A Point of Reckoning : Part II

A Point of Reckoning:
Part II

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 13 2017

Lead_Diagram.jpg

 

The organic signature of various proteins that have been isolated from differing sample types and environments has been established to a high level of similarity. The various protein samples have been isolated from:

  1. An identified microorganism (tentatively designated as a cross-domain bacteria, CDB) that has been studied extensively and that is associated with the “Morgellons” condition.
  2. A High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) air filter.
  3. A concentrated rainfall sample.

 

The laboratory methods of analysis include that of:

  1. Organic extraction methods
  2. Liquid column (low pressure) chromatography
  3. Ultraviolet spectroscopy
  4. Visible light spectroscopy (colorimetric test)
  5. Bradford test for protein
  6. Infrared Analysis

 

Additional relevant papers on these and related samples also appear on this site within the research library.

 

Protein Comparison CDB HEPA Rain Aug 16 2017 - 01.JPEG

Infrared analysis and comparison of proteins isolated from a microorganism (CDB) culture, HEPA air filter and rainfall concentrate sample. The concentrations of the samples and the methods and complexity of preparation and protein isolation are vastly different in all cases; nevertheless, a high degree of similarity is apparent with specific functional group signature features. This is especially the case within the ‘functional group’ window within the spectra. The presence of the thiocyanate/isothiocyanate functional group in all samples is an additional highly significant and distinctive feature posing important health considerations.

 

Rainfall Condensed Sample Protein against Control Aug 21 2017.jpg LC HEPA Separation Bradford Verfication Aug 20 2017.jpg
An example of visible light spectral analysis of the Bradford colorimetric test for proteins applied to the rainfall concentrate sample. The Bradford reagent test and VIS-IR spectral analyses have been applied to all sample types identified within this report. Bradford colorimetric test for protein within rainfall concentrate sample.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 13 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Morgellons & Carbon Monoxide

Morgellons & Carbon Monoxide

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 14 2016
(To Be Continued)

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

Methods have been developed that confirm the existence of carbon monoxide gas production by the microorganism identified as a source of the “Morgellons” condition.  The existence of this gas as a repeatable and identifiable phenomenon from the metabolism of the microorganism poses a host of serious health implications to consider.

The presence of the gas during growth was first established and identified with the methods of gas chromatography.  Carbon dioxide production is in the majority proportion and carbon monoxide accompanies this in a lower proportion, as is shown below.

CDB CO2_CO Production2

Reference gas chromatogram depicting a comparison between carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide isolated from automobile exhaust and that of the microorganism (CDB).  Retention times correspond and support the identification of both carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide production.

As described in previous papers, the tentative nomenclature for the microorganism has been designated as a “cross-domain bacteria“, or CDB.  This terminology remains in place by this researcher as study continues; all evidence does continue to support the hypothesis of a predominant bacterial origin and nature.

The conclusions regarding the gas as a product of metabolism have been further confirmed with the use of infrared spectrometry.  The carbon dioxide spectrum (gas) presents strong absorbance peaks in the 2100 – 2200 cm-1 wavenumber range.  These peaks have been repeatedly identified within the gaseous samples from the CDB microorganism.

CDB Gas Production CO Segment Average Aug 13 2016 - 13

Infrared spectrum of the gaseous metabolic product from the CDB.  Absorbance in the 2100 – 2200 cm-1 wavenumber range has been repeatedly identified, and is shown above.  This absorbance in this specific infrared range further supports the conclusion of carbon monoxide production by the microorganism.

CO2_NIST_Gas

 Reference spectrum of gaseous carbon monoxide.  Absorbance in the 2100-2200 cm-1 wavenumber range exists as a unique identifying characteristic of the gas.  Source of image : NIST

Gas chromatography and infrared spectrometry methods, applied repeatedly to multiple samples of CDB growth, both support the conclusions of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide production reached in this report.

The concentration of carbon dioxide within the samples is relatively high and easily detected.  The concentration of carbon monoxide is lower, and is at roughly the limits of detection with the instrumentation available.  A first and partial estimate of the carbon monoxide concentration is on the order of 50-100 parts per million (ppm) within the sample volumes examined.  The existence of continuous gas production by the CDB, irrespective of concentrations to be determined in the future, is sufficient to warrant serious health impact investigations.

