be in the ferrous form, or the Fe2+ in order to bind to oxygen1,2,3,4,5.  If it is not in this state (e.g, ferric iron or Fe3+), it will not bind to oxygen and human health will suffer.  You are not thriving in an energetic sense if you do not have the proper oxygen content within your blood.  

Hopefully we understand that the state of the iron in our bodies is not a trivial affair and it is in our interest to become educated on the matter.  It is the very path that I have chosen in this research and the implications of these studies are profound.

Now let us talk, in a general sense, about what causes iron to change state.  What for example, would cause iron in the elemental form (Fe) to go to the Fe2+ (charged) state, or for that matter, from the Fe2+ state to the Fe3+ (further charged) state?  It is here that we introduce and explain the term of oxidation.  As a familiar example, when something rusts, it is being oxidized.  What it means, in a more descriptive sense, is that a chemical reaction is taking place and that electrons are being removed from an atom or substance.  Formally speaking, oxidation refers to the process of losing electrons.  Oxidation increases the charge state of the atom or ion, because as an electron (i.e, negative charge) is removed, the atom, ion or substance becomes more positive as a result.  A typical example of oxidation is the change of iron from the Fe2+ state (i.e, ferrous) to the Fe3+ (i.e., ferric) state mentioned above.  

Below are some photographs that show testing of the iron ion in varying oxidation states, ie., Fe2+ and Fe3+ with the use of some specialized chemical reagents.  One of the factors that is important in the qualitative tests that we are doing is that of color; color is an extremely useful tool for determining the existence of metals in solution and for the chemical state that they are in.

liquid iron 1 liquid iron 2

This set of photographs shows a solution of what is called “liquid iron”, essentially a solution of a ferrous salt (with some minor impurities) that is used in gardening applications. This ferrous solution is formed from a representative iron salt with the iron in the Fe2+ oxidation state. One of the important characteristics visually of the Fe+2 iron is the greenish tint that often accompanies the Fe2+ iron oxidation state. The photograph to the right shows the addition of a chemical (1,10 phenanthroline) that is very sensitive to the presence of the Fe2+ ion, and it turns the solution red in combination with the ion. The use of this chemical is a valuable and sensitive qualitative method to determine the existence of the Fe2+ ion.

liquid iron 3 liquid iron 4

This set of photographs is provided to demonstrate the variability of color as well as its value and importance.  The photographs above show a freshly dissolved solution of ferrous sulfate. When the ferrous sulfate is dissolved in water it will ionize (separate into ions of Fe2+ and (SO4)2-).  It will also generally turn light green in color but this example lacks the stronger green tint shown in the set to the left.  Colors can easily be influenced by concentrations and impurities.  A separate solution made previously demonstrates a stronger green tint that is characteristic of the Fe+2 ion; this particular one does not.  The use of 1,10 phenanthroline reagent resolves the issue very clearly, however, as the characteristic reaction to produce the bold red color in combination with the Fe2+ ion is evident.  This example demonstrates the value of approaching the problem from more than one perspective, such as with the use of color, chemistry and spectral analysis for a more comprehensive assessment of the situation.

Fe3+ ion solution 1

This set shows an analogous qualitative chemical test for the presence of the Fe3+ ion solution.  This particular solution is that of ferric chloride.   There is an expected similarity in color between various ferric salts, as the ionic form of iron is the agent responsible for the color.  A distinctive feature of the Fe3+ ion in solution is that of a yellow to brown color.

Fe3+ ion solution 2

This photo also shows the use of a different, but equally important, reagent that is used to detect the presence of the Fe3+ ion in solution.  The chemical used in this case is that of sodium thiocyanide.  Even though this reagent also produces a bold red color, this test and the one mentioned above using 1,10 phenanthroline are entirely separate and unique from one another, and are only valid for the particular ion of each test.

The value of the tests shown above are threefold:  

1. First we have a sensitive qualitative method of identifying the existence of specific iron ions, i.e., Fe2+ and Fe3+ in solution6.  These tests can also be extended in combination with a spectrophotometer to provide concentration levels of the ions, if required7.

2. If the test succeeds, we know that the iron states are present in an ionic form within the solution.  If the test fails, it does not mean that Fe2+ or Fe3+ are not present, it only means that they are not present in ionic (i.e, disassociated) form.  It is possible that the iron could exist in a different form (e.g., bound within a molecular compound) than ionic, and the test would not show this fact.  This distinction will become important in later testing procedures that are described.

3. Regardless of individual variations, there is a clear and distinctive difference between the greenish tints associated with the Fe2+ ion and the yellowish and brown tints that result from the Fe3+ ion.  This distinction will also become important in later testing.

2. Beginning Observations:

Let us now switch over to the course of direct observation.  Many of us may recall that certain culture growth trials were discussed in an earlier paper entitled “Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal8. In that paper, conditions and circumstances that both increased and inhibited the rate of growth of the organism were discussed.  A section of that paper again is relevant again with direct observation, as shown below, in combination with the color characteristics of iron discussed above.  Direct observation essentially indicates to us that the organism is able to utilize and absorb iron in the Fe3+ state. Let us discuss further why this is the case.

morgellons 1

This photograph shows a culture that has just been started.  The process of starting a culture with this method requires only a single drop of the culture solution.  The culture solution is prepared by subjecting the pulverized and dried filaments of previous growth to sodium hydroxide in solution and heat to the boiling point. The culture medium has ferrous (Fe+2) sulfate and hydrogen peroxide added to it as described in the paper referenced.  This chemical reaction that takes place will again be described in more detail below.

morgellons 2

This photograph shows the state of the culture growth after a few days have elapsed.  The dark brown color characteristic of the ferric (Fe+3) oxidized iron within the organism growth is visible.  The organism is absorbing the nutrients that have been provided in the culture medium.  In this case, the Fe+2 ion originally introduced into the solution was oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide (Fenton’s reaction) to produce the Fe+3 iron state.  The organism is able to nourish itself from this oxidized state of iron and it imparts the characteristic color of the iron (Fe3+) oxidation state within the growth of the culture.

In order to understand the results of the photographs above, it is helpful to describe  a chemical reaction, called “Fenton’s reaction” that was discussed in the former referenced paper9.  Fenton’s reaction involves the combination of iron in the Fe2+ state (in this case, ferrous sulfate)  and hydrogen peroxide.  The reaction is as follows:10

Fe2+ + H2O2-->Fe3+ + OH. + OH

This reaction was established in the following manner:  A starter culture of the underlying organism was introduced into distilled water.  A few drops of a ferrous salt solution, namely ferrous sulfate was introduced into the culture.  This was followed by a few drops of hydrogen peroxide.  It has been learned that this culture medium rapidly accelerates the growth of the culture.  The result of the combination of the iron in the Fe2+ state with hydrogen peroxide produces three things:

1. Iron ions in the ferric state, or Fe3+.

2. The hydroxide ion (not a radical), OH-

3. The hydroxyl radical, a highly reactive free radical.

Notice that none of these three developments were dependent upon the culture; Fentons reactions would have taken place irregardless of the introduction of the organism.  What we do know from the reaction, however, is that the iron is oxidized to the Fe3+ state and becomes immediately available to the organism along with the hydroxyl radical.  The paper mentioned discusses some of the ramifications of this combination with respect to health.  Not only does the oxidation takes place, but we see that the organism is directly able to utilize the iron in this oxidized state (Fe3+) for its growth and sustenance.  

This provides our first link in understanding the role of oxidation of iron in our body and its relationship to the growth of the organism.  All of the conditions described for the controlled petri dish trial are also to be found to occur within the human body.

3. Qualitative Chemical Analysis:

There are chemical tests which can be performed to determine the existence of substances, particularly those in ionic form.  These tests are valuable in that they are relatively simple and yet they can provide crucial information as to the existence of a metallic ion, for instance, without providing quantitative or concentration levels.  Examples of this include the determination of the existence of the iron ions (both ferrous and ferric), copper ions, sulphate ions, chloride ions and others11,12,13.  It is important to understand that the tests being described in this section are for ionic forms only, i.e, they are in a disassociated form in solution.  A negative test does not mean that the element in some form does not exist, (.e.g, bound in a molecular form); it only means that it does not exist in an ionic form.  This distinction will become important to us as we proceed later with additional laboratory procedures.  

An excellent example of a qualitative test for the presence of ionic forms of iron has already been described in the earlier section of this paper, entitled An Introduction to the Chemistry of Iron.  In this case, as described, certain reagents were used to positively identify the presence of the Fe+2 and Fe+3 ions in known solutions.  

Now let us apply these methods to the questions at hand, which are twofold:

1. Does human blood in solution contain iron ions?  We know that blood contains iron, so it will be of interest to examine if it exists in ionic form.

2.  Does the culture solution (as developed from oral filaments characteristic of Morgellons) contain iron ions?

Let us discuss the first question, i.e., does blood contain iron in ionic form?  If so, is it in the Fe2+ state, or the Fe3+ state, both, or none?  We can answer this question with the application of the same reagents mentioned earlier, 1,10 phenanthroline for the test of Fe2+ ions and sodium thiocyanide for the testing of Fe3+ ions.

Testing for Fe2+ ions in blood in distilled water
Testing for Fe2+ ions in blood in distilled water solution with1,10 phenanthroline. Results are negative. No characteristic deep red color forms in the test tube to the right where the reagent has been added.

 

Testing for Fe3+ ions in blood in distilled water
Testing for Fe3+ ions in blood in distilled water solution with sodium thiocyanate. Results are negative. No characteristic deep red color forms in the test tube to the right where the reagent has been added.

 

The results in both cases are negative.  This means that human blood does not show the existence if iron in ionic form, either Fe2+ or Fe3+ within it.  It does not mean that blood does not have iron within it, for we know that it does.  But in what form does it exist then?  If it is not ionic, is the iron bound in some way?  If so, what is it bound to?  How do we know what state it is in (Fe2+ or Fe3+) if it is bound to something?  These are some of the questions before us.  The answers to these questions will become important to us in our understanding of any changes taking place to the blood and they will become equally relevant in our tests of the culture solution based upon oral filament growths.  This result also raises the problem of how do we go about qualitatively testing for iron in the blood as we have now learned that the direct ion testing approach is not sufficient.  

As we proceed, please keep in the forefront that our problem is  to approach the question of how the state of oxidation of blood is affected by the Morgellons condition.

Now let us test the culture solution in the same way:  The preparation of the culture solution can be described in detail at a later time; this has been summarized to some degree in previous papers.

Testing for Fe2+ ions in the culture
Testing for Fe2+ ions in the culture solution with1,10 phenanthroline. Results are negative. No characteristic deep red color forms in the test tube to the right where the reagent has been added.
Testing for Fe3+ ions in the culture
Testing for Fe3+ ions in the culture solution with sodium thiocyanate. Results are negative. No characteristic deep red color forms in the test tube to the right where the reagent has been added.

 

The results are again in both cases negative.  This tells us correspondingly, that the culture solution does not contain iron in the ionic form (Fe2+ or Fe3+), at least to the degree of sensitivity of the tests.  Once again, it does NOT mean that the culture solutions do not contain iron, only that if it is present that it is not in the ionic (disassociated) form.  The issue, therefore, must  provoke our testing methods further and the question of iron binding to other molecules, even if in an oxidized state (Fe2+ or Fe3+), rises to importance.

4. An Introduction to Bonding : Ionic, Covalent, Polar Covalent and Coordinated Covalent Bonds:

Soon we must educate ourselves further on how iron exists within the blood.  Before that occasion, however, we must also spend some time talking about the various methods that atoms use to bind together to form molecules and compounds.  Much of what happens in chemistry is in some way related to bonding and it is helpful to have at least some background on the subject.  Ultimately, the knowledge is crucial to our understanding and determination of how the oxidation state of blood is altered.

Within conventional chemistry, there are two forms of bonding of atoms that occur: ionic and covalent.  Ionic bonding means that electrons are transferred  from one atom to another.  Covalent bonding means that the electrons are shared between atoms.  Bonding is important because the physical properties of a substance are generally entirely different depending upon the type of bonding that exists.  Therefore, if you know what type of bonding is occurring within a molecule or substance, you can likely determine quite a bit about the physical properties and behavior of the substance.  In our case, this is not an academic exercise and we do not have a choice; we need to learn as much as we can about the properties of the blood and how it interacts with the rest of the body.  Science is more meaningful is we can give value and application to our studies and in our current situation, our very lifeblood and welfare depends upon this pursuit.  Consider taking some time to learn about the chemistry and biochemistry that is involved here and we will all be the better for it.  

The following are simple illustrations of both ionic and covalent bonding:

ionic bonding

An example of ionic bonding.
The transfer of electrons characterizes this bond form.
Source: Northeastern Oklahoma A&M College

covalent bonding

An example of covalent bonding.
The sharing of electrons characterizes this bond form.
Source : Mr. Wolgemuth GHHS Science Web Site

Next, a brief word on polar covalent bonding:  Polar covalent bonding is a variation on the covalent bonding theme shown above.  In the example above on covalent bonding, the forces on the electrons are symmetrical.  When different types of atoms join together(as shown below) vs. atoms of the same type (as in the two hydrogen atoms shown above), the forces between the electrons are not necessarily symmetrical.  This asymmetry of forces between shared electrons is referred to as a polar covalent bond.  A simple example of polar covalent bonding, i.e., the water molecule, is shown immediately below.  These three types of bonds: ionic, covalent and polar covalent cover most of the ground of conventional and introductory discussions of bonding of atoms within chemistry.

polar covalent bonding
An example of polar covalent bonding.
The asymmetric sharing of electrons and unequal distribution of charge characterizes this bond form.
Source :
Zendarie : Biology One Step At a Time
[http://zendarie.com/2011/chemical-bonds/ : Server Not Found 404 12/13/15]

We, however, in our journey of understanding the nature of iron bonding within blood, are not allowed to stop here.  We will find that the three bond types above do not tell us what we need to know about the way in which iron is bonded, or “held” within the blood.  There is indeed a fourth type of bonding that we will introduce, and we will find that it is different, unique, interesting and important to know about when it comes to understanding what is happening within our blood.  The bond type that is pertinent to our need to know is called a “coordinated covalent bond“.  

The coordinated covalent bond is an interesting animal, as it does not fit in very well with any of the conventional explanations of bonding listed above.  What has caught my interest is that the coordinate covalent bond is not introduced in the forefront of chemistry education, but from my vantage point, it can easily end up being a most important form of bonding to know about.  It seems to me that one of the easiest ways to attempt to visualize a coordinated covalent bond is to imagine at atom being “held” or “suspended” or surrounded by electrons, the forces of those electrons keeping the bond in place.  Let us get the formal definitions, and then go to work with an image that can help us to understand this unique form of bonding.  Here are three definitions to work with:

To start:

“A coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond in which one of the bonded atoms furnishes both of the shared electrons”13.

Also:

“A particular type of covalent bond is one in which one of the atoms supplies both of the electrons.  These are known as dipolar (or coordinate, semipolar, or dative) bonds.”14

And:

“A covalent bond occurs when one atom contributes both of the shared pair of electrons.  Once formed, there is no difference between a coordinate bond and any other covalent bond.”15

And lastly, for the person in greater need, here is a more detailed online definition16 and description of the coordinate covalent bond.16

coordinate covalent bonding

An example of coordinate covalent bonding.
This is called a Lewis diagram and it shows the arrangements of the electrons in the outer shell of the atom and how they are “shared” or coordinated.
Source: New World Encyclopedia
: Covalent Bond

3d model coordinate covalent

A three-dimensional model of the coordinate covalent bond shown to the left..
Source: New World Encyclopedia
: Covalent Bond

Now let us try to give more meaning to what the coordinate covalent bond entails.  The images above depict one of the simpler presentations of a coordinate covalent bond.  Both images are different views of the same bonding process.  What the picture shows on the left is that instead of one electron being shared by each atom (in this case, Nitrogen and Boron) to form a shared pair, BOTH electrons are donated by the Nitrogen atom and none by the Boron atom to form the bond.  The end result is the same as in a regular covalent bond, but the process by which the bond was achieved differs from a normal covalent bond.  The reason that this type of bonding is important is that many types of new and fundamentally important “complexes” or chemical structures can be formed.  Our blood structure is one such example.  Many of the complexes that are formed in this way involve the bonding of a metal atom (e.g, iron) with surrounding molecules, and this leads us directly into our discussion of the blood and the hemoglobin (or heme) molecule.  The formation of what are called coordination complexes or coordination compounds, very often with metals at the center of the structure, is one of the most important practical branches of chemistry.  It is necessary for us to understand coordination complexes in order to understand how the iron in our blood bonds to oxygen.  And so now that we are in the thick of it, on we go…

5. The Structure of the Heme Molecule and the Role of Ligands:

We are now in position to become more familiar with the detailed structure of blood.  Our interest will be centered on hemoglobin, and in even greater detail, upon what is known as the heme molecule.  Hemoglobin is an iron containing protein within red blood cells.   Hemoglobin is the molecule that transports oxygen.17  It is the iron of hemoglobin that binds to oxygen18. Heme is one of four subunits within hemoglobin.  Each heme group has an iron atom at its center, and therefore each hemoglobin molecule can bind to four molecules of oxygen (O2).19  Our primary interest will be in the heme group, as it is where the oxygen carrying capacity exists.  Here are a couple of images to familiarize the reader with the overall structure of hemoglobin and the heme group.  Subsequently, we will examine the heme group in even greater detail along with the bonding process.

heme

A generalized model of the hemoglobin molecule.
Notice the four subunits of heme within the hemoglobin molecule; this is where the iron atom exists that can bind to oxygen.
Source: Washington University, Department of Chemistry

heme group

A closer view of the heme group.
The iron atom(orange) resides in the center of the heme group.  The oxygen (O2) molecule is in red above the iron atom.  We will examine this structure and bonding process in greater detail below
Source : Wiley : Biochemistry

The type of bonding that allows the heme group to exist and to bind iron to oxygen as shown above is the coordinated covalent bonding that has been introduced previously.  This type of bonding allows the formation of a multitude of metal complexes, and the heme group is an example of one such structure that incorporates a coordinated metal complex.  These metal complexes and the unique type of bonding they incorporate are have a special importance in biochemistry and in blood.  Let us now look at the heme group in even greater detail to understand the molecular structure further:

heme group 2

The heme group, consisting of an iron atom in the Fe+2 state, surrounded by four nitrogen atoms bound with coordinated covalent bonds.  The iron must be in the +2 state to be able to bind to oxygen..
Image source:
Wikipedia

heme group 3d

A three-dimensional model of the heme group, with the iron (II) atom at the center surrounded by the four nitrogen atoms.  This type of structure is known as a porphyrin.  One of the best known porphyrins is heme, which is the pigment in red blood cells.
Source: Argus Lab

The dexoxygenated heme molecule

The dexoxygenated heme molecule (model) shown
with oxygen atoms (red) removed (left) and attached (right).

The heme group consists of an iron atom in the center of a ring structure, termed a porphyrin.  The porphyrin includes the central iron atom in the +2 oxidized state and is surrounded by four nitrogen atoms with coordinate covalent bonds.  The upper two photographs of this sections show this structure in both a planar view and a three-view.  The coordinate covalent bonds, as discussed earlier, allow the transition metals such as iron to bind to a host of varying molecules.  This type of structure is also that known as a chelate, where a central atom is bound to surrounding molecules or structures (termed ligands).  A great variety of molecular structures with the transition metals can occur with this unique and more complex bond type, i.e., the coordinated covalent bond.  

The lower photograph shows two additional aspects of the heme molecule and the bonds that it makes within.  These include the histidine (an amino acid) structure and the oxygen molecule.  The oxygen molecule is at the heart of the discussion here. The left photograph within the pair shows the oxygen molecule removed from the heme group and the right photograph within the pair shows the oxygen bound to the Fe2+ atom.  The iron must be in the Fe2+ state for the oxygen to bind; transport of oxygen is a vital and crucial function of the blood within the human body.  If the iron in the blood is changed to the Fe3+ state, the bonds to oxygen are broken and the blood is then known as deoxyhemoglobin.  The primary cause of change in the oxidation state of an atom is from an oxidizer; some of the best known oxidizers include the hydroxyl radical, ozone, peroxides and bleaches20.  Oxidizers exist with the human body to some level naturally. There is a body of evidence available in the literature that will demonstrate that excessive exposure to oxidizers within the body can be detrimental to human health.  Oxidizers produce free radicals, which are highly reactive molecules that can “wreak havoc within the living system”21.  Some of the most important free radicals in biology are the superoxide anion (O2), peroxide (O2-2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH)22.

It will become apparent that the change in oxidation state of iron from Fe2+ to Fe3+ in sufficient numbers within the blood is generally detrimental to the blood and human health.  It will become equally apparent that this change is especially beneficial to the growth of the organism and filamentous biological growth structures that are characteristic of the Morgellons condition.

hemoglobin animation

An animated view of the change between the oxygenated and deoxygenated states of the blood.  Correspondingly, this results is a shift between the Fe2+ oxidation state of iron and the Fe3+ oxidation state of iron in the blood.

Source : Protein Data Bank
http://pdb101.rcsb.org/learn/resource/oxygen-binding-in-hemoglobin-gif

6. Qualitative Chemical Analysis of the Oral Samples ; Two Methods to Verify the Existence of Ferric Iron:

We are now in a position to better understand and interpret the results of more direct laboratory analysis.  It will be found that there is essentially little difference between the direct human filament samples that are under examination and those that result from the culturing process demonstrated repeatedly on this site.  At this point we will deal directly with human oral filament samples as the chemical reactions that are common to both forms are now better understood.

It has long been observed that extended exposure (e.g., three minutes +/-) of the oral gums to red wines produces in many, if not most, individuals a purplish filamentous mass than can be expelled and further analyzed.  This discovery is fully credited to Gwen Scott, N.D. as originally reported several years ago23,24. It is claimed by some individuals that this mass is of a precipitate form and that it is a natural reaction between red wines and saliva.  The reaction referred to is valid and has been studied as well.  However, the statement as it has been made is entirely false as it refers to the samples under examination.  The sample under examination is of a filament form, and it is not a precipitate.  The sheer volume of material that can be expelled, let alone the examination of the material, is sufficient to dispel the false and diversionary claims25.

The chemistry of this rather dramatic reaction of filament production and coloration has, prior to this study of the last several months, been unknown.  This is no longer entirely the case, and the subject will be introduced again later in this paper.  For now, suffice it to say that a most significant chemical reaction and filament production does take place, and the discovery can be regarded as serendipitous and fortunate to the studies that have been made.  

Given that such a reaction and production of mass does occur, this study has now examined the material in greater depth from a qualitative chemical perspective.  It has also been known for some time now that the filaments do break down and undergo chemical transformation when exposed to a solution of sodium hydroxide (lye) and heat26.

oral sample 1

An oral sample filamentous mass produced from extended exposure of the mouth gums to red wine.  The sample has been repeatedly rinsed and decanted in distilled water.  The purplish color and microscopic filaments are characteristic of the sample.

The oral sample after it has been subjected to a process of alkalizing, heating and filtration.

The oral sample after it has been subjected to a process of alkalizing, heating and filtration.  The sample is treated with sodium hydroxide (lye) in solution and heated to the boiling point.  The solution is then filtered and produces the colored solution above.  Please recall that the color of the ferric ion (3+) is usually yellowish to brownish and that the color of the ferrous (2+) ion is generally more greenish in color.  This result of this process indicates that the ferric (3+) iron form is a candidate for further investigation in this qualitative analysis.

The photographs above show the original sample (to the left) and the sample after processing with alkali, heat and filtration (right).  The solution on the right is also suitable for spectrophotometric analysis, as shall be discussed later.  At this point, we will be concerned only with qualitative chemical reactions.

It is already known that the sample in the solution form prepared immediately above fails a test for the existence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions.  This has been shown with similar results for the culture form of this study earlier in this paper.  This result does not mean that iron does not exist in the solution, only that it does not exist in disassociated ionic form.  The reason that the effort has been expended to understand the various types of chemical bonding is that because unless we know in what form a substance exists in solution we may not be able to detect it with common testing methods.  This is the reason that an understanding of coordination complexes and coordinate covalent bonding is so essential; we must press the problem further and examine all options with respect to the possible existence of iron forms within the solution.  The following three factors are thought to be relevant in the examination of the reaction of the oral sample solution with  a copper sulfate solution:

First:

One of the types of chemical reactions is called a single displacement reaction.  In a general way, this reaction has the form28:

A + BC ->  B + AC    

or

A + BC -> C + BA

and if A is a metal, A will replace B to form AC, provided A is a more reactive metal than B.

Second:

Another relevant topic here is what is called the activity series of metals.   Some metals are more reactive than others, with water or acids and the activity series of metals lists that reactivity in a tabular form.  For example, potassium, calcium and sodium are highly reactive metals with water, iron and nickel are moderately active, copper and silver are of very low reactivity, and gold and platinum are inactive.  Here is an example of an activity series table27:

metals reactivity series table
Source:

http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-ii/metals-non-metals/reconcept-series-metals.php

It will be found that a metal higher on the list will replace a metal that is in ionic form and is lower in the list.

Third:

Another helpful known reaction is that iron ions (+2 and +3 states, respectively) in solution with sodium hydroxide will form ferrous (+2) hydroxide, a green precipitate, (Fe(OH)2) and ferric hydroxide, a brown precipitate, (Fe(OH)3) respectively.

The first chemical reaction that becomes of interest to study is the oral sample solution above when mixed with copper sulfate.  It will be found that a reaction does occur, and the reaction is that a brown precipitate forms.   This indicates that we are likely to have formed ferric hydroxide and this gives us another hint that we may be encountering iron within a +3 oxidation state within the original solution.  The issue is complicated, however, by the fact that we know the iron is apparently not in ionic form.  This would suggest that we are dealing with iron in a coordination complex of some type, where the iron is bound to an unknown ligand.  There are still uncertainties in this problem, but it appears that the copper sulfate is somehow a factor in releasing the iron from a complex form (presumably affected by the activity series above) so that it can combine with the hydroxide ion to form ferric hydroxide.  A proposed reaction is somewhat akin to the form:

Fe+3X + Na+ + OH + CuSO4 + H2O -> Fe(OH)3 + Cu2+ SO42- + Na+ + H2O + X

where X is an unknown ligand that is attached to the iron ion.  The resulting reaction has been tested further for copper and sulfate ions, respectively, and the results are positive and are therefore consistent with the above reaction.

An alternative proposed reaction is of the form:

[Fe(H2O)6]3+ + Na+ + OH + CuSO4  -> Fe(OH)3 + Cu2+ SO42- + Na+ + 6H2O

in which case the ligand is water and involves coordination with the hydrated ferric ion.

A reaction of the oral sample solution with copper sulfate.

A reaction of the oral sample solution with copper sulfate.  A brown precipitate forms.  A postulated identity of the precipitate is that of ferric hydroxide which contains iron in the 3+ oxidized state.
The proposed ligand form is one question that will need to be addressed further.  In the interim, the important question to pursue is whether or not the precipitate is consistent with a ferric (vs. ferrous) hydroxide identity.  To further test the proposal of ferric hydroxide as the precipitate, it will be found that ferric hydroxide is soluble in citric acid29.  It is also known that ferrous hydroxide, when dissolved in citric acid, will turn the solution green (characteristic of the ferrous ion).  Ferric hydroxide, when dissolved in ctiric acid will turn the solution to a brownish color (characteristic of the ferric ion). This test has been conducted and the result is positive, the precipitate is soluble in citric acid and the resulting solution is brownish in color.  This further solidifies the proposed identity of the precipitate as that of ferric hydroxide.


A second method of verifying the existence of the ferric form of iron within the oral filament sample has been established30.  This method involves the reduction of the Fe3+ iron state to the Fe2+ state using ascorbic acid, and then testing for the existence of the iron in the Fe2+ state.  The steps of the process are:1

. The oral sample must be extracted with the red wine and the test conducted promptly; this is a time sensitive process that has been created.

2. The oral filament sample is rinsed repeatedly in clear water and decanted until the final mass is in clear distilled water.

3.  The sample is treated with sodium hydroxide and’ heated to the boiling point and then filtered.  The solution will be brownish in color as described earlier.

4.  The solution is then treated with ascorbic acid.  Ascorbic acid is a strong reducer (anti-oxidant).

5. The solution is then centrifuged.

6. The clear solution that results from centrifuging is separated and placed in a separate test tube.

7.  A test for the Fe2+ ion is conducted using (1,10) phenanthroline.  The test results are positive.  This test demonstrates the reduction of existing iron in the Fe3+ state to the Fe2+ state.  

In the reference cited, it will be noted that potassium ferricyanide is used in the reaction.  This experiment introduces the role of another ligand that will be discussed in more detail later, and this is the cyanide ion.  It will be seen that varying ligands form complexes with the transition metals; this is one of the many reasons we must familiarize ourselves with coordination chemistry and coordinate covalent bonds to understand how this organism interacts with the body.

A positive test for the existence of the ferrous ion

A positive test for the existence of the ferrous ion after reduction by ascorbic acid using (1,10) phenanthroline.

 

 

7. A Method to Extract the Oxidized Iron from within the Filament Growth Structure

A third and final method of verifying the existence of the ferric form of iron within the oral filament sample has been established.  In this case, the iron itself in an oxide form has been extracted directly from the oral filament sample using electrolysis.  The method is both simple and effective.  Many metallic salts, when subjected to electrolysis, liberate a gas at the anode and deposit the metal in pure form at the cathode31,32,33,34.  Presumably this can apply to certain transition metal (e.g., iron) complexes as well and as evidenced by the results obtained.  The method used is to apply a current to the oral sample solution directly.  Voltage is applied at 6 volts for approximately 8 hours of time.  The current in the solution has been measured at 0.7 mA.  The electrolyte is sufficiently decomposed at the end of that period.  The metallic compound is collected and heated and dried at the end of that period.    It appears as though the bonds in the compound are quite strong as the compound is only mildly soluble in strong acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.  The compound reacts vigorously to hydrogen peroxide as shown below in the video segment.  The reaction shown involving the decomposition hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water is an established and known catalytic reaction (in the same genre as Fenton’s reaction)35,36.

The results of all qualitative tests indicate that a ferric (3+) iron is a highly significant component of the growth structure and organism development.  It is also presumed at this stage of the analysis that the iron exists primarily within a transition metal coordination complex with ligand structures that require further analysis and identification.  An additional discussion on the ligand aspect of this study will follow.

Pre-electrolysis of the oral sample solution.
Pre-electrolysis of the oral sample solution.

 

prost electrolysis 2
Post-electrolysis of the oral sample solution.

bunsen 1

Drying the metallic residue from the electrolytic processing of the oral sample.

The final iron oxide (ferric oxide) compound

The final iron oxide (ferric oxide) compound result obtained directly  from the oral sample through electrolysis.

Ferric Oxide Compound and Hydrogen Peroxide Chemical Reaction:
This is a catalytic reaction that does not result in a change in the iron oxide form or mass.
Magnification approx 75x.

8. A Discussion of Ligands:

Let us talk about ligands for a moment.  Remember that a coordination complex is formed with a metal atom at the center of the complex surrounded by atoms that donate electrons to form the coordinate covalent bonds.  These donor structures are called ligands.  The heme group that we discussed was a representative example of such a coordination complex, with the iron atom in the center of the ring with nitrogen atoms surrounding the iron.  We also have a histidine (amino acid) group attached to the heme and then the oxygen molecules at a sixth position in the complex.  We have also seen that the oxygen molecules can come and go within the complex depending upon the state of the iron in the center of the complex.  Please review some of the images and discussion above if you would like to recall this discussion.  

It now is becoming more apparent to us why we must understand the specific molecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules (especially the heme group within) and’ of the transition metal (notably iron) coordination complexes within the heme group.  It is also equally important that we must learn more about the impact of “ligands”, as ligands are the atoms or structures that bind to the metal. Coordination chemistry seems to be a bit more involved than conventional chemical study as the bonding structures are highly varied and more difficult to predict.  But the necessity exists here, for what binds to the iron (i.e., ligand) that has been altered (i.e., oxidized) is going to be extremely important in understanding the impact or predicted impact upon the body.  For instance, the importance of this topic can be stressed with the following:

Metal and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances…… Ligand selection is a critical consideration in many practical areas, including bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and environmental chemistry.37

Therefore, we will need to understand ligands and coordination complexes in more detail to help us get out of the mess that we are in.  Please engage yourself in that process as it appears that it will become very important in understanding the human health effects that are in place as we speak.

An introduction to this topic involves what is called the “spectrochemical series”.  Fortunately there is a knowledge base available to help us understand what ligands (or chemical structures) are more likely to attach to metal ions, such as iron, than others are.  Three fields of study that are helpful in this regard are:38

1. The Spectrochemical Series

2. Ligand  Field Theory

3. Crystal Field Theory.  

The latter two topics are more advanced fields of chemistry study and can only be briefly mentioned in this report.  The latter two subjects, Ligand Field Theory and Crystal Field Theory, help us to understand how the spectrochemical series has developed.  In this paper, we need to focus on this end result to start with and to at least become familiar with the spectrochemical series.

The spectrochemical series is a ranking of ligands, according to what are called weak field ligands and strong field ligands.  Both abbreviated and longer form tabulations of the spectrochemical series exist depending upon the level of investigation.  An example of an abbreviated spectrochemical series is as follows:39

 

I   <   Br   <   SCN   <   Cl   <   F   ≤   OH , ONO   <   OH2   <   NCS   <   NCCH3   <   NH3 , py   <   NO2   <   CN , NO , CO
weak-field ligands strong-field ligands

 

Recall that the most important feature of a coordination compound is the donation of a pair of electrons by the ligand (i.e., donor) to form a coordinate covalent bond with the metal.  As a first generalization, softer metals generally prefer bonds to weak-field ligands and harder metals (e.g,, iron) are more likely to bond with strong field ligands40.  It can also be cited that the cyanide ion and carbon monoxide would be expected to have a rather strong affinity for the ferric (3+) ion41.  This type of relationship will be critical in our understanding and future direction of research in relation to the altered blood that has been identified in this report.  Separate research from a variety of sources42,43 has also disclosed the following list of candidates ions or molecules to consider as potential ligands to the oxidized iron (+3) atom (this list will overlap with the spectrochemical series):

CO, CN-, NH3, H2O, OH-, SO, NO2 S2- N3- NO2-, Cl-, CH3COO

Please be aware that many of the ligands under review above are toxic or interfere with biological processes.  As examples, the cyanide ion, azide ion and carbon monoxide are each respiratory inhibitors to some degree.  Although an introduction to a significant problem related to oxygen deficiency (methemoglobinemia) will be discussed later in this report, much research remains to be tackled on the subject of ligands and oxidized iron.  Please consider the support of this research if you are so inclined.

9. Spectral  Analysis of the Blood and a Comparison to the Growth Spectrum:

Extensive spectrometric analysis human blood is the original basis for this report.  It was observed early on in the process that the expected spectrum of normal hemoglobin was not being observed using blood samples from a variety of individuals.  This required establishing a “reference spectrum” for hemoglobin based upon that of record and upon historical public data.  Please review the previous paper entitled Altered Blood44 for an introduction to the situation at hand.  This paper remains current and accurate with the information acquired and analysis completed thus far.  

The graphs below show the general nature of the predicament.  The purpose of this section will be to summarize only briefly the work of several weeks of observation and investigation of sample hemoglobin vs the reference spectrum that has been established.

reference hemoglobin

The black line is the reference spectrum for hemoglobin that has been established through examination of the literature and available tabulated data.  The red line is the average spectrum of approximately ten individuals over the same visible light wavelength range.  Clearly there is a significant difference.   A salient change that can be identified is the appearance of two strong peaks in the vicinity at approximately  397 nanometers (nm) and 448 nm.  These strong peaks substitute themselves for the prominent expected peak at approximately 414 nm.  The magnitude of absorbance can vary strongly according to concentration levels so the magnitude of the peaks so there must be some latitude given to the conclusions related to that aspect.  Nevertheless, in general we see that the magnitude of absorbance is strongly reduced in the measured spectrum vs. the reference spectrum, especially in the range of 300-350nm.

The difficulty then becomes to explain these sharp differences between the spectrums.  We can begin this analysis by examining the spectrum of the cultures as they have been developed from oral samples and examples of this work are shown below.

Culture%20Spectra%20-%20Variable%20Concentrations.jpg

The graph above shows the spectrum of the culture as developed from oral samples.  The primary variable within the graph is that of concentration.  These graphs show the importance of concentration and how it can affect the geometry of the spectrum.  It can be seen in general that an increase in concentration causes a corresponding increase in the absorbance; this is an expected consequence of Beer’s Law is it relates to spectroscopy.  It is also of special interest to note that with sufficient concentrations that a second peak appears at approximately 448nm; this peak was simply not observable at low concentration levels.  A calibration curve for the concentration of the culture mass has been developed from this work.  A fair amount of culture mass is required to produce the highest concentration levels shown; these details of solution preparation can be described further as time progresses.  It has already been reported that the solutions are produced primarily with the use of a strong alkalizer (sodium hydroxide) and heat; this method is successful in breaking down the filament nature of the culture to a sufficient degree.  

There is an extremely important observation that is to be made from these graphs shown here.  It is that the geometry of the peaks of the culture, as it has been developed from oral filament samples, is essentially identical to those deviations that are reported in the measured hemoglobin spectrum shown immediately prior.  Within the culture spectrum, we see corresponding strong peaks at approximately 397nm and 448nm, exactly the same peak structure that is apparent in the hemoglobin spectrum under measurement in a sample of individuals.  This suggests, in a highly logical and sensible fashion, that we should consider looking at the growth of the organism as a significant factor on the alteration of the hemoglobin spectrum as it is being directly measured.  