Additional gaseous production, such as that from hydrocarbons, remains an additional topic of investigation and remains for future discussions.

The primary purpose of this paper is to disclose the result in preparation for future examinations.  A few historical and leading comments will be made with respect to the health issues that warrant mention, but this topic is obviously deserving of its own discussion in future days.

The finding is, of course, of significance.  However, for those familiar with the history of research on this site, the disclosure should not be one of total surprise.  There is now a record over several years of an ongoing chronicle of reported and expected interference with major systems of the body from the Morgellons condition.  This interference and damage to human health most emphatically concerns all aspects of energy production, oxygen transport, iron utilization and respiration.  It has been reported on continuously for a period of many years now.  What differs in the the current situation is that a primary mechanism for a portion of that harm may be under definition.

I will spare the reader of citing the legacy of work on this site that is completely and totally consistent with a finding of carbon monoxide within the metabolism of the organism; I do, however, encourage that investigation to understand the depth of work that leads us to this occasion.

The most immediate need will be a preview to some of the potential health risks from carbon monoxide in the body.  I would suggest that a focal point of investigation be that of chronic low level exposure and the associated symptoms and conditions that might result. Higher concentration impacts, for a myriad of practical reasons, would not seem to be relevant at this time. Carbon monoxide and human health is serious business no matter how you choose to look at it.   It will also be of interest in our future to compare the low level exposure symptoms with those that will, in due time, become known from the investigative survey (MRP) conducted by this Institute.  The investigations will be complicated further by the broad array of disruptors that been brought forth in the course of the research over many years.

It will also be of interest to investigate those groups of bacteria or related microorganisms that share in the property of producing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and/or various hydrocarbons within their metabolism.  The commonality of that trait will also be of interest.

Let us look at the latter question first.

To Be Continued

Morgellons : An International Presence

Morgellons:

An International Presence

by

Clifford E Carnicom

Aug 10 2016

In an effort to provide continuing documentation of the Morgellons condition, the following images are provided.   The magnification of the series progresses from approximately 100x to 5000x. The samples originate from the scalp of an individual and multiple examples have been provided under clean and controlled conditions.  The network of filaments, although compact and dense, is completely commensurate with previous samples that have been examined over the years.

The filament networks taken from the skin of the affected individual come from a person that resides in France.  Overwhelming evidence continues to mount that the source of the condition is environmental  in nature, origin and distribution. This most recent example demonstrates the international scope of the this continuing and unaddressed public health issue.

scalp_100-01

Low power image (top lit) of a representative filament network taken from the skin of the individual.  The sample, in general, is difficult to image because of the density of the network.  The samples measure approximately 1 mm in length.  Various microscopy configurations have been used to collect these images. 

Magnification approx. 100x.

scalp_350-01

A silhouette view on the edge of the filament network.

Magnification approx. 350x.

scalp_1500-01

First level of internal detail of filament network becomes visible.

Magnification approx. 1500x.

scalp_5000-01

The complex internal nature of filament network is revealed.  Extensive discussion on the internal structure of the filament form of growth exists on this site.

Magnification approx. 5000x.

CDB Lipids : An Introductory Analysis

CDB Lipids : An Introductory Analysis

Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 12 2015
Edited May 29 2016

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective. 

An introductory qualitative and analytical analysis of certain lipids that have been extracted from the cross-domain bacteria (CDB), as they are designated on an interim level by this researcher, has been made.   Lipids are a primary biological molecule within any living organism and future studies of this component will be of the greatest importance.

Several major characteristics have been identified using modest means and methods, and the results bring to the forefront additional unusual properties of the organism under study with respect to the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  There are, potentially, several important health implications that arise from this recent work; these health factors are in complete accord with the historical record of discovery and examination that is available on this site.  This paper will be relatively brief in coverage but it will,  hopefully,  serve to reiterate certain themes and directions of research that remain to be confronted by society and that are deserving of appropriate support and resources.

The primary characteristics or factors that have been identified in the course of this study are:

1.  The lipids from the CDB appear to be highly non-polar in nature.

2.  The lipids have a relatively high index of refraction.

3. The lipids appear to be composed, in the main, from long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids.

4. The lipids appear to support combustion (i.e., oxidation) with ease.

5. The lipids appear to react readily with the halogens, such as iodine.

6. The visible light spectrum of the lipid – iodine reaction is unique and it serves as an additional means of identification.  Peak absorbance of the reaction is at  approximately 498 nanometers.