The next issue of importance is to identify what is the underlying nature of the culture, or organism, spectrum.  A spectrum in itself is valuable for its uniqueness, but the interpretation of the underlying spectrum is a much more involved affair.  It involves a body of knowledge than can represent a profession it is own right.  Some of the factors that affect the manifestation of the spectrum include the elements involved, the types of molecular bonds involved and the energy states of those atoms or molecules.  I do not profess to know that science to that level of detail to immediately be able to interpret a visual light spectrum at the elemental and atomic bond level; by the same token the subject matter is not entirely foreign to me at this stage of study.  

The process of investigation on my end is too laborious and time consuming to describe here, and the extensive time and effort extended is to be summarized in a succinct manner for your benefit  In that protracted process, the spectrum of iron salts has also been examined in some detail.  Suffice it to say that the spectrum of the ferric ion (3+) in solution matches remarkably well with the spectra culture and oral sample spectrums, especially in the range of 300 – 475nm where the deviations reported above most strongly occur.  This was indeed the discovery that has motivated the intensive focus on iron with respect to this particular growth form, or “organism”, as it were.  It is also the very reason why the qualitative chemical studies described above were developed.  I have attempted to approach the problem from numerous angles to seek a consistent resolution to the problem.  At this point, it seems fair to claim that such a consistent resolution has been reached.  The role of iron in the oxidized state (3+) and its importance in the growth of the organism, from this researcher’s perspective, appears to be positively established.

reference hb02

The final graph in this section shows the degree of overlap that is occurring between the hemoglobin spectrum as it is being measured, the spectrum of the oral and culture samples, and the spectrum of the ferric ion (3+) in solution.  The degree of similarity and overlap is actually quite remarkable and further solidifies the arguments that are presented within this paper.  

In these graphs, the trends of each individual spectrum has been removed.  This has the advantage of essentially normalizing the magnitudes of the graph so that we can focus on the degree of similarity of the absorption peaks.  We have three different spectra shown here.  The red line is the average measured spectrum of hemoglobin from a sample of  approximately ten individuals.  The black line is the spectrum of the “reference hemoglobin” as it has been obtained from the available public sources.  The blue line is the spectrum of a dissolved ferric (3+) salt,  specifically iron ammonium sulfate.  There are some important observations to me made here that reiterate the degree of similarity that has been established prior.  We see a very close match between the spectrums of the measured hemoglobin spectrum and the ferric ion (3+) in the lower half of the visible spectrum (350 – 475nm).  This strongly suggests that the ferric (3+) form of’ iron is intimately involved in the deviation of the measured hemoglobin spectrum from the reference hemoglobin spectrum  It is indeed the basis of this thesis, as the body of evidence established now demonstrates that this is exactly the case.  

Secondly, we see that the magnitude of the spectrum of the ferric ion drops off radically in the upper half of the spectrum, i.e., 475 -700nm.  This means that we would expect the ferric ion to have much less influence upon the spectrum of hemoglobin within that range.  This is also exactly what we find.  We notice that the reference hemoglobin spectrum and the measured hemoglobin spectrum actually compare reasonably well in the upper half of the visible light spectrum.  This spectral analysis establishes the case quite strongly, therefore, that the ferric (3+) ion form plays a prominent role in the alteration of blood as it has been measured from several individuals.  It is at this point that we must recall that deviation of the iron in the blood from the normal state of Fe(2+) to that of Fe(3+) presents serious health consequences.  The most important of these is the inability of iron in the ferric state within blood to bind to oxygen.  This leads us to the next topic below.

10. Methemoglobinemia and Hypoxia:

Now that certain results have been established, we must anticipate and begin to deal with the consequences of those results, should they be proven to be true.  To reiterate, these results present themselves in two primary forms:

1. The evidence indicates that the growth form central to the Morgellons condition utilizes iron in a ferric (3+) state for its own growth, development and sustenance.

2. The evidence indicates that human blood is altered significantly as a result of the presence of the organism within the blood.  This alteration encompasses a partial change of the oxidation state of the iron within the hemoglobin from a ferrous (2+) to a ferric (3+) state.  Iron in the ferric state (3+) within hemoglobin is unable to bind to oxygen.  

If these findings are true, we are required to pursue the next logical line of investigation, i.e, diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.  There is a known medical condition for this change within the blood, and it is called methemoglobinemia.  Methemoglobinemia is the transformation of normal hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) to a deoxygentated state.  Methoglobinemia is caused by the oxidation of the ferrous ion (2+) to the ferric state (3+).  Ferric iron is chemically useless for respiration45.   Methemoglobinema can exist at varying levels, and is usually expressed as a percentage of the total hemoglobin of the blood.  It is a normal state to have approximately one to two percent of methemoglobinemia (ferric ion) in the blood46.

Mild methemoglobinemia, on the order of 2 – 10%, is generally well tolerated by individuals and usual presents no obvious or apparent symptoms47.  There is, nevertheless, a diminished capacity of the blood to carry oxygen at this stage and the effects are not to be dismissed as we shall discuss further.  At levels from 10 -15%, cyanosis will occur with the skin taking on a blue/gray cast or appearance. Higher levels still, e.g, above 20% can cause dizziness, increased heart rate and anxiety.  Levels greater that 50% are associated with breathlessness, fatigue, confusion, drowsiness.  Comas, seizures may also occur at this level.  Methemoglobinemia at 70% or greater is usually fatal48.  

From the results of this paper, it the following hypothesis can be presented.  It it is accepted that the Morgellons growth form is responsible for a partial alteration of the blood from a ferrous to a ferric state, it follows that those with a more serious manifestation of the condition may demonstrate a tendency toward increased levels of methemoglobinemia.  Whether or not this is the case is to be determined by the medical profession at some time and place, however, initial investigative work on this proposal will be presented within this report.   Although only a preliminary and tentative analysis, one spectrometric/chemical analysis made has indicated a potential level of  an approximate 7% oxidation state (3+) in the average hemoglobin measurement of this report.   This level would be without obvious visible symptoms as described earlier.  This analysis requires further examination to substantiate that finding.

Obviously there are many purported and claimed manifestations and variations of the so-called “Morgellons” condition, and this paper is not able to encompass that scope or debate.  The work of this researcher places a focus on what is perceived to be an originating growth form as identified through several years of observation and analysis of various sample types (primarily filamentous in nature.)  This paper will simply not have the capacity to discuss all of the ramifications of diminished oxygen capacity of the blood; it will have to suffice at this point to state that this process of discovery must now begin.  Some occasional comments on the subject will be presented as time and circumstance allow me.  Degrees of hypoxia and its effect upon cellular metabolism will also become a point of investigation in our future.  As a starter, please recall an opening statement that all energy to the body is dependent upon respiration.

Finally, to end this section for the time being, a visual representation of the nature of methemoglobinemia (deoxyhemoglobin) is repeated below for the reader’s reference.

The dexoxygenated heme molecule

The dexoxygenated heme molecule (model) shown with oxygen atoms removed (red) (left)

The oxygenated heme molecule(model) shown with oxygen atoms attached. (right)

hemoglobin animation

Source : Protein Data Bank
http://pdb101.rcsb.org/learn/resource/oxygen-binding-in-hemoglobin-gif

11. Ionization and Bond Disassociation Energy : The Cost of Oxidation:

It requires energy to form molecules49.  It requires energy to remove an electron, i.e., oxidize an element or molecule49.  And it takes energy to break bonds50. What this means, in simple terms, is that the theft of energy from our cells to serve the metabolic requirements of a pathological organism comes at a price to our body and our health.  The removal of an electron is called the ionization energy.  These are referred to as the first ionization energy, second ionization energy, third ionization energy, etc. corresponding to the removal of one, two and three electrons respectively..  There is energy required to remove two electrons from iron in the elemental state to the oxidation state of iron (Fe2+).  This oxidation state is the one that is most commonly found in nature.  To remove an additional electron, and bring iron to the Fe(3+) state requires even more energy.  Oxidation essentially represents the stealing of electrons from one element or molecule by another.  

The first ionization energy for iron is 7.9 electron volts (eV) (~760 kilojoules (kJ) per mole), the second ionization energy is 16.2 eV (1560 kJ  per mole) and the third ionization energy is 30.6 ev (2960 kJ per mole)51.  What this shows us is that it takes almost twice as much energy to remove the electron to change the iron from the ferrous (Fe2+) state to the ferric (Fe3+) state as it did to remove two electrons to change it from the elemental form to the Fe(2+) state.  From an energy standpoint, therefore, the oxidation of iron referred to in this paper requires a relatively strong energy investment.  

To get some sense of what this energy level actually means, let us translate what is happening in the blood to something more tangible for us to visualize.  If we assume a 5% reduction in oxygenated hemoglobin over a three month period (the approximate life cycle of red blood cells), this will translate to an energy requirement of approximately 3240 joules over this three month period.

[Humans have roughly 2.5E13 red blood cells; 280E6 molecules of hemoglobin in each red bllood cell; 7E21 molecules of hemoglobin in each red blood cell; four heme molecules per red blood cell; approx. 2.8E22 Fe2+ iron atoms in the human body; at 5% oxidation 1.4E21 atoms in the Fe(3+) state ; .0023 moles of iron in the Fe(3+) state, .0023(2960kJ/M – 1560kJ/M) = approx. 3260 joules over a three month period.]

It takes approximately one joule of energy to raise an apple over your head.  If these approximate calculations are correct, this would be equal to raising roughly 3000+ apples over your head in a three month period.  This equates to roughly three dozen presses per day; this is not exactly trivial since this energy expended should be serving your own interests vs. the metabolism of a detrimental pathogen.  Regardless of the computations, the energy is stolen energy.  

It also takes energy to break chemical bonds.  In this case, we can at least look at the separation between the iron and oxygen atoms.  The bond dissociation energy for the iron-oxygen bond is 409 kJ per mole52.  Again, even though we are making some approximations, this leads to roughly another 940 joules of energy released in a damaging manner if we assume the same three month period.  Add lifting another 1000 apples to your detriment.  

And lastly, it takes energy to form molecules.  This brings up the entire discussion of ligands again, as new molecules will form with the oxidized iron, many of them harmful to the human body.  For example, the ferricyanide complexes is one of the most likely complexes to form from the altered iron, and it is toxic as well.  To form that complex, or other complexes that result from the spectrochemical series, will require additional energy.  From an energy standpoint alone, you are doing bench presses on a regular basis and your health is suffering in the process.  

There is a cost for the oxidation of the iron in our bodies, and that cost is to one’s health.

12. Bacterial Requirements for Iron in the Blood:

For those patient enough to follow the course of this paper, it is fair to state that significant efforts have been expended, from both a laboratory and a research point of view, to demonstrate that changes in iron and the utilization of iron in a pathogenic sense are at the heart of the Morgellons issue, at least from the perspective of this researcher.  The changes and impact upon the body have been demonstrated and they will continue to be so.  For those that are inclined to accept conclusions more readily from the conventional literature, the following is provided from the section entitled, Chemistry and Life, The Battle for Iron in Living Systems53:

“A bacterium that infects the blood requires a source of iron if it is to grow and reproduce.”

Recognition of the truth and simplicity of this statement may have saved a great deal of time and effort, but this particular reference was not found until the same conclusion was reached from direct experience.  The time and effort has not been lost by any means, as there is now a deeper understanding from whence this statement comes.  Let us now add some complimentary information to the direct knowledge given to us from the statement above.  First of all, it is true that the work does not positively identify the sub-micron spherical originating organism as a known or specific bacterium.  It does, however, seem to be a most relevant consideration.  At this point, it is best to refer the reader to a prior paper that expresses the proposition of essentially an “engineered” organism54. that combines the prokaryote, eukaryote and archaea life forms.    The bacterial form is a subset of this larger life classification system and the above statement holds as true and relevant to the work.  On a more general level, we can delve into the question further and ask whether bacterial forms are commonly involved in the consumption of iron.  The answer is yes.  From a variety of sources, we can only confirm further the findings of the current research; the fact that bacterial forms require iron for their survival is readily verifiable:

“Like their human hosts, bacteria need iron to survive and they must obtain that iron from the environment.  While humans obtain iron primarily through the food they eat, bacteria have evolved complex and diverse mechanisms to allow them access to iron…  Iron is the single most important micronutrient bacteria need to survive… understanding how these bacteria survived within us is a critical element of learning how to defeat them55.”
“Bacteria metabolize iron as a food source and release iron oxide as a waste product…bacterial waste lowers pH56.”
“The term iron bacteria does not refer to a specific genus or species but rather to those bacteria in which reduced iron plays an important role in their metabolism… A great variety of bacteria can be involved in this process.  The “true” iron bacteria are those in which the oxidation of iron is an important source for their metabolic energy.  This group is most often associated with filamentous or stalked forms…57
“Bacterial requirements for growth include sources of energy, “organic” carbon (e.g., sugars and fatty acids) and metal ions (e.g., iron)…..Nutrient Requirements: These include sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and metal ions including iron.  Bacteria secrete small molecules that bind iron (siderophores).  Siderophores (with bound iron) are then internalized via receptors by the bacterial cell58.”
“Siderophores are biosynthetically produced and secreted by many bacteria, yeasts, fungi and plants, to scavenge for ferric ion (Fe3+).  They are selective iron-chelators that have an extremely high affinity for binding this trivalent metal ion….. The emerging overall picture is that ion metabolism plays an extremely important role during bacterial infections.59.”
“The ability of pathogens to obtain iron from transferrins, ferritin, hemoglobin, and other iron-containing proteins of their host is central to whether they live or die..Some invading bacteria respond by producing specific iron chelators – siderophores – that remove the iron from the host sources60.”

“Iron is one of the most common elements in the Earth’s crust and forms a ready oxidation state.  Bacteria use this as a source of energy and as a means of waste disposal.. Iron metabolism is also a significant part of bacterial virulence…It has been established experimentally by injecting iron soluble compounds into test animals with infections that adding more iron causes the bacteria to thrive….Bacteria put out compounds, called siderophores, which attract and bond free iron compounds by chemical processes; these are then oxidized and excreted as a byproduct61.”
“Iron (Fe) has long been a recognized physiological requirement for life, yet for many organisms… its role extends well beyond that of a nutritional necessity.  Fe(II) can function as an electron source for iron-oxidizing microorganisms under both oxic and anoxic conditions and Fe(III) can function as a terminal acceptor under anoxic conditions for iron-reducing organisms62.”
“Given the role of free iron in creating DNA damage, it is unsurprising that bacteria have evolved methods to scavenge it….Despite the sophisticated biochemical and genetic strategies that can be brought to bear upon bacteria, we still know remarkably little about the physical mechanisms of iron transport, storage, and regulation, and virtually nothing about iron trafficking and its insertion into metalloproteins.  These areas are ripe for future work63.”

As a parting comment within this section, there is a class of siderophores produced by certain bacteria that bind in particular to iron in the Fe(3+) state64,65,66.  These siderophores are called enterbactin.   What distinguishes this class is an incredibly strong bond to the iron (i.e., chelation) in the 3+ state,  and it can not be broken through normal physiological processes or with such proteins as transferrin.  This type of siderophore is usually found in Gram-negative forms of bacteria.  Readers may recall that several years ago gram stain tests were repeatedly performed on the bacterial-like organism under study and discussion here.  The results of those tests were Gram-negative.  Enterobactin and ferrichrome therefore emerge as important targets of further research within the iron dilemma.

The journey to the current state of knowledge has been a long one, and for that matter, it has been unnecessarily long.  We can, nevertheless, take some solace in knowing that some findings of importance are before us.  There is also now a stronger sense of direction of what is required and what is to be done.  If you would like to hasten this process, you have the opportunity to do so67.

13. The Oral Filament and Red Wine Reaction Resolved

It has long been a mystery as to why there is such a definite and visible reaction, especially of color, between the oral filament samples and red wine or related solutions.  This mystery has now been resolved  with a combination of investigative chemical research and the knowledge of iron changes in the body.  The reason for the strong reaction is the formation of a metal complex of Fe(3+) in combination with the pigments found in red wine.  Once again, at least some knowledge of coordination chemistry in combination with transition metal characteristics proves fruitful.  Grapes, red wine and many related fruits or vegetables contain a group of pigments called anthocyanins.  A search of the literature will reveal that iron, especially in the ferric state (Fe3+), will form metal complexes with these pigments68,69,70,71,72.  The color of many of these metal complexes is often a deep purple, exactly that which is known to occur in the combination of the oral filaments with the red wine.

It is also of interest to learn that the molecular structure of the complex, i.e, the combination of Fe(3+) with anthocyanins,  has a chemical structure with some similarity to that of ferrichromes.  Ferrichromes are a product of bacterial consumption of iron, and they involve the formation of strong chemical bonds that tie up the iron within a ferric metal complex.  

It is the understanding of the chemistry of iron in its various states along with the important but more complex branch of coordination chemistry that has allowed us to understand the nature of the ferric iron – red wine reaction.  This understanding provides one further level of verification and confirmation of the change of iron that occurs within the body as a direct result of the pathogenic metabolism.

14. Some Health Implications; The Value of the Holistic Approach to Medicine

For those that seek a pill to remedy the dilemmas of the Morgellons “situation”, you must seek elsewhere.  My work will not offer such a simple path for you.  The research of the past several years on the bio-engineering issues has been a journey of education in health, myself included.  Out of this research I have developed a level of respect for the wholistic approach to medicine and for those who practice it well.  Those who have this knowledge coupled with strong foundations of chemistry, biology and physics will earn even greater respect as they are likely to be our better sources for counsel.  

Let us start with some of the controversy in language regarding the issue of a “condition” vs. a “disease”.  As the work indicates that the general population is subject to the pathogenic forms under study, it becomes even a more sensitive issue as we confront our own involvement irrespective of our wishes or personal belief systems.  I will start this discussion with reference to a rather hefty tome, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease73.  This book may not be bedside reading for most of us, but in many ways it should be.  It is a real eye opener for the uninitiated.   For now, let us introduce just a few insights that this reference will provide to us.  First, what pathology actually refers to, in the origin of the word, is suffering.  We can play with semantics all that we wish, but those suffer in a biological sense will need to deal with the reality of the terms pathogen and disease.  Cells, tissues and organs that sustain injury are at the root of the study of pathology.  Study the textbook and reach your own conclusions as to the severity of affliction.  It is a diminishment to the reality and seriousness of the issue if we classify the current situation as a “condition” for our own personal palatabilities and psychological comfort.  It is difficult to deny the classification of “Morgellons” as a disease or as of pathogenic form if you look at the underlying mechanisms of damage that have taken and are taking place.  I may not please the reader but that is not my purpose here; it is to confront and comprehend the reality of our existence be it kind or brutal.  