7.  A significant portion of the extracted lipids is expected to originate from the membranes of the CDB.

8. Endoxtoxins within the CDB are suspected to exist and this subject remains as a serious prospect for research in the future.

These characteristics will now be discussed in greater detail to formulate a general but composite assessment of the lipid character, as well as a reference to certain health impacts that are necessary to consider.

polarity
Variable Solubility of the Lipids as it Relates to Polarity

Polarity is a defining property of a molecular structure, and it is a measure of the distribution of charges within a molecule.  Non-polar molecules are generally symmetric in their nature with a tendency toward an equal and symmetric distribution of charges.  Polar molecules, in contrast, are usually of an asymmetric nature with the charges on the molecule unevenly distributed.  Information on polarity, therefore, provides some generalized nature as to the form or nature of the molecule or substance under study.

In this photo, The lipids are mixed with a mildly polar solvent in the tube to the left in the photo; a clear separation remains after settling.  In contrast, the lipids dissolve much more readily in a highly polar solution to the right in the photograph.

The significance of this result is as follows:

Fatty acids are a dominant component of many lipids.  They are comprised of a carboxyl group that is attached to a hydrocarbon chain.  The length of this chain can vary depending upon the particular fatty acid that is involved.  The carboxyl group is polar in nature and therefore the charge distribution on that particular functional group is asymmetric.  The carboxyl group is also acidic in nature and this is the origin of the name of fatty acids that is attached to this common lipid structure.

The hydrocarbon chain that is attached to the carboxyl group is generally of a non-polar nature, and it serves to counteract the polar effect from the carboxyl group.  Therefore, the more non-polar the lipid is, the more likely it is that the hydrocarbon is of relative greater length.  A very long hydrocarbon chain (non-polar) will tend to dominate the character of the molecule in this case and ultimately make the molecule less polar.

This relationship between the polarity of and the length of the attached hydrocarbon chain provides our first useful interpretation as to the structure of the lipid molecule.  Some lipids are more or less polar than others; a highly polar lipid is indicative of lengthy hydrocarbon chains within the fatty acid.  The longer the fatty acid is, the more complex the lipid structure or interactions with other molecules is likely to be.  The structure of any molecule is of the highest importance, as one of the dogmas of biology is that structure determines function.  We are after both, structure and function, and usually in that same order. 

A couple of examples of short vs. long chain fatty acids follows; it can be seen that the differences in form and structure can be substantial:

Short Chain Fatty Acids

Short Chain Fatty Acids
Image Source : intechopen.com

The specific conclusion in this case is that we are more likely to be dealing with a lipid form that contains more extensive hydrocarbon chains.

The next topic of interest concerns the index of refraction.  The index of refraction is a measure of the ability of a substance to bend a light wave that passes through it.  It is also a measure of the speed of light though that same material.  It is also an important defining physical property of a substance, and its measurement can be made with relative ease and modest cost.  Tables of the index of refraction for a wide variety of substances, including lipids and oils are readily available for comparison purposes.

The index of refraction for the lipids under examination measures at 1.487 as the average between two different samples.  The instrument has been calibrated with numerous comparison oil samples and is performing accurately and reliably.  The estimated error of the measurement is +/- .001.

The measurement of 1.487 is a relatively high index of refraction, especially as far as oils are concerned.  This higher measurement also leads to interpretations of significance as we shall soon discover.

There is a relationship between the index of refraction and the degree of saturation within a fatty acid or lipid.  The saturation level (i.e., saturated vs unsaturated) property of a lipid is also a very important characteristic as it expresses itself in terms of the the bond types within the molecule; this is an additional aspect of structure that we have declared as our pursuit.

Let us begin with the definitions for saturated vs. unsaturated fats.  A saturated fat is one in which a full complement of attached hydrogen atoms exists.  A saturated fat contains only single bonds between the carbon atoms.  An unsaturated fat, in contrast, has double (or higher) bonds between the carbon atoms, and there will be fewer hydrogen atoms attached as a result.  Let us present a couple of images to clarify the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats.