The next topic concerns what we must read to get started with our education on pathology.  Robbins’ book is roughly 1500 pages long.  If we can digest even a portion of the first 40 pages, we have done ourselves a great service.  It will be found that this introductory section alone will spell out the majority of the specific mechanisms and actions of injury to our health at the cellular level; this foundation will underlie the remainder of the book which will go on to address injury to further organs.  A knowledge of cellular injury is crucial to our understanding of any disease and how it works its damage upon the body.  It is not especially relevant at this stage of our discussion to single out the particular malady at hand; understand the mechanisms of cellular damage in general and tremendous progress can be made in the path to better health and health understanding.  This particular book is more than 20 years old and yet the level of knowledge on how disease damages the body is evident, open and obvious to those that are willing to take a look at it.  This knowledge can be applied to any circumstance of illness that I can foresee, past or present, including our current problems.  It will be to our benefit to invest this effort for what awaits us as we learn to apply that knowledge.  A standard and comprehensive book on pathology is at the very heart of medical knowledge and application; those with a wholistic approach to medicine that seek the source of a problem versus a prescribed band-aid deserve our greatest respect and honor.  This particular chapter of this paper will never be completed as the pathways and connections within the body never cease to amaze me.  I am an infant in these wonders myself and must admit my own negligence with respect to the understandings of physiology, disease and health. In many ways, the course to better health has been spelled out for us many years, even decades, ago and it is our job to at least acquaint ourselves with the work that has already been done for us.  

This preparation established, let us at least briefly mention what the four systems of damage (i.e., vulnerabilities) are to the cells in our bodies through disease74:  These criteria form the very basis of pathology:

1. Damage to the cell wall or membrane.

2. Aerobic respiration (i.e., oxygen based respiration) and the production of energy within the cells.

3. The creation of enzymes and proteins within the cells.

4. Preservation of the genetic integrity of the cells.

My work indicates, at this point, that every one of these critical factors underlying damage to our bodies is underway or is likely to be underway within the mechanisms of the Morgellons pathogenic forms.  It is much harder to prove that any one of them is not involved than it is to make the case that they are in effect.  If this is to be accepted, the very core, foundation and definition of “disease” is in full bloom here and it is only a diversion to avoid that unpleasant reality.  The necessary job is to understand the forces at work in great detail from a biochemical perspective and then get to work on the solutions to the problems that they pose for us a species and as a whole.  The stakes are serious enough; make your decision as to when and how your are going to become involved in your own survival and those that follow.  

Let us give some introductory examples or thoughts as to how and why these factors are likely to be involved.

In terms of damage to the cell wall or membrane, the damage to the red blood cell walls has been aptly documented.  Please see the previous paper entitled  “A Mechanism of Blood Damage75“.

In terms of aerobic respiration, it is also now clear that the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is expected to decreaseThe prospect of this finding was first recorded in March of this year.  Sufficient opportunity has been afforded to return to laboratory studies during the past few weeks and the original findings have been confirmed at a higher level.  In the interim, a greater understanding of the likely molecular structure and bonding arrangement of the proteinaceous complex has been deduced, or at least hopefully this is the case.  Sufficient resources, had they become available at an earlier time, would have rapidly advanced the painstaking studies that have brought us to the current state of knowledge.  This state of knowledge remains in the majority, highly unfinished, but it is believed that an important level of progress has likely been achieved under the current work. as a result of the increased oxidation level (Fe3+) of iron with the blood.  Recall that oxygen does not bind to hemoglobin when the iron is in the Fe (3+) state.  If the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is diminished, the production of energy (ATP) is also expected to be diminished.

With regard to enzyme (most enzymes are proteins) and protein production within the cells, it is a fact that essentially all cellular reactions that take place within the body require enzymes for those reactions to occur76.   And, as an example of the tie between iron and enzymes, approximately one-third of all enzymes require metal ions77 and iron is also an essential component of many proteins and enzymes78.   If cellular metabolism is interfered with (i.e, the production of energy by the mitochondria) then the catalytic reactions involving enzymes within the cells are disrupted.

Lastly, oxidation in the body produces free radicals79,80; an excess of oxidation can exacerbate this issue.  Free radicals can damage DNA and can result in the alteration of a given gene81.  Iron is involved in the production of  DNA82. The alteration of the iron state of the blood can therefore also jeopardize the genetic integrity of the cell.  

What we see, therefore is that any alteration or interference of iron metabolism in the body leads to serous and systemic degradation in human health and functioning.  In addition, the very mechanisms of damage (as defined from a pathological perspective) to the cells are identified as being factors of the Morgellons situation and they fully satisfy the definition of a diseased organism.  It is this comprehensive and systemic effect upon the body which necessitates the call to integrative and wholistic medicine with a strong foundation in biochemistry.  It is not anticipated at this point that a myopic perspective on either symptoms or effects is likely to be beneficial at the level that is required to establish health.

15. Identification of physiological conditions that are in probable conjunction with the condition:

Based upon the understanding that has been presented thus far, there exists a set of physiological conditions that is expected to be more likely to occur in the “Morgellons affected individual” than in the general population.   It is a probabilistic offering only.  This information is not intended to be diagnostic in any sense and the postulates are presented solely as a result of analytic and observational research.  The information is offered to the medical community for their evaluation and assessment as the issue is approached with greater seriousness in the future.  There is no guarantee or implied guarantee that any of the following symptoms or conditions will occur; only that they may deserve consideration by the medical community as the situation is researched further.  The list of candidate effects upon the body may or may not include:

1. An increased level of acidity in the body (may be most easily assessed by urine pH testing).

2. Diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

3. Lower energy levels due to interference in the ATP production cycle; greater fatigue.

4. The presence of filament structures (ferric iron – anthocyanin complexes) within oral samples.

5. Recent research indicates that the urinary tract may be equally affected with the presence of the filament structures.

6. The presence of a bacterial-like component (chlamydia-like) within or surrounding the red blood cells.

7. Chronic decreased body temperature.

8. Respiratory problems, including proclivities toward a chronic cough or walking pneumonia-like symptoms.

9. Skin manifestation at the more developed levels (the skin is an excretory organ).

10. The impact of increased oxidation, greater free radical presence and their damaging effects upon the body.

11. Tooth decay or loss.

12. The smoking population may exhibit an increased incidence of the condition due to additional oxygen inhibition within the blood.

13. Liver toxicity, gall bladder and bile duct complications.

14. Potential reduction in arterial transport; increased blood pressure.

15. Potential proclivity toward increased cancer incidence due to an expected increase in aneroboic metabolism.

16. Additional unidentified systemic damage in conjunction with the pathological mechanisms of cell injury identified.

16. A Proposed Spectral Analysis Project:

A relatively simple method to assess whether or not the oxygen content of the blood is abnormally low has been created.  The method uses the combination of an ordinary computer scanner along with statistical analysis.   Before this method is outlined further, I would like to give due credit to Fathima Shihana, BSc with the authored paper entitled “A Simple Quantitative Bedside Test to Determine Methemoglobin” from the Annals of Emergence Medicine83.  This paper has served as the inspiration for the approach described here.  

A spectrometer is a relatively costly instrument and it availability is limited.  The paper above describes a method whereby an ordinary scanner can be used to establish a calibrated relationship between the color of blood (as recorded by a color scanner) and the loss of oxygen content (methoglobinemia) within that same blood.  The cleverness of the idea resides in the fact that a color scanner, along with suitable analysis software, is essentially a spectrometer in its own right.  Any color combination may be broken down into quantitative measurements of the red, blue and green channels of that color, and a scanner ingeniously serves as a readily acceptable spectrometer in its own right.  

The paper referred to deals with situations of methoglobinemia that be lethal or extremely injurious to life; the project here is operating on a much more subtle level in an effort to determine both lesser magnitudes of the condition (i.e., asymptomatic) and finer gradations within.  Without the advantage of calibration against known lab standards, the scanner still serves as an excellent and simple tool for relative changes in the condition of the blood.  Highly oxygenated blood is a rich red in color.  Oxygen deprived blood is more bluish and color and blood devoid of oxygen is brown.  Our goal with the current project is to be able to determine relatively minor (but nevertheless significant) shifts in the color of blood from red toward the blue portion of the spectrum.

As shown below, a modern computer color scanner can be used as a three channel (red, green, blue) spectrometer and it can be used to establish a highly unique signature for an appropriate sample.  The proposed project of blood spectral analysis processes the sample data in a unique fashion, but the spirit of the research paper referred to above remains the foundation of the approach.

Ferric Hydroxide Scan

x.

In practice, it has been found that the red channel is sufficient to identify color shifts within the blood that indicate a decreased oxygen supply to the blood; If you would like to participate in this research project, please send correspondence to info@carnicominstitute.org and the particulars can be described.  The only essential requirement to participate in the project is that of a color scanner.  Please be aware that no individual feedback or assessment will be provided to those that participate in this project; any data will be handled in a statistical sense and any data analysis will be presented to the public in an anonymous fashion.  If the medical community becomes involved in this research the prospects of discussion may be able to widen.  

What follows below is an example of the processing that the project entails, including the scan of a drop of blood by two separate individuals and the statistical processing of a group of individuals that have contributed to the research project:

individual A

Individual A.

A scan of the blood of the individual.  This individual has no outward manifestations of the “Morgellons” symptoms.  The red channel of the spectrum has been analyzed from a statistical perspective.  The individual has a relative rank in the +86%  (-100% to +100%) percentile, indicating a shift of the color toward the red portion of the spectrum.  This dominance of the red portion of the spectrum indicates more highly oxygenated blood within the group sample.

individual b

Individual B.

A scan of the blood of the individual.  This individual has stated and demonstrated significant skin manifestations of the “Morgellons” symptoms.  The red channel of the spectrum has been analyzed from a statistical perspective.  The individual has a relative rank in the -92% percentile (-100% to 100%), indicating a shift of the color toward the blue portion of the spectrum.  This shift towards the blue portion of the spectrum indicates a decrease in the oxygen level of the blood of the individual. This finding is in accordance with the primary thesis of this paper.

spreadsheet

The spreadsheet analysis for the sample group.  The worksheet analyzes the statistical properties of the sample group (11 individuals) with respect to the average spectrums of the red, green and blue channels.  In practice, it is found that the red channel shifts in the spectrum are sufficient to characterize the deviations in color.  The color changes, or shifts, are an expression of the oxygen content of the blood.  The sample group at this time is limited and also has a high probability of being polarized with a limited data set.  A broader sample group is expected to reveal a more even distribution of oxygen supply and deficiency.  If you would like to contribute to this research project, please contact info@carnicominstitute.org for the particulars.  No individual data will be provided to participants; all analysis and presentation will be from an anonymous statistical perspective.

.

17. A Review of Proposed Mitigation Strategies:

With the understanding of how a malady affects the body, we are in a stronger position to develop strategies to mitigate the damage.  The better approach is to put a stop to the problem, but that requires a broader coordination and alliance than has been achieved thus far.  We can at least consider and establish some defenses while the forces of political and social organization continue to arm themselves.  What follows here are merely suggestions to consider; they are in no way to interpreted as therapeutic or diagnostic in approach.  Each of the following strategies has been developed as a direct response to laboratory conditions or academic study; they are not formulated within any formal medical framework.  Each individual is responsible for consulting with the medical professionals of their choice and the following information is provided solely for consideration within that consultation.  Many of these items have been mentioned previously and the list has accumulated in a gradual fashion.  Understanding the extent of the problem, it is not intended that the “list” is complete; in fact it would seem that it is only a beginning.  It will be noticed that many of these strategies can apply to human health in general.  The primary mechanisms of many diseases are actually few in number and these have been enumerated in the discussion of pathology above.

All being said, let us proceed with some strategies for mitigation of the “condition“.

1. Alkalization of the body would appear to be a beneficial practice in general with respect to disease84,85,86.  It has been identified that the organism flourishes within an acidic environment87,88. It is also known that biochemical processes usually take place within a specific pH range, including the growth of pathogenic forms89,90,91.

2.  The research indicates that excessive oxidation is detrimental to health.  This topic has also been discussed previously in an earlier paper92. Common oxidizers include the bleaches, peroxides and ozone.  The research indicates, from the vantage point of this researcher, that internal use of these substances is likely to be harmful to human health.  We do not solve the problem of oxidation within the body by necessarily increasing the intake of oxygen.  Indeed, one of primary arguments of this paper is that the blood of the affected individual has been oxidized in a fashion that has the net effect of decreasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.  Excessive and misplaced oxidation also creates free radicals, which as been noted, “wreak havoc in the living system.”We do not solve that problem by taking more oxygen; we work on the problem by hindering the oxidative process.  The manner in which this process is conducted in the chemical world is known as reduction.  In common terms, the appropriate term is that of an anti-oxidant, and many of us are familiar with that parlance.

 I  take stock in the following statement, again from Coltrane93:

“Once free radicals are formed, how does the body get rid of them?  There are several systems that contribute to termination or inactivation of free radical reactions:

1. ….Antioxidants (.e.g, vitamins, glutathion, transferrin..) 

2. Enzymes.”  

The statements here are direct and understandable and come from a standard textbook in pathology. It is relatively straightforward that if a problem of excessive oxidation exists within the body, one should strongly consider the role that anti-oxidants play in reversing those effects.  It is equally inadvisable, from this researcher’s point of view, to compound the issue with the addition of known strong oxidizers internal to the body  

Vitamins, across the board (A, B, C, D,E) are powerful antioxidants.  An additional powerful antioxidant identified in the research is that of glutathion.  The role of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the inhibition of the culture growth has already been described.  There remain many additional anti-oxidants of importance in human health94.

3. Increasing the utilization and absorption of existing iron within the body.  Iron is certainly one of the most important elements of the body.  Referring to the Linus Pauling Institute95,

“Iron has the longest and best described history among all the micronutrients. It is a key element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. In humans, iron is an essential component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes.”

One of the findings from the study of coordination chemistry described above is that iron has the ability to bond with numerous other molecules.  For example, iron (in the Fe2+ state) preferentially bonds to oxygen.  If the iron is altered to the Fe(3+) state. it will no longer bond to oxygen.  In this modified state, the iron will then form additional bonds to other molecules, many of which are harmful as has also been described above.  The idea of a chelator is to keep the oxygen bound in a protected state where it can not bind so easily with other, often harmful, molecules.  Heme itself, within hemoglobin, is a classic example of a chelator.  If our iron has been altered to where it becomes free or bound to other molecules (potentially harmful ligands), the solution to that problem would not seem to be to take more iron, any more than increasing the oxygen intake is expected to resolve a problem of oxidation.

The more effective solution would appear to be to keep the iron in a chelated state, where it is bound and protected by the expected molecules and proteins such as heme in the body.  This therefore suggests that increased attention would be devoted to the study and role of chelators in human health.  It does not seem reasonable that we would automatically pursue a path of increasing iron intake; indeed this process can be quite harmful and dangerous to human health.  Again, the importance of consultation with the medical professionals of choice is unequivocally stated; the stakes of the issues we are speaking of are of the highest importance.

4. The inhibition of the growth of iron-consuming bacteria (and bacteria-archea like) forms.

We know now that the organism uses iron for its existence and growth.  It appears that iron in the further oxidized state (i.e, Fe3+) is of primary benefit to the organism.  We also know, in retrospect, that iron is a critical metabolic element within many of the bacteria (or bacteria-archaea like forms).  One strategy that develops with such organism is that of inhibiting the ability of the organism to access or metabolize the iron.  This once again brings up the idea of a chelator.  This topic has also been discussed in an earlier paper, and introduced the role of human breast milk and its resistance to bacterial forms in infant growth96. Lactoferrin (found in whey) was identified as a potential strong chelating protein within that research.  Transferrin is another protein chelator within the human digestive tract that serves a similar purpose, i.e., binding of the iron and consequently it becomes less accessible to iron-consuming bacteria (or bacteria-archea like forms).

5. Improving the flow of bile in the system to further alkalize the body and aid the digestive system. The liver, the gall bladder and the bile duct play an extremely important role in alkalizing the digestive tract.  For those that demonstrate a persistent acidic condition within the body it may be beneficial to learn of the importance of bile production and its alkalizing function.  An excellent introduction to the physiology of this important aspect of human health may be found at the following site:

Video Series: Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct Physiology
(www.balancedhealthtoday.com/glytamins.html)

An acidic condition can easily be created with a blockage of the bile duct, as the bile is the alkalizing agent within the intestine.  Gall bladder removal and gall stones appear to be a frequent occurrence; this would suggest that overloads of toxicity to the liver could well be at the root of this problem.  Non-invasive methods of breaking down gall stones (conglomeration of bile) are available to consider, such as Chanca Piedra (breakstone).  If the bile flow is restricted, an acidic condition within the body is expected to exist.  Knowledge of the physiology of the liver, gall bladder, bile duct and its relationship to digestion may be beneficial in mitigating the consequences of acidity within the body and digestive system.

6. Detoxification of the liver (toxin removal and the breakdown of lipids(fats)).  One of the many functions of the liver is to break down fats with the use of bile.  If the bile is not being produced or flowing within the digestive system, the fats will accumulate within the liver. The liver also removes toxins from the body.  If the liver is not functioning correctly (e.g, from an accumulation of fats or the lack of bile flow) serious consequences to health will ensue.

As an aside and as an unreported event, I received information indirectly many years ago from a U.S. Naval pathologist.  This pathologist was provided certain microphotographs of blood samples that I had taken.  The research was not mature to the point that it is now, however, it was mentioned by the pathologist that the condition I was reporting is indeed commonly being observed.  This pathologist, to the best of my recollection, attributed the source of the problem to the failure of a particular enzyme within the liver.  At this point I cannot recall the name of the specific enzyme.  It is nevertheless of great interest to understand that the liver now exists as one of the primary targets of systematic failure within the Morgellons research that is underway.  

There are many serious consequences to a liver that is overloaded with toxins.  Another example of damage, beyond fatty accumulation, is what is called lipid peroxidation.  Lipid peroxidation is caused by the presence of free radicals and it involves the deterioration of fats through an oxidation process.  In layman terms, the situation can be equated to that of rancid, or spoiling fats.

The value of knowledge on detoxification of the liver now becomes apparent.  The free flow of bile (indicated by peristalsis, or rhythmic contractions of the intestine) may be one of the first conditions to indicate improved digestive activity.  Liver detoxification is an important subject in its own right and is likely worthy of serious investigation, study and application by each of us.  The purpose here is to indicate simply another aspect of human health that is deeply enmeshed in the path to better health, and that is a smoothly functioning liver.

7. Enzymes.  What we are learning here is that the road to better health and the prevention of disease, regardless of the source, requires an integrative process.  It may require more effort than many of us are willing to expend.  We soon become aware, especially when we seek answers to the serious problems posed above, that we must start to learn how the body actually works.  We must start to learn the relationships of one part of the system to another.  It is a fascinating and hopefully beneficial process if you are willing to pursue that pathway, but it will not be accomplished without effort on your part.  It requires the same of me.