An example of a saturated vs. an unsaturated fat

An example of a saturated vs. an unsaturated fat
image source : staff.jccc.net

In addition, a distinction should be made between mono-unsaturated fats and poly-unsaturated fats.  In essence, a mono-saturated fat has a single double carbon bond within the hydrocarbon chain and a poly-unsaturated fat has more than one double carbon bond within the chain.  The image below shows this difference

2012books.lardbucket.org
The top image shows another example of a saturated fat.
The lower two images show the distinction between monounsaturated and polysaturated fats.
Notice the number of number of double carbon bonds present in the latter examples.
image source : 2012books.lardbucket.org

As information is gained, let us never lose sight of the end goal:The more that can be understood about the structure of a biological molecule, the closer that we are towards learning about the behavior, interaction and function of that molecular structure.  This information is a prerequisite toward the design of effective mitigation strategies.  While much of this pursuit remains in our future, we nevertheless can report the modest levels of progress as they occur, albeit under restricted conditions.

Now that we understand the variations of saturation within fats and oils (lipids), let us return to something that can be measured to give us information about the state of saturation within a lipid.  Once such measurement is the index of refraction, as has been referred to above.

It will be found in the literature that that there is a ‘relationship’ between the degree of saturation in a fat and the ‘iodine number’.  The iodine number is a measure of the level of absorption of iodine by fats, and this number can be used in turn to infer the degree of saturation by that same lipid or fat.  The method is commonly used in the food industry to determine the quality of fats.  The degree of fat saturation is a variable of high interest within the food industry as it affects the spoilage rate and this in turn affects the economics of the food industry.  There are many important reasons to understand the qualitative characteristics of lipids beyond our immediate interest in the ‘Morgellons’ issue.

Determination of the iodine number is a more demanding laboratory method and it requires additional time, protocols and reagents in comparison to alternative methods that have developed within this study.

There is, however, a more accessible method to fulfill our immediate need, and that is to get some sense of the likely saturation level of this particular lipid.  It will be found, with study, that there is also a relationship that can be established between the index of refraction of an oil and the iodine number of that same oil.  An increase in the iodine number is indicative of a higher unsaturation level and in parallel it will be found that a higher index of refraction is strongly correlated with a higher iodine number.  We are able, therefore, to make an equally viable interpretation of the saturation (i.e, unsaturation as well) level with the use of the index of refraction as our primary dependent variable.  Ultimately, a higher iodine number estimate will indicate a higher level of unsaturation within the lipid.  Such a relationship has been researched and established as presented below.

linear reg

Several different oil types have been investigated and the correlation between the index of refraction is reasonably strong (r = 0.92, n = 13).  The accuracy of the refractometer in use has been included as a part of the study.  The result of this work is that a viable method to estimate the level of relative saturation from a direct measurement of the index of refraction of the lipid under study now exists.

The application of the linear regression model to the measured index of refraction (1.487) yields an estimate for the iodine value as 218.  This magnitude for the estimated iodine value is extremely high and it is significant in its own right.

The conclusion to be reached from this iodine value is meaningful.  This stage of the study indicates that the character of the lipid is more likely to be that of a highly poly-unsaturated lipid.  This result is corroborative with the first interpretation of a relatively lengthy fatty acid chain within the lipid structure.  These two interpretations are mutually supportive of one another.  This means that the lipid hydrocarbon chains are more likely to be lengthy with several double carbon bonds along the chain.  This, in turn, will affect the structure as double bonds cause a bend to take place in the hydrocarbon chain.  Several double bonds would only enhance that feature further.

In addition, double bonds within a hydrocarbon chain have another likely and important result.  They are much more likely to produce chemical reactions.  Two likely candidates for reaction are oxygen and the halogens.  Lipids with a high iodine value are more subject to oxidation and therefore have a greater likelihood of becoming rancid (spoiled).  High iodine level lipids are also more likely to produce free radicals.  Lastly, highly polyunsaturated lipids are more likely to polymerize (i.e, ‘plasticize).  Each of these impacts offer the prospect of additional harm to the body, and great attention to the effects of oxidation and free radicals has been given in the history of research on this site. 

There is a wealth of information that is available on the health risks associated with polyunsaturated fats.  The following citations are a couple of representative examples of the issues involved, the first from a lay standpoint and the second from the Commission of European Communities:

Reports of the Scientific Committee for FoodsSource : Reports of the Scientific Committee for Foods, Commission of European Communities

Readers may recall the extensive attention that has given within this site to the role that antioxidants can play in the mitigation of excessive oxidation to the body.  Those discussions, once again, appear to be especially relevant in the amelioration of the harmful influences of polyunsaturated fats. The impact of halogens to the thyroid and metabolism have also been extensively discussed on this site and we will return to that topic later in this paper as well.

The issue of oxidation in combination with combustion tests should now be raised.  The tests, at this stage of investigation, indicate that this particular species of lipids may be highly subject to the process of oxidation.  The purity of the sample can not be quantified at this point since there may be other compounds present within the lipid samples.  However, all indications are that the character of the lipids is somewhat unusual with respect to oxidation and, for that matter, combustion.

The lipids that have been extracted ignite easily, as is shown in the photograph below on the left side:

Lipid Combustion Tests 1  Lipid Combustion Tests 2
Lipid Combustion Tests 3
Lipid Combustion Tests

In this case, the method involves placing a small amount of the lipids into a watchglass with a small piece of paper acting as a wick.  The lipids burn easily and steadily under these conditions, and the behavior is somewhat akin to lamp oil.  Due to the biological and apparent polyunsaturated nature of the lipids, a comparison might be made with whale oil, which was an important source of fuel in earlier times.  There is no suggestion here that the lipids are chemically identical to whale oil by any means, however, the fish oils and whale oil share many interesting properties of the highly polyunsaturated fats. The photograph on the right shows the wick remaining at the end of combustion; this demonstrates that the oil itself is the primary source of fuel within combustion. The last photograph shows an inclusive example of the failure of any of the other tested lipids or oils to support direct combustion.

Combustion goes hand in hand with oxidation; something that burns oxidizes. It is of interest that of all the other oils tested under similar conditions (approximately 8 varieties of varying degrees of unsaturation), only the lipids under examination here showed any ease of combustion at the level shown within the photographs.  Along with the highest index of refraction found within the group that has been examined, the dramatic display of combustion of the sample further reinforces the case for a lipid that is highly unsaturated and thus prone to excessive oxidation.  This finding is once again corroborative of the extensive case for excessive oxidation within the body that occurs in association with the ‘Morgellons’ condition; readers may also recall the lengthy discussions on the apparent marked oxidation of iron within during the examination of blood samples.  All signs of the accumulated research indicate that excessive oxidation within the body is one of the most likely outcomes expected to be found within any future studies of the ‘Morgellons’ condition.  Preliminary data from early questionnaires submitted to the public also strongly indicates this same result.

There are at least two primary forms of lipids in the body, one for storage of energy within the cells and another within the membranes of the cell, where they act to to encapsulate and protect the cell.  Saturated fats are more likely to be associated with the storage of energy internal to the cell and unsaturated fats are more likely to be associated with the membranes of a cell .  Phospholipids are a very important class of lipids that are found within the cell membranes.   The degree of unsaturation within phospholipids varies, with one or both tails having double carbon bonds (the site of oxidation).  An image of a representative phospholipid follows:

Phospholipid
Phospholipid within a Cell Membrane
Source : wikipedia.com

The oxidation of lipids is referred to as lipid peroxidation, and it is especially prone to occur with polyunsaturated lipids, as we appear to have in this case.  Phospholipids (a bi-layer) are a major constituent of cell membranes, and the oxidation of these lipids subsequently causes damage to the cell.  Lipid peroxidation is essentially the theft of electrons from the lipids in the membranes and it occurs as a free radical chain reaction.  The oxidation occurs when there is an excess availability of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species. The point of oxidation will be the location of the double bond, which occurs at the bent location within the unsaturated fatty acid tail, as shown in the picture above.  An illustration of the lipid peroxidation reaction is shown below; notice the site of activity at the carbon double bond:

peroxidation
Source : Colorado State University

It appears to be the case at this point that the CDB contain within them a highly polyunsaturated fat and/or fatty acids, most likely to occur within the membranes of the CDB, and that the CDB may therefore be subject to, or result in, lipid peroxidation in the presence of free radicals.  This process, once started, is a chain reaction and is only terminated in the presence of appropriate antioxidants, such as Vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase, transferrin (binding free iron), enzymes (such as catalase), in addition to others[see Robbins above].  As shown within earlier culture trials, Vitamin C and NAC (N-acetyl cysteine acting as a glutathione precursor) may show themselves to be effective antioxidants as well.  The issue of oxidants vs. antioxidants has emerged earlier within the research and this information remains available to review.  Those seeking therapeutic protocols dependent upon oxidizing protocols vs. antioxidant protocols may wish to examine further the fundamental differences that are apparent within the scientific literature.  Each individual must , of course, seek health consultation that is appropriate to their individual needs.