Another simple example of another important relationship is the following.  Essentially every chemical reaction that takes place in the body requires the use of enzymes.  With an understanding and appreciation of this profound statement, my appreciation for understanding the nature and role of enzymes is now earnest.  Enzymes are actually an amazing chemical phenomena; they essentially cause something to happen that would not happen otherwise, and the enzymes themselves are not even changed in the process.  They provide an alternative energy pathway to get something done, and with the overall reaction requiring less energy in the process.   One analogy given is that of a tunnel through a mountain;  you can either climb over the mountain and expend a great deal of energy and effort (and maybe never make it over the top) or you can go through a tunnel if one happens to be there.  An enzyme is somewhat analogous to the tunnel though the mountain.

An example of an enzymatic, or catalytic, reaction, is shown in the video segment within this report and above.  In this case, hydrogen peroxide is added to iron (ferric) oxide.  What the observer sees is a vigorous bubbling reaction.  What is occurring in the reaction is that the hydrogen peroxide is being decomposed, or broken down into oxygen and water.  The iron in the reaction serves as the catalyst.  If you study this reaction long enough, you will find the iron oxide is not changed no matter how long you watch it.  It is counter-intuitive, as when we see vigorous bubbles reacting to iron, we expect the iron to visibly change or deteriorate in the process.  It does not.  But the reaction would not occur without the iron present.

[Edit : Dec 01 2011 :

A drop of one or two degrees in body temperature can have a marked effect on body metabolism and enzyme activity.  It is expected that this level of decrease in body temperature could correspondingly decrease enzyme activity on the order of 10% to  even 40%97,98.  As we have learned of the one to one correspondence between metabolism and enzyme activity, major impairment of our metabolism and functioning is expected with decreased body temperatures.  There is an accumulated body of information that indicates that the body temperatures of the general population may now well be lower by this same amount of one to two degrees. This topic exists as a focal point of future research.]

Now that we see more clearly the importance and function of enzymes, we can also understand why a lacking enzyme within the liver might be very serious business.  It therefore behooves us to add an additional field of study to our pursuits in biochemistry and health restoration, and this is the study of enzymes.  We must learn what enzymes are likely to be involved within the systems that are known to be failing (circulation, respiration, digestion, etc) and what can be done to restore the deficiencies.  Once again, I can see no alternative to holistic and integrative medicine and health research in the solution to the problems before us.


In summary, I now see five major challenges before us with the “Morgellons” issue based upon the research that I have conducted to date:

1. The iron within the blood, to a partial degree, is being changed in a way that it no longer binds with oxygen at the normal levels that are expected.  This same iron is being used by the organism to sustain its own existence and growth.  Diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is therefore expected to occur in coincidence with the severity of the condition.

2. The presence of free radicals are likely to increase in number and extent as a result of the oxidation process mentioned immediately above.  Free radicals are known to “wreak havoc in the living system”, as has been mentioned earlier.

3. The altered iron (Fe3+ vs Fe2+)  now binds to other molecules, many of them toxic or harmful to health, instead of oxygen as is expected.  Several of these alternative ligands are known respiratory inhibitors, and therefore further exacerbate the failures in respiration.

4. The bacteria-like form, which appears to be at the origin of the pathogen, itself binds to oxygen to support its own existence.  This is in addition to the consumption of iron already identified.  This combination further increases the severity of consequence to human health.

5. The presence of the organism, as encountered, appears to be extensive within the body.  It appears to occur within the circulatory, digestive and urinary systems as a minimum.

A few, and only a few, suggestions have been given about how these problems can be approached.  These strategies are by no means intended to encompass all needs before us.  The will hopefully, however, provide a stepping stone to the further research that exists before us.  These problems will never be solved with ignorance or apathy.  I encourage you to participate in the process of resolution and accountability, and to support those who act on that same behalf.  

Sincerely,

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 15, 2011

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.


Carnicom Institute

Clifford E Carnicom
(born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19 1953)

References:

1. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Dr. P.K. Joseph, PhysicianByte.com

2. Hemoglobin, Wikepedia, July 2011.

3. Hemoglobin, Chemistry Explained, N.M. Senozan.

4. Iron in Cell Culture, Sigma-Aldrich, sigmaaldrich.com.

5. Biochemstry Demystified, Sharon Walker, PhD, 2008, McGraw Hill, p. 264.

6. Iron, University of North Carolina at Pembroke.

7. Determination of Iron with 1,10-Phenanthroline, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Department of Chemistry.

8. Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal, C.E. Carnicom, February 2011.

9. Ibid., Carnicom.

10. IUPAC Gold Book – Fenton Reaction, IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology.

11. Qualitative Analysis Tests, Chemical Identification Tests for Positive Ions, Phil Brown, PhD.

12. Qualitative Analysis Tests, Chemical Identification Tests for Negative Ions, Phil Brown, PhD.13. Easy Chemistry, Josehp A. Mascetta, M.S., 2009, Barron’s Educational Series, pp. 373-375.

13. Definition of Coordinate Covalent Bond, Everything Bio, An All Encompassing Bio Resource.

14. Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry, 2000, Oxford University Press, p 120.

15. A-Z Chemistry, Andrew Hunt, 2003, by McGraw-Hill, p. 101-102.

16. Coordinate Covalent Bond – Definition, www.chemistry-dictionary.com.

17. Modern Biology, Albert Towle, 1999 by Holt, Rinehart & Winston. pp.939, 1108.

18. Biology, Neil A Campbell, PhD. 1993 by Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co. p. 843.

19. Campbell, p 844.

20. Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal, Carnicom.

21.Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Dr. P.K. Joseph.

22. Ibid., Joseph.

23. Morgellons, A Fourth Match, Carnicom, 2008.

24. Morgellons: The Wine-Peroxide Test, Carnicom, 2008.

25. Morgellons: The Extent of the Problem, Carnicom 2010.

26. Morgellons: A Status Report, Carnicom, 2009.

27. Chemistry Made Simple, John T. Moore, Ed. D., 2004, Broadway Books, p 134-135.

28. Foundations of College Chemistry, Morris Hein, 1996 by Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., p 157-158.

29. American Druggist, Volume 22, Google Books, p 197.

30. Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid, Chemistry Comes Alive, Volume 5.

31. Growing Metal Crystals; Electrolysis of  Metal Salts, Derek’s Mundane Web.

32. Electroplating, Electrochemistry Encyclopedia,  Case Western Reserve University, Ernest B. Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences.

33. General Chemistry, Linus Pauling, Dover Publishing, 1988, pp. 512-520.

34.Can Iron Ore Be Extracted by Electrolyis?, Yahoo Answers, Malaysia.

35. Iron (III) Oxide, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol 78, No. 10, October 2001.

36. Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide and 2-chlorophenol with iron oxides, Water Research, Vol. 35, Issue 9, June 2001, pp.2291-2299. Abstract.

37. Ligand, Wikipedia.

38. Thinkwell Chemistry, Transition Elements, Dr. Dean Harmon and Dr. Gordon Yee.

39. Spectrochemical Series,  ChemWiki, University of California at Davis.

40. Ibid., Ligand, Wikipedia.

41. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry, Chapter 20 Notes, University of Washington, p.5.

42. Ibid, Walker., Chemicals That Impede Hemoglobin Functions – Poisons. P 272

43. Ibid., Thinkwell Chemistry.

44. Altered Blood, Carnicom, Jun 2011.

45. Definition of Methemoglobinemia, MedicineNet.com.

46. Causes and Clinical Significance of Increased Methemoglobin, Asociacion Espanola de Farmaceuticos Analistas., www.aefa.es

47. Ibid., AEFA.

48. Ibid., AEFA.

49. Ibid., Walker, p. 27.

49. Respiration, Royal Society of Chemistry,  www.rsc.org

50. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions,  Avogadro Web Site, www.avogadro.co.uk

51. Ionization Potentials of Atoms and Atomic Ions, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd Edition, CRC Press, p 10-175.

52. Properties of Atoms, Radicals and Ions, Table 4.11 Bond Dissociation Energies, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Buenos Aires.

53. Chemistry, The Central Science, Theodore L. Brown, PhD, 2006 by Pearson Education – Prentice Hall, p. 1036.

54. Morgellons: A New Classification. Carnicom. Feb. 2010.

55. How Some Bacteria May Steal from their Human Hosts, Science Daily, Aug 2008.

56. Do Bacteria Affect the Rusting of Iron?,  Douglas Bintzler, www.ehow.com

57. Iron Bacteria,BioVir Laboratories, Inc., www.biovir.com.

58. Bacteriology – Chapter Three – Nutrition, Growth and Energy Metabolism, Dr. Alvin Fox, Microbiology and Immunology On-line, University of South Carolina School of Medicine.

59. Siderophore Uptake in Bacteria and the Battle for Iron with the Host; A Bird’s Eye View, Chu BC, Biometals, Aug 23. 2010., Abstract.

60. Iron Metabolism in Pathogenic Bacteria, Colin Ratledge, Annual Review of Microbiology, Vol 54. p. 881-941, Abstract.

61. Iron Metabolism Bacteria, Ken Burnside, www.ehow.com

62. Microorganisms Pumping Iron; Anaerobic Microbial Iron Oxidation and Reduction, Karrie A Weber, Nature Reviews Microbiology, Oct. 2006, Abstract.

63. Free Iron in Bacteria, Jim Imlay PhD, Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaing, Society for Radical Biology and Medicine.

64. Topic 6, Coordination Compounds, Georgia Tech University, Chemistry and Biochemistry, www.chemistry.gatech.edu.

65.Enterobactin, Wikipedia.

66. Siderophore Electrochemistry: Relation to Intracellular Iron Release Mechanism, Proceedings National Academy of Science, Vol. 75, No 8, pp. 3551-3554. Aug 1978, Chemistry.

67. Carnicom Institute, www.carnicominstitute.org

68. A Spectrofluorimetric Sensor Based on Grape Skin Tissue for Determination of Iron(III), Minghui Zhang, Bulletin Chemical Society of Ethiopia 2010 24(1), 31-37.

69. The Role of Iron and Tion in Discoloration of Berry and Red Beet Juices, Heikki Pyysalo, Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmitteluntersuchung Und – Forschung A, Volume 153, Number 4, 224-233. Abstract.

70. Blue Metal Complex Pigments Involved in Blue Flower Color, Kosaku Takeda, Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences, Vol 82 (2006), No. 4, p 142-154. Abstract.

71. Determination of Anthocyanins in Red Wine Using a Newly Developed Method Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, A. Soriano, Food Chemistry, Vol. 104, Issue 3, 2007, P1295-1303. Abstract.

72. Iron-Polyphenol Complex Formation and Skin Discoloration in Peaches and Nectarines, Guiwen Cheng, Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol 122, Jan. 1997, p. 95-99.

73. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, Ramzi S. Cotran, M.D., 1989, W. B. Saunders Company, 4th Edition

74. Ibid., Cotran, p 3.

75. A Mechanism of Blood Damage, C.E. Carnicom, Dec. 2009.

76. Enzymes, Cliffs Notes, www.cliffsnotes.com

77. Ibid., Walker. p 185.  

78.  Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute., Oregon State University.

79. Ibid., Johnson.

80. Antioxidants, Better Health Channel, Victorian (Australia) State Government.

81. Ibid., Walker, p 169.

82. Ibid., Linus Pauling Institute.

83. A Simple Quantitative Bedside Test to Determine Methemoglobin, Fathima Shihana, BSc, South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 55, No 2. Feb 2010.

84. Acidity, Disease and Cancer, Health News, http://www.healthnews-nz.com

85. Ibid., Cotran, p. 4.

86. Body Acidity, Disease Prevention and More About Aspartame, Stephen Sampson, www.associatedcontent.com.

87. Morgellons: A Discovery and A Proposal, C.E. Carnicom, Jun. 2011.

88. Morgellons: In the Laboratory, C.E. Carnicom, Jun. 2011.

89. Biochemistry, Philip Kuchel, PhD, (2009, McGraw-Hill, 32).

90. Biochemistry for Dummies, John Moore, EdD, (2008, Wiley Publishing, 29).

91. Brown, Steven; Chemistry 102a Laboratory Manual, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 1996., p 125.

92 Ibid., A Discovery and A Proposal, C.E. Carnicom.

93. Ibid., Cotran, p. 12.

94.  Ibid., A Discovery and A Proposal, C.E. Carnicom.

95. Ibid., Linus Pauling Institute.

96. Ibid., Morgellons: In the Laboratory, C.E. Carnicom.

97. Temperature Effects – Introduction to Enzymes, Worthington Biochemical Corporation, www.worthington-biochem.com

98.The Cold Body Page, http://www.mall-net.com/mcs/coldbody.html.

MORGELLONS : ALTERED BLOOD

MORGELLONS : ALTERED BLOOD
Clifford E Carnicom
June  17 2011

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

Analysis shows that the primary organism (or pathogen) characteristic of the “Morgellons” condition, as isolated and identified by this researcher,  causes a signficant biochemical change in the nature of human  blood in which it resides. The dramatic change in the character of the blood has also presented through visible observation for several years, but this change is now objectively and directly measurable through the use of spectral analysis.  This change in the general character of human blood, as it has been measured from several individiuals, is regarded as highly significant and expressive of a potential fundamental change in the human condition.   The representative change in the character of the spectrum is shown immediately below:

hemoglobin comparison

The above shows the nature of the change and of the problem.  All matter reacts in a unique fashion to electromagnetic energy which, in this case, is visible light.  Hemoglobin, (the primary protein in human blood cells), has such a unique and characteristic spectrum over the visible light range.  This expected, normal, or reference spectrum of hemoglobin is shown with the black line in the graph above1.  This spectrum shows how a substance or element reacts to energy, and the locations of the peaks in the graph are where the hemoglobin absorbs the most energy in the visible range.  In this case, this should be at approximately 414, 542 and 576 nanometers respectively.  There are important variations to this expectation, and they pose serious problems that are to be confronted.

The red line in the graph shows the average hemoglobin spectrum as measured within a set of nine essentially random individuals, ranging from approximately 23 to 70 years of age.  The sample size may be increased further in the future but statistical significance is nevertheless already attained.  Such a monumental change in the basic nature and character of a fundamental and crucial protein within the human body is a manifestation of significant biochemical changes within that same body. By no measure of a “normal” state of health would such a change be regarded as within “acceptable” or “expected” boundaries.  The fundamental nature of the protein, i.e., blood, has been changed in the case presented.  This researcher continues to contend that state of the blood of an individual is one of the most reliable, if not the most reliable, indicators of the existence and severity of the so-called “Morgellons” condition.

Future work and papers will focus on the interpretation of the nature of this change, and the development of a spectral method to indicate those individuals that may be subject to greater risk of existence of the condition or of more dramatic changes in the blood of the individual.  No medical inferences are to be made from this research, and it is considered to be of analytical utility only.  The medical community is invited to share in the collaboration or examination of this research as it perceived to be of benefit or not.  The spectral methods under development are anticipated to be of value in the monitoring or measurement of change of the condition in a non-invasive manner.  

The graphs below will provide further insight into the spectral development process, and they are provided as a supplement to the primary finding reported above.

hemoglobin reference

One of the ironies of the current research is that establishing a reference spectrum for hemoglobin, from current human blood samples, is problematic.  At this point none of the human blood samples studied are able to reproduce the expected spectrum of hemoglobin.  Each sample examined thus far demonstrates significant deviation from this expectation, as will also be described further below.  This finding, now from a spectral perspective, is actually in line with the concerns expressed by this researcher some time past, and this is that the general population appears to be subject to the so-called “Morgellons” condition to varying degree.  The heart of this research, then and now, is upon a particular organism repeatedly identified in the blood of all samples observed, along with oral filament samples that are also characteristic of the condition.  As such, it has actually been necessary to develop the “reference” hemoglobin spectrum from the literature, as no “pure” or live case is available to me at this time.  The graph above is such a set of reference spectrums that have been developed from the literature on the subject2.  The concentration of a substance can also affects its spectrum, and thus a process has been generalized to determine an appropriate spectrum for various concentration levels.

culture spectra

The graphs is an example of how concentration can affect the spectrum of a substance; this set of graphs shows the spectrum of the cultured organism over a fairly broad range of concentrations.  It has been discovered that low concentration levels of the culture (sodium hydroxide and heat preparation, as described earlier) do not sufficiently portray the more dramatic spectral characteristics of the organism.  This deeper examination itself was prompted by the appearance of an additional prominent peak and additional spectral influences observed within more concentrated blood samples.  The important relationships between the spectra of the culture shown immediately above and its impact upon the blood will become more apparent to us as further research is described.  In the interim, readers are invited to examine the patterns implicit between the reference hemoglobin spectrum, the spectra of the cultures, and the average spectrum of blood as it is being reported at the onset of this article.  The graph to follow at the end of this paper will show the consolidation of these influences.

blood spectra

At an introductory level, this graph reveals the summary effect of the culture organism upon the blood.  Shown above is what is proving itself to be a representative sample of a human blood spectrum under various concentration levels.  Important insights may be gained by looking at this graph and how the character of the spectrum varies with respect to the concentration of the blood.  It will be found to be equally insightful to examine how the spectrum of the cultured organism (as shown in the prior graph) also varies with respect to concentration levels.  The greatest insight will be gained by combining both studies.

It will be observed, in general, that the greater the concentration of the organism within the blood, the more significant the impact is upon the hemoglobin, or blood of the individual.  This is, of course, a perfectly logical statement, but spectral analysis now provides us with a tool to more quantitatively assess that impact.  This will also, of course, be one of the major benefits of the spectral analysis of the condition that is now underway.

The photographs above revert to the alternative method of investigating the nature of the problem, and this is by direct observation of the blood.  This has been the historical basis for most of the work on this site until recent assistance to the Carnicom Institute (much gratitude is extended) permitted the appropriation of helpful instrumentation.  The larger structures are red blood cells, at approximately 5000x magnification.  What is essentially being recorded here is the saturation of the surrounding blood plasma with the organism that is under study and as it has been repeatedly described on this site.  This organism is at the sub-micron level and it is responsible for the culture spectra that have been shown in this report.   At this stage both observational and instrumental techniques are available to study the nature of  the “Morgellons” condition, and all information indicates a consistent and significant alteration of the basic nature, biochemical properties, and physical condition of the human blood.

Clifford E Carnicom
(born Clifford Bruce Stewart Jan 19 1953)

References:

1. Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin, Scott Prahl, Oregon Medical Laser Center.

2. Ibid., Prahl.

A NEW FORM : FREQUENCY INDUCED DISEASE?

A NEW FORM : FREQUENCY INDUCED DISEASE?
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 08 2011

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

A new, or modified, form of cultured growth has been developed from human oral filament samples that are characteristic of the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  Three unique features characterize this particular filament type of culture growth:

1. The growth rate is explosive, transforming itself from a film layer to a dense sheet of filaments as shown below within a 24 hour period.

2.  The growth type, and/or the growth rate, appears to be dependent upon the introduction of a specific visible light frequency range into the culture process.

3. The size, i.e., diameter, of the “filaments” is much greater than that previously studied in detail on this site.

The photographs from the laboratory session will now be described in greater detail below:

frequency 1

The new, or modified, filament growth culture that has developed.  The origin of the culture is a human oral filament sample.  The culture medium is red wine. The bulk of the growth that is shown here occurred within a 24 hour period, with an incubation period of approximately 5 to 7 days. The only known variation in the culturing process, relative to previous culture work over recent years, is subjecting the culture to a specific frequency range of visible light.  The frequency (blue light) has been chosen as a result of spectral analyses that have recently been conducted and reported on in this site.

One of the more important findings of this current research is that the application of certain frequencies, or their harmonics, may play a highly significant role in the various manifestations that the underlying “organism” may assume.  This may act in a highly detrimental fashion to the host; in this case, the human being.  The rate of growth of the organism under the conditions investigated here may also seriously hinder any efforts to mitigate or inhibit its influence within the human body.  The research also points out the extreme risks that may exist in “experimenting” with the use of frequency protocols without proper controls and without knowledge of the underlying physiological and physical processes involved.  

As one example of consideration, the speed of an electromagnetic wave within the body is a variable and therefore any frequency or its harmonic that is under consideration is also expected to vary by target location. The discovery reported here adds a new layer of complexity to the research that has been discussed on this site.

A close-up view of the modified growth form that has been developed. The growth rate of this form is remarkable and the topology of the culture is quite complex under higher magnification.   At this point, no additional information on the internal nature of the growth is known.  Additional microscopic and spectral analyses will need to be conducted in the future to determine if there is correspondence with previous growth forms that have been analyzed in detail. The circumstances of growth are identical to that of previous work, i.e., the introduction of human oral filament samples within a red wine base; what differs is the illumination of the petri culture dishes with light of a specific frequency chosen from earlier absorption analysis. It will be noticed that a strong and sharp absorption peak at approximately 375 nanometers (nm) has been identified in the previous report; this corresponds to the blue portion of the visible light spectrum. Tentative work some months past involving the use of this frequency range was applied and observed effects upon culture growth were observed.  As a result of the more exact, detailed and verified spectral analysis of recent weeks, the determination of the influence of this frequency has been pursued with greater vigor.  Magnification 10x.

frequency 4

Another close-up view of the modified growth form that has been developed.  To find a commercially available source at the appropriate wavelength of approximately 375 nanometers, it is found that an “actinic” lamp is sufficiently close to merit application. Actinic fluorescent lamps are commonly available for aquarium lighting, as they reproduce the light range that is suitable for coral growth.  Notice the absorption spectrum presented remains sufficiently pronounced and localized to accommodate the 420 nm wavelength; practice has shown that a measurable effect is apparent with its use. Magnification 10x.

frequency 5

A photograph of the sheen, or film-like layer that develops on the wine culture surface immediately prior to the explosive growth stage that takes place. The early stages of folding and rippling of the surface can be seen.  The incubation period to reach this stage is approximately 5 days under the current environmental conditions established.  Growth is then extremely rapid, and envelops the entire surface of the dish with filaments as shown above within a 24 hour period.  One of the effects that appears to result from the use of the actinic lamp is a very sharp increase in the rate of the culture growths in general.  The cultures in the past have usually required several weeks to even several months to develop; all cultures under examination in this report have produced visible results within a week of time.  The central lighted region of the dish is the light stage of the microscope underneath the culture dish.

frequency 6

Another close-up view of the modified growth form that has been developed
Magnification approximately 3x.

frequency 7

An oral filament sample that has been isolated from the red wine extraction fluid.  This isolation occurs by a process of decanting and dilution, and is relatively pure in this state within water.  Notice the color of the wine is absorbed by the materials.  This sample material provides the basis for further culture work and spectral analysis.

frequency 11

The test tube filament sample, as shown in the previous photograph, can be used to generate further cultures and to conduct spectral analyses. One method of preparing a culture is to simply place the material within red wine as a culture medium. This is the method used in setting up the culture dishes shown earlier in this report. Another method of preparing the sample for further analysis is to heat it (to the boiling point) within a lye (sodium hydroxide) solution. The advantage of this method is that it appears to be reasonably successful in breaking down the exterior casing of the filament and allows for examination of the internal components. It also allows for extraction of the more fundamental(interior) components for use in the culture process.

000_0012

The images that are shown in this set are a product of the heat and lye degradation process. This allows for extraction of the chlamydia-archaea-bacterial like component that resides within the filament structure. It therefore allows for examination of culture development at a more primitive, or base, level. In addition, these cultures in a red wine solution have been modified with the weak addition of iron sulfate and hydrogen peroxide. It has been found that these additions accelerate the growth rate of the cultures as has been described previously. The hydroxyl radical appears to be a significant fact in this increased growth rate. There is very good reason to believe that the “organism” can use both iron and calcium for its sustenance; this will have to be elaborated upon in later reports. In addition, the introduction of the blue wavelength light appears to be an additional accelerating factor in the culture growth rate. The section reflecting light on the right side of the petri dish is a young network of filaments that are beginning to form within the culture.

filament 1 filament 2 filament 3

This final section of photographs is a close-up of the young filament network referred to in the previous photograph on the right side of the set.  The photograph is taken at the surface level of the wine solution.  The individual filaments of the emerging network can be identified.  The use of accelerating factors in the growth rate of the cultures with the use of Fenton’s reaction and blue light appears to offer significant benefits in the turnover rate for future culture research.  In the past, the development of the filament network can take weeks to even months to develop; in the case of this report all culture developments have taken place within a week of time.  Magnification is estimated at approximately 100x.

MORGELLONS : THE EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM

MORGELLONS :
THE EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM

Clifford E Carnicom
June 14 2010

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

Those that are familiar with my work know that I take issue with the claim put forth that the so-called “Morgellons” condition is a highly restricted situation that affects only a few individuals that happen to manifest a certain set of skin conditions.  To the contrary, the work shows that the general population appears be to subject to the condition and that the criteria used to establish its existence should be focused on biological change and manifestations WITHIN the body.  It is my position that filaments  that occur within the body and the alteration of the blood are more suitable criteria upon which to establish the presence or absence of the condition.  

Thus far, every individual that has participated in this testing reveals this internal change, and it is only the degree of change and alteration within the body that varies.    It remains hopeful that exceptions to this generalization will be found in the future as a basis for more study.    Given the state of affairs, however, these changes can in no way be considered to be “normal”, just as the engineered physical alterations to our planet (with emphasis upon our atmosphere) can not be accepted as “normal”.  This is a truth regardless of the amount of time that we are subjected to these injustices.

The purpose is this paper is to make an emotional appeal to you.  Adequate time to lay the groundwork of scientific method and discovery has been provided in a myriad of ways and it is now time to ask the more basic and fundamental questions:

At what point do you realize that you are involved?   

At what point do you realize that your children are involved?

At what point do you realize that those you know and love are involved?

At what point do you realize that life beyond yourself is involved?  

And at what point do you realize that the life and health of the planet itself is involved?

Rest assured, I will add to our “clinical body of knowledge”…  But if this is all that can be seen, and if this is all that you are looking for at this stage of the game, then you have missed out on the scale of the problem and of your own participation in the problem.  A passive acceptance of injustice is no longer excusable if the future course of events is clear with no underlying change in prospect.  

Let us now go on in the more comfortable vein of providing you with “more evidence” that there is indeed a problem.  Over the past couple of years, I would estimate that at least three dozen people have participated in the study of internal biological changes that I have initiated.  The studies were an outgrowth of the initial studies that focused upon the skin (external) alterations that are more commonly reported to establish the existence of the condition.  It became apparent to me that such external examinations were not sufficient to establish the underlying basis of the condition.  Only time and proper effort will identify the true distribution of the condition and the causative factors, but based upon the work herein it is certainly statistically fair at this point to include the entire population as under risk.  Furthermore, the work shows that examination of the human form alone is myopic enough in its own right.

I do not always  have the means, time or resources to continue repeating certain tests unless additional cause or information comes to light.  Such additional cause of information is the subject of this paper.  The opportunity to further investigate the influence of diet and age upon the Morgellons conditions has arisen, and my appreciation is extended to these two individuals that have added to our body of knowledge on this subject.  One of the individuals that has participated in this study is that of a 37 year old life-long vegetarian male and the other is that of an 8 year old male child.  The results of the work are presented below for your study.   When you have finished with your study on this occasion, I am asking you to return to the series of questions that have been asked of you above.  This time, for us to continue with this dialog,  I must ask YOU for YOUR answers.


PHOTOGRAPHS:

37 Year Old Vegetarian Male :

 problem 1

problem 2

A case of the dental sample for the 37 year old vegetarian male.  The process of sampling is as follows:  The mouth of the subject is cleaned thoroughly so that no evidence of any solid material within the mouth is visible whatsoever.  The individual then takes approximately 20 ml. (i.e., a swig) of red wine and vigorously swishes the wine in the mouth, gums and teeth for approximately three minutes.  The contents of the solution after this time period are expelled into a petri dish and the majority of the wine siphoned off.  The procedure is then repeated two more times, for a total exposure of approximately 9-10 minutes.  The individual shows no anomalies at the skin level.  The material shown here is of a filament nature (it is not a precipitate; this will be discussed further below) and it has been reported on and described in detail extensively on this site.  The correspondence of this material from inside the body has been made with filament samples acquired from the skin (i.e, exterior of the body).  The correspondence of this sample material with that of certain environmental samples has also been made.  See prior reports.

The red blood cells of the same 37 year old vegetarian male examined under the microscope at high power (approx. 10,000x).  This individual states himself to be in apparent good health prior to the observations provided here.  The correspondence of the structures that are degrading the cell walls of the red blood cells (bacterial-like) and those that have been continually found within the filament samples (environmental, skin and dental) has been repeatedly made.  Please also refer to the paper entitled “A Mechanism of Blood Damage” dated Dec. 14, 2009 for further information on this subject.  The damage to the integrity of the cell walls is apparent, and is identical to that first observed as characteristic of individuals manifesting skin anomalies reported in association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  The condition of the cells shown in this image is typical and representative of the entire sample observed.  

problem 3

problem 4

An additional example of the condition of the red blood cells of the 37 year old vegetarian male.  This  individual eats dairy products but no meat.  This individual has the distinct background of having been a vegetarian from a very early age (i.e., approximately since he was 4 years old).
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

An additional example of the condition of the red blood cells of the 37 year old vegetarian male.  The significant disruption to the cellular structures as has been reported on extensively on this site is apparent.  Individuals sampled thus far vary widely in age, location and are of both sexes.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

 


8 Year Old Male Child :

8 yo 1

8yo 2

The case of the dental sample for the 8 year old child.  The procedure followed is identical to that described for the 37 year old male above.  Filament samples are once again visible.  The material is of a filament nature; it is NOT a precipitate (see additional note below).  This is the second occasion on which a child has participated in the studies with the permission of the parents.  In both cases the results are affirmative and identical with respect to the presence of the filaments INTERNAL to the body.  The individual displays no skin anomalies.  For previous work that is relevant to this presentation, please refer to the paper entitled “And Now Our Children“, dated Jan 11, 2008.

The condition of the red blood cells of the 8 year old child in coincidence with the dental samples provided in this test.  No additional comments will be made.  Please refer to the voluminous work on this subject prior to this paper.  I also refer you to the series of questions that are the basis of this paper.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

8yo 3

8yo 4

An additional example of the condition of the red blood cells of the 8 year old child in coincidence with the dental samples provided in this test.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

An additional example of the condition of the red blood cells of the 8 year old child in coincidence with the dental samples provided in this test.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.


Some Prospects for the Future :

future 1

future 2

This series of photographs is NOT presented as a cure or solution to anything.  They do, however, present the potential merits of dedicated research that are in opposition to any acquiescence to the current state of affairs.  These photographs represents the condition of the blood of an individual that has pursued certain strategies that have been recently proposed and outlined through this site.  The strategies are centered on the benefits and disadvantages of alkaline vs. acidic diets and on the role of anti-oxidants with respect to health.  The strategies are the result of certain filament culture trials that have described at some length on this site.  No medical advice or diagnosis is implied or stated herein; each individual is responsible for consultation with the health professional of their choice for any choice of action pursued.  The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only.  Please refer to the notice at the beginning of this paper and as pronounced ubiquitously  on this site.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

The photographs of the red blood cells shown here are representative only on the date of this work, approximately May of 2010.  Indeed, one of the conclusions that has been reached through observations is that the condition of the blood can change fairly rapidly, e.g. over a 3 week interval.  The life cycle of a red blood cell is approximately 3 months, however, significant changes in the general condition of the blood (both improvement and degradation) have repeatedly occurred within the fairly brief interval of 3 weeks.  Monitoring of the blood on a continuous basis is therefore another strategy that may be evaluated as to its merit in the assessment of the “Morgellons” condition.  What is generally shown here is a return of the cells to a more uniform geometry and integrity that does follow a period of increased alkalinity and antioxidants within the diet of the individual.  It is also true to state that the condition of the cells of this individual, several months past,  were quite similar to the degraded examples shown above.  Sharp and fairly rapid periods of degradation have also been observed, and therefore these photographs present only potential benefits from the current research and not absolute benefits.  Each individual must consult with their own health professional to evaluate any strategies for improved health.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

future 3

future 4

This photograph shows what appears to be a white blood cell in the process of engulfing the bacterial-like structures that have been under extensive study.  This type of observation has in general been quite rare.  The observation suggests the enhancement of the immune system may have some effectiveness in diminishing the numbers of the growth form.  Magnification approx. 10,000x.

This photographs is representative of why emphatically no solution or “cure” to this biological condition is claimed or implied herein.  It has been observed that the blood serum appears to be a primary carrier of the bacterial-like structures (see A Mechanism of Blood Damage).  Therefore, cases have been observed where the blood cell geometry has returned to a more normal form but the distributions of the bacterial-like forms remain extensive in the surrounding serum.  Each individual is to consult with their own medical professional for any interpretation and advice of any results shown here or on this site.
Magnification approx. 10,000x.

 

 



A Typical Example of What We Are Facing :

example 1

This is a representative example of the filament culture in mid-stage growth.  This filament growth has resulted from a dental sample “seed”, as outlined in red within the photograph.  The culture medium is white wine.  Various mediums have been found to be productive, but the simplest and most useful thus far is that of both red and white wines.  There are four primary stages of growth that have described in the reports.  The first is the chlamydia-like (bacterial like) growth stage.  The second (additional, not replacement) is the pleomorphic growth for which mycoplasma-like forms remain a candidate.  The third stage (additional, not replacement)  is the filament growth (as shown here) .  The fourth stage (additional, not replacement) is the development of erthyrocytic forms within the filament growth.  

Within the filament stage of growth, there are 3 stages of sub-growth that occur.  The first stage of filament growth is pure white in color.  This stage can be seen on the boundaries and edges of the primary growth shown above.  This stage is short-lived, commonly on the order of 1-3 days.  The second stage is a transformation to a greenish color, and this dominates the mid-stage of growth as shown above.  This stage can commonly last on the order of two to three weeks.  The final stage is a transformation to a deep black color (not shown).  The complete process can take commonly on the order of two to three months to complete.  When the black stage of growth is complete (mature stage) the consistency of the growth begins to approximate a tar-like nature.  The growth solution (originally wine) becomes darker and more viscous in nature.


Additional Note:  It is claimed by some “parties” that the dental samples obtained are “normal” and that there is “nothing to be concerned about” with the subjects of these reports.  The basis of this claim is a known reaction that takes place between red wines and saliva, whereby a precipitate is formed.  It is claimed that such precipitates are the basis of these reports, and hence there is no concern for the findings shown..  These claims are inadequate and false for the following reasons:

1.  What is observed and reported upon, for many years now, is a FILAMENT structure.  It is NOT a precipitate.
2.  The reaction between saliva and red wines does indeed occur, and it has been studied extensively under the microscope.  The precipitate is in no way identical or similar to the filament material that is the subject of the reports.
3.  The sheer volume of filament materials produced, as in the first example shown above, is enough to eliminate any realistic portrayal as a precipitate formation.
4. The precipitate test can be easily reproduced and examined outside of the body, as it is not dependent upon material that emanates from the gums of the individual, as the specimens of these reports do.  The wine-saliva-precipitate reaction is dependent only upon the interactions between wine and saliva, and is relatively trivial compared to the materials that are shown here.  The material that is the subject of this report emanates from the gums of the individual.

MORGELLONS : A STATUS REPORT

MORGELLONS : A STATUS REPORT
Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 08 2009

I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.

SUMMARY STATEMENT:

A partial summary of the research accumulated through this site on the so-called “Morgellons” issue is as follows:

1. The internal filament repeatedly described, as in the dental extraction samples, appears to be a primary pathogenic form. These internal biological filaments have been identified, to a varying degree, in essentially all individuals that have participated in the testing process thus far. The blood of participating individuals also displays, to a high correspondence, anomalies in structural integrity. A sub-micron spherical structure, to be assessed in further detail at a later point, also commonly occurs within the erythrocytes.

2. The morphology, size, structure and chemistry of these internal filaments appears to be highly similar to that of certain environmental filament samples, notably that which has been refused by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for identification. In addition, numerous research papers over the last ten years document the repeated detection of unusual biological components within a series of environmental samples, including that of erythrocytic (red blood cell) forms.

3. Numerous cultures have been developed from the internal filaments on agar and in wine based mediums. These cultures are essentially identical in form and chemistry with that of the original internal biological filament samples.

4. The cultures produced from the internal biological filaments (dental samples) have been shown to produce an erythocytic form. These cultures have produced a positive result for the existence of hemoglobin by two separate forensic level tests. The determination of the erythrocytic form is also repeatedly evidenced by direct observation, measurement and biconcave morphology.

5. The production of erythrocytic forms within direct biological filament samples and by culture is completely outside the known boundaries of conventional science and biology. It is repeatedly evident that these same erythrocytic forms can withstand (and even flourish in) extremely adverse environmental, chemical and thermal conditions. The evidence thus far indicates the original erythrocytic form is dessicated or spore-like and a reconstitution process is required to bring the cellular structures to full form and activity.

6. A method has been developed to break down the outer casing of the internal biological dental filaments. The internal components of these filaments have been examined in detail upon repeated occasions. Two main structures emerge: an erythrocytic form and a sub-micron spherical form. The best current assessment of the sub-micron spherical form is that of being Chlamydia-like, with a special interest in Chlamydia Pneuomonia. Mycoplasma forms are also strong candidates of consideration as a “tertiary form” that is also frequently observed. Please also refer to the the paper entitled Pathogens and the General Population, April 2008, for the introduction of the Chlamydia-like structure as a primary topic of interest; the rationale of identification for this candidate remains. In addition, recent size measurements and the response of the Chlamydia-like structure to Giemsa stain further solidifies that rationale.