Another more complete description of lipid peroxidation comes from Robbins Pathologic Basic of Disease, 4th Edition, where the following sequence is described:

“Lipid peroxidation is one well-studied…mechanism of free radical injury.  It it initiated by hydroxyl radicals, which react with unsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids to generate organic acid free radicals, which in turn react quickly with oxygen to form peroxides.  Peroxides themselves then act as free radicals, initiating an autocatalytic chain reaction, resulting in further loss of unsaturated fatty acids and in extensive membrane damage”

To reiterate the attention that has been given in the research to the oxidation and antioxidant issues in the case of ‘Morgellons’, please recall some of the earlier papers (this paper included) that complement this discussion:

Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal – February 2010
Morgellons : Growth Inhibition Confirmed – March 2010
Morgellons : The Extent of the Problem – June 2010
Morgellons : In the Laboratory – May 2011
Morgellons : A Thesis – October 2011
Morgellons : The Breaking of Bonds and Reduction of Iron – November 2012
Amino Acids Verified – November 2012
Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis : Part I – December 2013
Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis : Part II – December 2013
Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis : Part III – December 2013
Growth Inhibition Achieved – January 2014
Biofilm, CDB and Vitamin C – April 2014
CDB : General Characteristics (In Progress) – July 2014
CDB Lipids : An Introductory Analysis – March 2015

Lipid peroxidation is a complex area for study, however, the importance of doing so can be understood from the following statement by Marisso Repetto, from the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Argentina:

“Currently, lipid peroxidation is considered [as one of] the main molecular mechanisms involved in the oxidative damage to cell structures and in the toxicity process that lead[s] to cell death.”

The complete paper is detailed but insightful,  and it demonstrates the extensive research that is now available on the subject of lipid peroxidation.  The paper in its entirety may be accessed here.


Let us introduce an observed reaction with one of the halogens, in this case, iodine. The reaction is shown below on the right hand side, and in comparison to a negative reaction with vegetable oil on the left. Similar to the case of combustion from above, the CBD lipids under study are the only lipids (of approximately eight in comparison) that have displayed this pronounced reaction with iodine. It appears to be a unique, important and characteristic reaction.

CBD Lipids

It is understood that iodine reacts with lipids; in fact, this is the very basis of the ‘iodine number’ method and it is used as a measure of the unsaturation level of the lipid.  The higher the iodine level, the higher the level of unsaturation in the lipid.  We have already discussed the relationship between the iodine number and correlation with the index of refraction, and we have very good reason to suspect a very high level of unsaturation within the lipids examined.

What is under discussion here is the formation of a bright red colored iodine complex which, thus far, presents itself only within this particular lipid form, at least in relation to numerous sample types that it has been compared with.  The colored complex reaction formed is, in itself, worthy of continued chemical analysis and investigation.  This reaction has not occurred in like fashion to any other lipid samples examined thus far.  The nature of the complex is not completely understood at this time;  the consideration of an iron-lipid-iodine or transition metal complex, however, is extremely high on the list of possibilities.

What can be concluded from visible light spectroscopy, however, is that the colored complex formed once again assures us that we are dealing with a structure that contains numerous double carbon bonds.  Visible light spectroscopy is highly dependent upon what is termed conjugation; conjugation is a molecular structure that is based upon alternating single and double carbon bonds.  The greater the degree of conjugation, the longer the wavelength of the color that will be absorbed.  An example of a highly conjugated form is as follows:

 An example of a conjugated structure within a chromophore
An example of a conjugated structure within a chromophore
(portion of a molecule that absorbs color).
Source : wikipedia

Notice the numerous alternating single and double bonds in the above structure.  Chromophores are especially likely to form with compounds that involve the transition metals, such as iron.  The color of the complex lends itself well to visual light spectrometry and a spectral plot of the CDB complex formation in the visible light range is shown below:

 Visible Light Spectrum of the CDB Lipid-Iodine Complex
Visible Light Spectrum of the CDB Lipid-Iodine Complex

The peak absorbance occurs at approximately 498 nanometers.  This spectral examination of the lipid-iodine complex is an important identification method to establish the presence or existence of this particular CDB lipid form.