7. There is a strong consideration that the internal structures from the internal biological filaments are of a synthetic or artificial nature. This assessment is based upon an observed uniformity in geometry as well as the hostile chemical environment under which reconstitution takes place.

8. The internal biological filaments and the cultured form of the filaments have been subjected to the same chemical and thermal breakdown process. The same two internal structures are evident and observed in each case, that of an erthyocytic form and a Chlamydia-like form.

9. The existence of the internal biological filaments, the existence of introduced or modified erthrocytic forms, the Chlamydia-like structure and the tertiary form are interpreted by this researcher to be critical and central aspects of the ” Morgellons” condition. It is accepted that numerous symptom manifestations are reported in association with the condition; this report simply enumerates that which exists as a common denominator within all studies conducted thus far.

10. The source of the erythrocytic form and the Chlamydia-like organism is the filament under study, either in the direct biological internal form or identically from the cultured source. This assessment is reached through direct observation.

11. Success has been achieved in developing a solution based culture that originates from the decomposition (chemical and thermal) of the cultured filaments. A complete cycle of growth has been obtained. An aqueous or solution based culture development has numerous advantages in the development and application of experimental procedures. This culture work is based upon the following sequence:

1. Original filament form (biological or cultured).
2. Decomposition of the filament through chemical and thermal processes.
3. A single drop of the resulting solution is sufficient to reproduce the entire cycle.
4. The decomposed filament solution is cultured in a wine medium.
5. Two structures appear simultaneously over a period of several days within the solution when observed under the microscope: The Chlamydia-like form and the pleomorophic form (Mycloplasma candidate). Visually this material has an appearance similar to that of the original dental filament extractions, but not as fully developed.
6. Lastly, the original filament form (white in color) appears on the surface of the solution, completing the full cycle of development and growth.

12. The recent solution-based culture work infers that four varying components comprise the basic pathogenic form:

1. The encasing filament which appears to serve the purpose of housing, transport and delivery of the internal components.
2. An ethryrocytic form (primarily internal to the filament)
3. A Chlamydia-like structure ( primarily internal to the filament).
4. An apparent pleomorphic form (primarily internal to the filament).  One candidate of identification is a Mycoplasma variant.
5. All items listed require positive analytic, chemical and biological testing and identification; candidate mention is dependent upon resources available at this time. The ability of the structures to withstand hostile and adverse chemical and environmental conditions strongly indicates modification to originating organisms or structures.

13. It can be shown by direct observation that the cultured filaments, after decomposition through chemical and thermal processes, appear to be the source of the blood anomalies first reported on by this researcher in November and December 2007. It is anticipated that the direct biological form of the filaments is likely to produce an identical result, as the cultured forms derive from the direct biological forms. Please also refer to the papers entitled Blood Testing and Morgellons : Airborne, Skin and Blood – A Match for a partial background preparation on this subject. Three structures are observed in the process : erythrocytic, Chamydia-like, and a “pleomorphic” (many form) ribbon or sausage-like form as shown in these original papers. A mycoplasma form is a viable candidate for the “pleomorphic” (tertiary) form.

14. Some of the primary functions of the blood include:

1.

Transports:
Dissolved gases (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide);
Waste products of metabolism (e.g. water, urea);
Hormones;
Enzymes;
Nutrients (such as glucose, amino acids, micro-nutrients (vitamins & minerals), fatty acids, glycerol);
Plasma proteins (associated with defence, such as blood-clotting and anti-bodies);
Blood cells (incl. white blood cells ‘leucocytes’, and red blood cells ‘erythrocytes’).

2.

Maintains Body Temperature

3.

Controls pH
The pH of blood must remain in the range 6.8 to 7.4, otherwise it begins to damage cells.

4.

Removes toxins from the body
The kidneys filter all of the blood in the body (approx. 8 pints), 36 times every 24 hours. Toxins removed from the blood by the kidneys leave the body in the urine.
(Toxins also leave the body in the form of sweat.)

5.

Regulation of Body Fluid Electrolytes
Excess salt is removed from the body in urine, which may contain around 10g salt per day
(such as in the cases of people on western diets containing more salt than the body requires).

Source: Structures and Functions of the Blood
Ivy Holistic
http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Blood/Blood_StructureandFunctions.php

15. There are now strong parallels of interest (specifically Chlamyida Pneumonia and Mycoplasma) that have emerged between the current work and that of prominent research on the so-called “Gulf War Syndrome”.  Additional parallels of interest occur with such conditions as Lyme Disease, fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

16. The structure, chemistry and internal composition of the biological based filaments appears at this stage to be essentially identical to that of the cultured filaments. This offers the distinct advantage that numerous research projects can now be pursued within a controlled laboratory environment, including that of growth inhibition.

17. It is understood that there are likely many numerous variations of development, form and manifestation with respect to the ” Morgellons” condition. This researcher has focused on, and continues to focus on, those elements that appear to exist as a common denominator in most (or all) subjects, regardless of any external symptoms that may or may not be present. It remains the assessment of this researcher that the blood (and the alteration of it) and the existence of certain filament forms (INTERNAL to the body) are central to the condition. The existence of skin anomalies does not appear to be, in any way, a suitable criteria for establishing or denying the existence of the condition. Thus far, essentially any individual that has been studied displays, to a varying degree, the common denominators of blood anomalies and filament existence that are a basis of this report. Exceptions to this last statement in some fashion are presumed to exist (although not identified thus far) and they are an obvious desirable pursuit in the research.

18. Future immediate needs include a full protein and genetic analysis of the filament forms, cultures and components that have been repeatedly identified. Additional resources will be required to accomplish this.

19. Growth inhibition studies, especially upon the culture forms that have been developed, also exist as an immediate requirement. Preliminary studies with prospect are in progress. Additional resources can accelerate this process.

20. The available information indicates that the human condition is likely to have been affected en masse.

PHOTOGRAPHS:

morgellons 1

morgellons 2

Original previously analyzed dental sample material in wine base. Essentially all individuals tested thus far produce varying degrees of this dental filament material.

Representative dental sample material, previously analyzed, placed onto a glass slide. This particular sample uses a wine-hydrogen peroxide base mix.

morgellons 3

The culture of the dental filaments at the early stage. Characterized by a pure white color. Microscopic and time lapse imagery of this development are available in more detail in the papers entitled Culture Breakthrough (?), (Jul 2008), Culture Work is Confirmed (Aug 2008) and Morgellons : Growth Captured (Aug 2008).

morgellons 4

morgellons 5

This is the culture material used in this test. This culture has been developed from extracted dental samples that have been placed within a red wine culture medium. The approximate time of development is approximately two weeks. The first stage of development is characterized by a pure white filament as shown above; subsequent stages will transform to a greenish color and ultimately to a deep black color.

A close-up of the culture development to the left. This is typical of a culture in the mid to mature development stage. Folding with the developed culture is  common during maturation. Growth and folding up to approximately 3/4″ to 1″ has. been. observed, apparently only restrained by the lid of the culture dish and the available growth medium.

morgellons 6

Decomposition of the filaments, either biological or cultured, involves the use of an alkali solution and heat. Currently, the filaments are placed within approximately 1-2 ml. of distilled water with a drop of concentrated sodium and potassium hydroxide added. The concentration of the base can be determined at a later point; it does not appear to be critical at this stage. Initial decomposition takes place along with a transformation of the solution to a blackish color. The addition of heat, to the boiling point, appears to be an additional critical factor in the decomposition process. The addition of the strong alkali and the additional heat will turn the final solution to a deep red color (visually similar to that of blood in solution). If the solution is made in a concentrated form, i.e., limited water, the subsequent examination of components under the microscope will be facilitated.

morgellons 7

An erythrocytic form that appears from within a cultured filament after decomposition by chemical and thermal processes.. Varying degrees of reconstitution occur.. Reconstitution is not complete in all cases, and thus varying final diameters will occur. The source form appears to be on the order of four microns in diameter; the average of a final reconstituted erythrocytic form is on the order of 6-8 microns. This is  also the diameter of a human erythrocyte. Biconcavity is a distinguishing visible characteristic. The fact that reconstitution of biological structures occurs within a hostile chemical and thermal environment is a primary topic of interest in the research.
Magnification approx. 8000x.

morgellons 8

morgellons 9

Direct evidence of decomposition of a cultured filament when subjected to alkali and heat. On numerous occasions, a breakdown in the bounding structure of the filament has been observed. The black arrow  points to the boundary of the filament, which measures on the order of 15 microns in width. The blue circle encloses an erythroytic form in an early stage of reconstitution. Magnification approx. 8000x.

Additional direct evidence that the erythrocytic form are contained within the filament forms. Another example of the breakdown of the filament boundary when subject to an alkali and heated solution. A series of erythroytic forms, prior to reconstitution, are visible emanating from the filament. Magnification approx. 8000x.

morgellons 10

morgellons 11

morgellons 12

An internal component of a decomposed (alkali and heat) cultured filament. A reconstituted erythrocytic form with the intracellular sub-micron spherical structure visible (black arrow). Chlamydia-like, especially Chlamydia Pneumonia, organisms are primary candidates of consideration in the future identification of this structure. Specialized modifications to any original biological form, should it be identified, are anticipated. Magnification approx. 8000x.

An internal component of a decomposed (alkali and heat) cultured filament. Another example of the intracellular sub-micron structure within an reconstituted erythrocytic form (blue circle). This phenomenon occurs frequently in observation, and is identical to that observed in the anomalous human blood observations reported on this site. The structure on the right edge appears to be an erythrocytic source form prior to reconstitution.
Magnification approx. 8000x.

Internal component of a decomposed (alkali and heat) cultured filament. Several examples of the sub-micron structure (black arrows) occurring within a partially reconstituted erythrocytic form. In human examples studied thus far, the damage to the integrity of erythrocytes appears to occur in direct proportion to the prevalence of the Chlamydia-like structure shown above.  Magnification approx. 8000x.

morgellons 13

morgellons 15

The Chlamydia-like structure isolated and in detail. Numerous criteria (e.g, intracellular, size, Gram-Stain, symptomology, etc) suggest the Chlamydia-like organisms as a primary candidate for identification. Positive tests and additional resources will be required for completion of this stage of the research. In addition, this photograph shows the structures subjected to a Giemsa staining process (methylene blue and eosin). Chlamydia structures are expected to accept the blue stain under this test. This additional test is positive in this case, and further solidifies Chlamydia-like organisms as candidates for positive identification. The best size assessment thus far for this structure is on the order of 0.7-0.8 microns; also within the primary range of consideration for Chlamydia-like(esp.Chlamyida Pneumonia) organisms.
Magnification approx. 8000x.

A CONTROL photograph of human erythrocytes for comparison of size, geometry and biconcavity. A modified conventional analog microscope is used in this research; these modifications include the substitution of a digital camera chip for the eyepiece (CCD) and a barlow lens to increase the magnification levels. Magnification approx. 8000x.

morgellons 16

morgellons 17

Additional examples of clusters of the Chlamydia-like structures that have been subjected to a Giemsa stain process. This stain process is damaging to the reconstituted erythrocytic forms, but it is helpful to accentuate the observation of the sub-microns structures as shown in this photograph. Human blood observations have shown identical forms under numerous occasions, and the severity of the so-called Morgellons condition appears to occur in proportion to the presence of this organism..
Magnification approx. 8000x.

An additional example of the Chlamydia-like structures that have been subjected to a Giemsa stain process.
Magnification approx. 8000x.

morgellons 18

morgellons 19

This photograph is unique and important in the fact that it represents the first successful complete cycle of the filament culture process.

The sequence of culturing is  as  follows:

1. Biological dental filament sample is extracted.
2. The biological filament sample is subjected to the alkali and heat process.
3.
A single drop of the resulting decomposed filament in solution is placed into a wine medium culture.
4. The resulting culture now  develops  through the following sequence:
a) Chlamydia-like organism develops first at the bottom of the solution over a period of a a few  days.. This appears  as  the darkened, more diffuse form shown in this petri dish.
b) The pleomorphic, or tertiary form (ribbon-like) appears gradually over the next few  days as  well, also at the bottom of  the wine medium. One candidate for  identification of  this form is mycoplasma.
c) The final stage is  the development of the filament form on the top of the wine medium as  is visible on this photograph. The initial development of the filament will be pure white; it will eventually transform through green and black stages at maturity.

It can be concluded that a single drop of the cultured solution (decomposed filament)  is sufficient to reproduce the entire growth cycle of this pathogenic form.

The ring like disturbance in the central fluid portion of the petri dish is due to a copper sulphate inhibition study that is in progress. .

 

A filament culture in a wine medium, well developed, in the mid-level stages of development. The filaments will progress though a stage of pure white, green and subsequent black color, usually over a period of a couple of weeks.

morgellons 20

An example of the pleomorphic, or tertiary form (ribbon-like) accompanied with a Chlamydia-like structure in the right central portion of the photograph. These forms develop in the culture sequence as described previously. These are the two most common forms also identified in the numerous anomalous blood observations that have been reported on extensively within this site. Magnification approx. 10,000x.

morgellons 21

An example of what appears to be a developing filament form within the latter stage of the culture sequence described immediately above. Examples of the Chlamydia-like structures  are visible to the left (black arrows) and the pleomorphic, tertiary (ribbon-like) form (black arrow) is visible on the right.  In addition, a coalescing and enveloping structure is visible that contains  the identified components ; it possesses full similarity to the filament forms  studied extensively.
Magnification approx. 8000x.

ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (?)

ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (?)
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 27 2009

I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.

Strong evidence now exists that an artificial or modified blood form is a dominant internal component, if not the dominant component, of dental filament samples that are commonly associated with the Morgellons condition.

A method has been developed that breaks down the external casing of the fibers. A reconstitution process then takes place. The constituents in the resulting solution have been repeatedly examined under the microscope at high power. The method has been replicated numerous times, and on each occasion the same identifiable structures result. The structures indicate that they are a form of erythrocyte, or red blood cell.

It has been repeatedly proposed by this researcher that the condition of the blood appears to be a common denominator of the Morgellons condition; this latest research further substantiates that position. Essentially all individuals tested thus far demonstrate these same blood variations to some degree, regardless of whether certain skin anomalies are present or not.

It has previously been established that cultures developed from the dental samples are also producing erythrocytes, or red blood cells within the culture. This work has been confirmed with two separate forensic level tests. The latest finding of an erythrocytic form directly within original dental filament samples further substantiates this unique aspect of the Morgelllons condition.

The biology of both the culture samples and the erythrocytic forms directly within the filaments is clearly outside the conventional framework of scientific knowledge, and it demonstrates advanced technologies that are beyond public purview and consent. These technologies likely include artificial or modified biological developments, advanced stem cell developments and genetic transfer or programming.

The supposition that the eythrocytic forms are likely artificial, or at least manipulated in some fashion, is based upon the following observations:

1. The cells are essentially perfectly formed, with no visible variation in form or geometry.

2. Reconstitution of the erythrocytes takes place in an extremely hostile environment with respect to chemicals and heat.

3. An additional sub-micron structure often accompanies, or is within the erythrocytic form. These structures are identical by view and size to numerous anomalous human blood samples that have been reported on in conjunction with the Morgellons research through this site.

4. The size of the erythrocytic form within the dental filament varies more than within the human species, and this appears to be a response to the reconstitutive chemical environment. This chemical medium is hostile and adverse to normal biological development, but reconstitution appears to thrive in this same environment.

A series of photographs with captions below describe the essential details of the process and the results that follow:

 artificial 1

Original representative dental sample material in wine base. Essentially all individuals tested thus far produce varying degrees of this dental filament material.  This is the type of material used in this test.

artificial 2

artificial 3

Original representative dental sample material (extracted using a wine-peroxide base)  and placed onto a glass slide. The sample in this procedure has been extracted using only a wine base (no peroxide).

Original representative dental sample material placed onto a glass slide and dried. This dried sample is presented for comparison purposes only and is not used in this test.

artificial 4

The dental filaments (from wine extraction method only – no peroxide is used for this procedure). are placed into approximately 2-3 ml. of water with one drop of a highly caustic solution (sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide mixture) added. Thus, a highly alkaline solution is at the core of the procedure. The exact concentration level of this solution can be determined at a later time; it does not appear to be required to be highly specific at this point. When the filaments are within the alkaline solution, an initial partial breakdown of the filaments will occur and the solution will turn darker (blackish tone) in color. The filaments do not break down in total at this point. The solution is then heated gradually and cautiously to the boiling point.

artificial 5

In addition to the highly alkaline environment created for the filament sample, the solution is heated gradually to the boiling point as described above. This heating process appears to a critical addition to the procedure and a significant change of color will then occur. The solution will turn to a dark red color.   The reddish tint that develops can be seen at the upper portion of the photographed solution above.  The color of the solution at this point does indeed appear blood red, and visually does match that of blood in solution. It is possible that a hemoglobin or protein transformation is incited at this point, and the additional heat in combination with the caustic solution produces this final result. Specific tests for hemoglobin are inconclusive at this stage of the research, and a full protein analysis (not restricted to hemoglobin) is required at this point. This combination of heat and strong alkali solution would normally be considered to be detrimental to most  biological processes. It appears that microscopic examination of the solution is facilitated by placing a high concentration of filaments within the solution.

artificial 6

If a drop of the concentrated solution is placed upon a glass slide with a cover slip and placed under the microscope at sufficient power, numerous erythrocytic forms such as that above have been found in all cases considered. Detailed microscopic examination does indeed satisfy all visual and metric expectations of an erthrocye, or red blood cell, including biconcavity. Examination occurs over approximately a half hour interval after creating the slide. Prolonged exposure(i.e., 1day +) to this chemical environment appears to destroy all recognizable cellular forms.

Please also refer to the previous report entitled “Blood Issues Intensify” of April 2009 that demonstrates the existence of blood and hemoglobin at the forensic level from cultures developed from this same dental material. Detailed protein analysis is a future requirement; such analysis cannot take place without an increased level of support and resources.

Improved microscopy methods and equipment have been developed to permit viewing of the structures at this level; the magnification of this image is approximately 8000x and the structure measures approximately 6-8 microns in diameter. Conventional microscopy will peak at approximately 1000-2000x. The availability of an electron microscope would be expected to provide greater detail.

There are several interesting observations that can be made of these particular erythrocytic forms, however. The first of these, as itemized above, is the extreme geometric regularity of the forms of the cells. They appear to be essentially of regular and flawless geometric form; no human blood samples examined thus far demonstrate this level of uniformity.  It is this observation which asks us to consider the existence of an artificial blood form here, or at the very least the consideration of a manipulated or altered cell of some fashion.

A second observation is that more variation of size (not form, however) will occur than within human samples observed. This appears to be a result of the chemical environment that allows this reconstitution process to take place. The cells will change in size during observation on the microscope stage, and some of them will reach abnormally large diameters estimated up to approximately 20-25 microns. In addition, some of the cells will reconstitute to a smaller diameter than a human cell, down to a level of approximately 4 microns in diameter. The average size of the cells appears to coincide closely with that of the human species, on the order of 6-8 microns in diameter.

It does appear to be a remarkable event of discovery that this particular combination of chemical and thermal environments causes this apparent reconstitution to take place; such conditions would not be anticipated for most normal biological processes. This is another factor in the consideration of an artificial or altered biological form. It is relevant to note that previous research efforts that first uncovered dessicated erythrocytic forms also included the boiling of the solution within some of the procedures. It was at that earlier time that an understanding of hostile and adverse environmental effects upon the unique erythrocytic structures identified was reached.

artificial 7

artificial 8

An equally important and additional observation must be considered. If the research of this site is reviewed over the past several years, it will be seen that special attention has been drawn to the existence of a sub-micron spherical structure commonly being observed within numerous human blood samples.

For instance, please refer to the paper entitled “Morgellons: 5th, 6th & 7th Match“, January 2008 with special attention to the Gram stained blood cell samples as is repeated on the right side of the two images above.  Further information on this particular structure has been limited by the technology available to this researcher. Further progress on this matter has long required additional resources, such as electron microscopy. This researcher has maintained a strong and particular interest in this specific structure since it was first reported. No subsequent progress on identification of this structure has been made, beyond the initial proposal that Chlamydia-like forms should be considered. This structure must be identified; further support and resources are required to accomplish this task.

It is now of tremendous interest and of high importance that similar, if not identical structures, are being observed within the current reconstituted samples which are the subject of this report. The arrow on the left photograph shows such a sub-micron structure that has now identified within a dental sample that has been chemically broken down.  These structures are commonly associated with the erythrocytic forms that have been discovered, both internal and external to the cells. The particular example shown also appears to be an intracellular form, as in the paper referenced above.

This finding is highly suggestive that this alteration of the erythrocytic form is deliberate, and that it can produce a similar result within the general bloodstream of the human body. Again, the geometric regularity is also indicative of an artificial process that has been developed to produce this result. It also strongly indicates the likelihood of genetic transfer or manipulation in the process chain.

artificial 9

Additional examples of intracellular structures within the erythrocytic forms reconstituted from within the filament samples.

artificial 10

Another of many examples of geometrically smooth erythrocytic forms reconstituted from within the dental filament sample. The sub-micron structure is this example is external to the cell, as indicated by the arrow.

This paper presents the results of further extraordinary biological observations and events that are in association with the so called “Morgellons” condition. The sample set of this report is relatively small and it must be extended.  There is a remarkable consistency in the detailed observations and reports that have been made over a period of several years. This paper reaffirms the position of this researcher that blood conditions and or alterations appear to be at the crux of this situation. It is quite clear what type of work must be done to address the gravity of this situation, but additional resources must become available for this to take place. The current work now introduces the very real prospect or consideration that an artificial, or deliberately modified, process of the blood may have been introduced into the human condition. Elevated levels of research, aggressive involvement and appropriate resources must be dedicated and allocated to initiate progress on the many serious issues that have been disclosed.

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 27 2009

Note : This paper remains subject to additional edits.

BLOOD ISSUES INTENSIFY

BLOOD ISSUES INTENSIFY
Clifford E Carnicom
Apr 22 2009

I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information.  I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.

Three independent methods have been established that appear to confirm the presence of developing modified erythrocytes (red blood cells) within cultured dental samples that exhibit the characteristics of the Morgellons condition as previously researched and identified.  All individuals tested thus far have produced the dental filamentous materials, regardless of whether visible skin anomalies are present or not.  Please see previous research for further clarification on the prevalence of the condition.  

The erythrocytic detection methods are:

1.  Direct observation under the microscope at relatively high magnification (8000x – 10000x) using developed microscopy techniques.
2.  The use of the Kastle-Meyer presumptive test (visual and microscopic, sensitive test) for blood, a method commonly used in forensics for blood identification.
3.  The HEMASTIX (TMP) presumptive forensic test (very high sensitivity) commonly used for blood identification.

The tests have been repeated several times to assure consistency in methods, results and controls.

The appearance of the cultured erythrocytic cellular structures, if accepted as properly identified, in and of itself defies all conventional understanding of blood cell development.  This appearance also corroborates a long history of research through this site of environmental and biological samples that defy conventional expectations and knowledge with respect to the state of public health and the environment (e.g, refer to Extraordinary Biological Observations, Carnicom, May 2004).  Simply put, erythrocytes are not to be grown in the the test tube under the current state of conventional knowledge.  To do so, however, is considered to be a holy grail of biological achievement with huge implications for bioengineering, human health and the human species.  Ground breaking research in this aspect of biology, i.e, the “growing of blood cells” has been reported in the media throughout this last year, and was simultaneously stated to entice immediate interest from the Defense Department for battlefield applications (radio news report).  Research previous to this recent announcement reports the sustenance and perpetuation of existing cells within a growth medium, but not the creation of new cells.  Achievements of growth on any scale are clearly on the leading front of stem cell research, and comparative questions must be raised regarding the state of public disclosure on the subject vs.  actual technological achievements that may already be in place.  

I have no desire to sensationalize this subject as the seriousness of the issue is apparent to those that understand the ramifications of this report, should it bear itself to be true.  I am obligated, however, to report on the state of affairs as they are encountered through honest research.  I would hope that all three methods used here along with all previous reports involving erythrocytes for more than 10 years can be shown to be false, but if so, it will have to be done with open and public research that is subject to full cross-examination.  I would prefer to not be forced to continue to report findings of this nature but the obligations with respect to public health and the environment do not afford me that liberty.  

It has taken some time and effort for me to be able to employ three independent methods of erythrocyte identification at the forensic level, but the seriousness of the subject requires this as a minimum.  I do not state this subject to be a closed affair; to the contrary, I am opening a door that requests that there be additional resources activated to conduct the investigations in proper earnest.  The purpose of this paper is not to incite controversy.  It is to acknowledge what appears over and over to be a very real issue that appears to be of consequence whether we would like to confront it or not.

From the vantage point of this researcher (through varied research over an extended period), it is difficult to come to any other interpretation than that the Morgellons condition is very likely to be fundamentally a blood borne condition.  It is quite possible that the findings of this report demonstrate a key element of the Morgellons condition.  From additional extensive research that has been conducted, it appears likely that it affects the general population at large.  Any skin anomalies or surface manifestations appear to be just that, and they are not necessarily representative of the underlying causative factors.  It also appears unreasonable to use surface or skin manifestation as a primary criteria for assessing the extent and distribution of the condition.  It may be wise to consider the blood condition of the general population as a focal point of further investigation and research.  The associations of airborne and environmental factors also established through extensive research must also be given their due consideration.  

ADDITIONAL DETAILS:

Culture Development:

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Original extracted filamentous dental sample in red wine contained and held in a petri dish with lid.  This acts as the culture medium of this report.  This sample represents a total collection period of nine minutes of gum exposure to the wine solution; three segments of three minutes each, respectively.

After approximately two to four weeks, a filamentous growth form emerges on the surface of the wine (unanimous at this point).  This growth form is identical in nature at the microscopic level to previous dental cultures that have been reported on with the use of an agar medium.  A time lapse video of that growth is available on a previous report.

The earlier forms of the filamentous growth are pure white as in this sample.  This is identical to previous agar medium cultures that have been developed.  At this stage, the growth is approximately two to three days old.  The photographs in this collection are taken from more than one culture to demonstrate various stages of growth and development.

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The culture growth several days into development.  This stage produces greater variation in the surface structure.  Additional structure and color is introduced and appears visually to be more of a mold or fungus nature.  It is this stage which departs from the previous agar cultures and adds greater complexity to the form.  It appears that the nutrients within the wine are essential to reaching this stage of development,.

Further development of the filamentous form.  A convoluted surface is now a characteristic feature.  Some structures have been observed to reach approximately one inch in thickness with numerous folds before being constrained by the lid of the petri dish An additional difference between the agar medium and the wine medium is that growth on the agar medium can occur within 24 hours, whereas the wine medium requires approximately two to four weeks to begin the growth process..

The final form of development that has been reached by the culture growth.  Total time elapsed at this stage is approximately one to 1 1/2 months after the appearance of the original growth.  Total time elapsed is therefore on the order of two to three months after the original collection of the dental sample in the wine medium.  The growth form reaches a much greater degree of complexity than with the use of the agar medium.  The diameter of the growth is approximately three inches and appears to be constrained only by the petri dish boundary and available nutrients.  The structure is cohesive.  Thus far every dental sample observed has produced this growth form and only this growth form after the time lapse of two to three months.

Microscopic Analysis:

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What appears as a fully reconstituted ethrocyte on the left side of the photograph.  Diameter approximately 6 microns.  Biconcavity of structure is apparent.  A reconstitution process similar to that reported earlier on eyrthrocytic studies appears to also be in place within the wine medium.  Partial reconstitution appears to take place in the wine medium, additional reconstitution appears to take place over a 20 to 40 minute period under the light and heat of the microscope stage.  Additional partially reconstituted structures on the right side of the microphotograph.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

A set of largely or fully reconstituted erythrocytic structures.  Biconcavity characteristic of erythrocytes is apparent.  Original size at time of first observation is on the order of 4 to 5 microns in diameter.  Full biconcavity and uniform shape not apparent at beginning of observation period; this develops more fully under on the microscope stage as sample is subjected to additional light and heat.  Reconsitution takes place to a size range of 5-6 microns with largely uniform structure under these conditions.  Human blood cells are on the order of 6-8 microns in diameter.  Additional red blood cell size comparisons are available at Biological Observations Confirmed, Carnicom, 2001.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

A set of partial and mostly fully reconstituted erythrocytic structures.The non-reconstituted form is more typical of early observation in the session; it appears as though additional heat and/or light is responsible for the final reconstitution that takes place.  No budding or fission process characteristic of yeast cell reproduction is observed.  Biconcavity and size range is a unique identifying characteristic of erythrocytes.  If erythrocyte identification is accepted, species of blood remains unidentified.  It can also not be be stated that the reconstitution process is entirely complete.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

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Two main structural forms are visible with the culture growth: filaments and erythrocytic forms.  This microphotograph presents the filament aspect of the sample.  Dimorphic fungal forms such as Candida have also been a serious topic of consideration in this study.  Reconstitution, biconcavity and lack of budding or fission observed fails to support the conventional fungal hypothesis.  Additional forensic studies were conducted to eliminate ambiguity and they further confirm the tenets of this report.  Additional similar findings under different circumstances over the history of research on this site must now be be given further consideration.  Magnification approx.  2000x

A combination of a filament section with surrounding erythroctyic structures.  There does appear to be a relationship between the presence and origin of the presumed erythrocytes and the filament forms.  This relationship is not clearly defined at this time.  There are some indications that the filaments may be the source of origin for the presumed erythrocytes, but actual formation has not been observed..  It can be stated that there is no fission or budding that has been observed to date.  Time lapse imagery may shed further light on this issue.  Magnification approx.  1500-2000x.

A good example of variation in the reconstitution process.  Three primary changes take place during the reconstitution stage: First, the size of the presumed erythrocye increases, as if a dessication stage may have been breached.  The second is that uniformity of circular form develops.  Lastly, the biconcavity characteristic of erythrocytes develops.  This image shows examples of all three of these stages.  The structure at the lower left is in the original form observed.  The structure near the top and the structure to the lower right have increased in size, but they do not yet exhibit the biconcave stage of development.  The central two structures show reconstitution with increased size and biconcavity visible.  It is appropriate to compare the two central structures with the control image of a human blood cell in this series below.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

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A peculiar, but not unique example of structures within the filament form.  It is this image which brings to question the origin of the presumed erythrocytes.  It is also of interest to compare this image with the one that immediately follows to the right.  Magnification approx.  9000x. One of the early observations which promoted further detailed study.  The co-linear aspect of development raises further questions about the association and relationship between the filament form and the erythrocytic form.  It is not expected that erythrocytes in any natural arrangement would display this type of alignment.  At the lower right of the photograph may be evidence of a filament or vestiges of a filament.  It was during this observations that reconstitution was also observed, as biconcavity increased during the observation session.  Magnification approx.  9000x. A representative example of the combined filament and erythrocytic forms.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

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A control example and microphotograph of fairly uniform human blood cells, or erthrocytes.  The only visual difference between this control photograph and the reconstituted structures that are the basis of this report is that of size.  Human erythrocytes generally measure on the order of 6-8 microns in diameter.  The erythrocytic structures of this report, after apparent full reconstitution, are on the order of 5-6 microns.  A human hair is on the order of approx.  60-100 microns in thickness.  The presumptive forensic tests of this report do not establish a case of human blood, only that of blood and hemoglobin.  Questions of what is full reconstitution under optimal environmental conditions and consideration of species involved remain open questions.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

An example of the anomalous blood condition that has been the subject of numerous reports on this site.  The individual providing this blood sample produces a relatively large amount of the dental filaments during the wine extraction process.  The culture that developed from this individual was the quickest to appear; approximately two weeks were required vs. what can be up to four weeks for the other cases.  The culture growth from this individual was also extensive and rapid relative to other individuals.  The individual displays no known skin anomalies.  At this point, there appears to be a fairly strong and direct correlation between the conditions of the blood that have been observed along with anomalous physical manifestation, whether it be skin anomalies or the volume of dental materials removed.  Please see additional reports on this site for further description of the blood condition that is depicted here.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

Another example of the anomalous blood condition that has been described on numerous reports on this site.  Deformation of the cellular structure is apparent and common.  This individual is the same as that of the previous photograph.  Bacteria is also a strong consideration in this case; please refer to previous references to Chlamydia Pneumonia and its characteristics.  Essentially all individuals that have been observed in these studies show degree of these anomalies, regardless as to whether skin anomalies are present or not.  All individuals tested thus far produce some degree of the dental filaments.  All cultures mediums established thus far produce the culture form that is the subject of this report.  Magnification approx.  9000x.

All magnifications reported are prior to reduction of images for web site presentation.

Kastle-Meyer Blood Detection Forensic Test:
( Performed on Microscope Slide)

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View of cultured dental sample #1subjected to Kastle-Meyer blood detection forensic test.  Peroxide activity characteristic of hemolysis and phenolphthalein color change to bright pink-red is evident.  A positive presumptive test for the existence of blood within the cultured dental sample.  On glass microscope slide.The sample is dried prior to performing the test.  Magnification approx.  2x.

View of cultured dental sample #2 subjected to Kastle-Meyer blood detection forensic test.  Peroxide activity characteristic of hemolysis and phenolphthalein color change to bright pink-red is evident.  A positive presumptive test for the existence of blood within the cultured dental sample.  On glass microscope slide.  The sample is dried prior to performing the test.
Magnification approx.  2x.

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Control case for the Kastle-Meyer presumptive blood detection test.  View of human blood sample subjected to Kastle-Myer blood detection forensic test.  Peroxide activity characteristic of hemolysis and phenolphthalein color change to bright pink-red is evident.  A positive test result.  On glass microscope slide.  The blood is dried prior to performing the test.  Magnification approx.  2x.

Second control case for the Kastle-Meyer presumptive blood detection test.  No blood present in the sample.  No peroxide hemolysis evident and no color change.  A negative Kastle-Meyer forensic test result.  On glass microscope slide.  Magnification approx.  2x.

Summary : Both the human blood cell control test and the cultured dental samples produce the same visible physical
and chemical reactions at the visible level and satisfy the expected conditions of blood detection by the Kastle-Meyer forensic test.

Kastle-Meyer Blood Detection Forensic Test:
(Microscopic View)

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Microscopic view of human blood sample subjected to Kastle-Meyer blood detection forensic test.  Peroxide activity characteristic of hemolysis and phenolphthalein color change to bright pink-red is evident.
Magnification approx.  600x.

Microscopic view of cultured dental sample #1 subjected to Kastle-Meyer blood detection forensic test.  Peroxide activity characteristic of hemolysis and phenolphthalein color change to bright pink-red is evident.
Magnification approx.  600x.

Microscopic view of cultured dental sample #2 subjected to Kastle-Meyer blood detection forensic test.  Peroxide activity characteristic of hemolysis and phenolphthalein color change to bright pink-red is evident.
Magnification approx.  600x.

Summary : Both the human blood cell control test and the cultured dental samples produce the same visible physical
and chemical reactions at the microscopic level and satisfy the expected conditions of blood detection by the Kastle-Meyer forensic test.

HEMASTIX (TMB) Blood Detection Forensic Test:

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HEMASTIX control blood test.  The lower stick is that of a negative, i.e., no blood of any trace evident.  The upper stick is a positive test that corresponds to one to two drops of human blood in 50 milliliters of distilled water.  The HEMASTIX test is positive for the existence of blood essentially if any green to blue-green tint shows on the stick after a time interval of 60 seconds.  The HEMASTIX test (TMB) is highly sensitive to the existence of blood in a sample.  Magnification approx.2x.

Positive HEMASTIX test result when
exposed to dental culture sample #1.  The sample is prepared by extraction of a small portion of the filamentous growth which is then placed on a glass slide.  The sample is mechanically broken down with a scalpel and the HEMASTIX is exposed to the surrounding solution.  The results are recorded at the stated time of 60 seconds.  The cultured dental sample produces a positive test for the existence of blood.
Magnification approx.2x.

Positive HEMASTIX test result when
exposed to dental culture sample #2.  The sample is prepared by extraction of a small portion of the filamentous growth which is then placed on a glass slide.  The sample is mechanically broken down with a scalpel and the HEMASTIX is exposed to the surrounding solution.  The results are recorded at the stated time of 60 seconds.  The cultured dental sample produces a positive test for the existence of blood..  Magnification approx 2x.

Summary : Both the human blood cell control test and the cultured dental samples produce the same visible physical
and chemical reactions and satisfy the expected conditions of blood detection by the HEMASTIX forensic test.

FIRST GROWTH INHIBITION STUDY:

An initial growth inhibition study follows below.
This information is of a preliminary nature only and the details of the study will not be presented at this time.
Copper sulfate can be toxic or lethal to the human species in sufficient quantity.
I repeat that no medical advice or diagnosis is presented in this paper.
NO ONE is advised to experiment with the ingestion of copper sulfate under any conditions as a basis of this report.
All individuals are advised to consult with a medical professional for any medical related issues.

This presentation is for information purposes only.

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Control Culture.  Growth is rapid, extensive and described as above.

A separate culture exposed to a solution of copper sulfate and the original wine base for approximately three days.  Growth of the culture appears to have ceased at the time of exposure to the copper sulphate. Over the next several days, discoloration of the culture takes place to a red-brown cast.   Additional study is required.  Details of the study will follow later as time and circumstances permit.


Additional Note:

The Carnicom Institute now exists as a non-profit corporation registered in the state of New Mexico.  

Those that wish to support the mission and goals of the Carnicom Institute may make contact at the following web address:

http://www.carnicominstitute.org

or at:

Carnicom Institute
PO Box 355
Wallace, ID
83873
USA