The identification of an iron-lipid-iodine complex is further substantiated with tests for the detection of iron using 1,10 phenanthroline reagent in combination with the lipids in a mildly polar solution.  These initial tests are weak in color but nevertheless positive for the presence of the Fe+2 ion within the CDB lipids.  This finding is in coincidence with the paramount conclusion of significant Fe+2 iron use and metabolism by the CDB, as it has been discussed extensively within earlier papers.

The impact of halogens upon the body has been discussed extensively in earlier work and it will not be repeated here.  Readers are referred to the paper entitled Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis (esp. Parts II & III) for the important effects and toxicity potential discussed therein.

 


The next topic of importance to discuss is that of polymerization.  A polymer is a molecular structure that is composed of many repeating smaller units.  They can be either synthetic or natural, and they usually have a large molecular mass compared to that of the basic structural unit.  Latex and Styrofoam are examples of both a natural and a synthetic polymer.  The architecture and length of the polymer chains strongly affect the physical properties of the polymer, such as elasticity, melting point, and solubility, amongst others.  A diagram of various structural forms is shown below:

polymers
Source : Wikipedia

The reason that polymerization is relevant here is that unsaturated lipids are prone to polymerization.  The higher the degree of unsaturation, the more likely that polymerization will take place.  This is due to the oxidation at the double carbon bonds that have been brought to attention repeatedly here.  A familiar example of polymerization to many of us is with the use of linseed oil.  Linseed oil is a highly unsaturated lipid that is applied to furniture as a protective coating; this is one of the so-called “drying oils”.  As this type of oil weathers (or oxidizes), it will form a harder and protective coating over the wood surface.  This is an excellent example of the oxidation of a highly unsaturated oil, or lipid, that produces a polymer.  As mentioned, polymers can vary widely in their physical properties, and the plastics are an excellent additional example of synthetic polymers.  Oil paints that artists use are another example of the “drying oils” that share these same characteristics.

It appears that the probability of polymerization for the CDB lipid complex appears to be high at this point, as all of the prerequisite characteristics appear to be in place.  It appears to be highly unsaturated and therefore subject to oxidation as has been detailed above.  This places us on the alert that the CDB lipids may be a candidate to produce polymers which, in general, would be anticipated to cause harm if internal to the body.

With respect to lipid discovery and extraction, we would be remiss if the subject of endotoxins was not again introduced.  Readers may recall that all tests conducted on the CDB to date indicate that they are Gram-negative.  A Gram-negative test is important for bacteria as it indicates at least three characteristics of importance:

1. The cell walls are lipid-rich in comparison to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. The negative test indicates the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) within the cell wall; lipopolysaccharides are essentially synonymous with endotoxins.
3. Pathogenic bacteria are often associated with endotoxins.

Let us visually compare the cell walls of a Gram-positive bacteria vs. a Gram-negative bacteria:

Gram-positive bacteria vs. a Gram-negative bacteria

Source : microbewiki.kenyon.edu

There are distinctive differences that can be noticed.  Starting from the bottom, we can see that both cells contain phospholipids (the lipid bi-layer presented earlier).  The Gram-negative cell, however, is lipid rich, while the Gram-positive cells have a much lower lipid content. The lipid content of the Gram-negative cell wall is approximately 20-30%, which is very high compared to the Gram-negative cell wall.  The relatively high volume of lipids that have been extracted from the CDB are supportive of the Gram-negative test result.

In the Gram-negative cell, the peptidoglycan layer is about 5-20% by dry weight of the cell wall; in the Gram-positive cell the peptidoglycan layer is about 50-90% of the cell wall by dry weight.  Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of amino acids and sugars.

Gram negative bacteria are generally more resistant to antibiotics than Gram-negative bacteria.  In consideration of the cross-domain terminology currently in use, it is of interest to note that the archaea can be either Gram-negative or Gram-positive; the archaea and the eukaryotes remain under equal consideration within the studies.  It is also of interest to know that until relatively recent times that the archaea were classified as bacteria and that the classification systems of biology remain dynamic.

A central difference between the two forms, beyond the relative lipid content and peptidoglycan layer, is the presence of lipopolysaccarides (LPS) on the Gram-negative bacteria.  LPS, or endotoxins, elicit a strong immune response in animals.

Aerosolized endotoxins are known to have a significant effect upon the pulmonary system and chronic exposures are known to increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  COPD is now the third leading cause of death in the United States. Sub-lethal doses cause fluctuations in body temperature (short term increases and longer term decreases),  and changes in the blood, immune, endocrine systems and metabolism.  They can result in “flu-like” symptoms, cough, headache and respiratory distress.  They are linked to increases in asthma and chronic bronchitis.  There are no regulatory standards for the levels of endotoxins in the environment (source : National Resources Defense Council).

Endotoxins are associated with increased weight gain, obesity, gum and dental infections and diabetes. A linkage with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome exists, as well as with atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, chronic conditions, cardiovascular disease and Parkinson’s Disease.  The condition of endotoxins within the blood is referred to as endotoxemia.

There may be a discomforting familiarity with the above symptoms in correlation with the so-called “Morgellons” condition; this familiarity justifies intensive research into the potential linkage between “Morgellons” and endotoxins.


Lastly, let us now review an infrared investigation into the nature of the extracted lipids.


Infrared Spectrum of CDB Lipids

Although a low resolution IR spectrophotometer has been used for this project, a very clear spectrum has been obtained.  The spectrum is dominated by peaks at 2900 cm-1 and 1700 cm-1.   The 2900 cm-1 peak can be attributed to sp3 single carbon-hydrogen bonds.  This functional group is perfectly in accord with the structure that forms the core of a fatty acid, as:

source :http:chemwiki.ucdavis.edu

In addition, the peak at 1700 cm-1 can be attributed to carbon-oxygen double bonding, also in perfect accord with an unsaturated fatty acid, subject to oxidations as extensively described in this report.

A probability model has been developed for the analysis of infrared spectrums, subject to the constraints of the technology available to the Institute. The application of the model to the infrared spectrum above presents the following relative probabilities for the existence of the various functional groups:

Functional Group Relative Probability of Existence
Ketones 90%
Alkanes 70%
Aldehyde 60%
Carboxylic Acid 45%
Phosphonate 45%
Silane 37%
Phosphonic Acid 30%
Ether 30%
Ester 30%
Amide 20%
Phosphine 20%
Sulfate 15%

An analysis of the above probability table will demonstrate that it is highly dominated by the combination and presence of carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen single and double bonds functional groups.  The study and examination of the high probability functional groups and their potential impacts upon health will continue; the strong appearance of the ketone and aldehyde groups with a double carbon-oxygen bond (carbonyl group) is also of high interest here; the aldehydes are very easily subject to oxidation.  The potential presence of impurities within the sample will also need to be examined further, including those that might be a part of the extraction process.

All assessments in this report are highly corroborative of one another and they support the assessment of a highly unsaturated lipid, and all that this entails, as comprising a core structure of the CDB extraction that has taken place.

 

Additional Note:

Some additional analysis of biomolecules with the use of more capable and advanced infrared spectroscopy instrumentation has been completed as of May 2016.  The structural information identified continues to support the hypothesis that the CDB derive from the bacterial domain and this remains a primary focal point of research as to its origin.  The degree of overlap of genetics, if any, with the remaining archaea or eukaryote domains remains an open topic of research.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 12 2015
Edited May 29 2016

born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

CDB: Growth Progressions

CDB : Growth Progressions

Clifford E Carnicom
Jun 13 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

This paper will outline specific, identifiable and repeatable growth stages of the cross-domain bacteria (CDB) and its associated forms.  It will be seen that a wide variety of growth forms will ultimately emerge from what appears to be a simple, non-descript spherical living entity; as such the term ‘pleomorphic’ is fully justified in this presentation.  This is the case even when the study is restricted to the most primitive form of existence (i.e., the CDB) and this sets the stage to for us anticipate a high level of survivability and adaptability for the organism.  Thus far, this has certainly been proven to be the case, as the means to eradicate or destroy the organism in any meaningful way appears to be unavailable under the current state of knowledge.

The outline of presentation is based primarily upon chronology.  The simpler and more primitive states of existence will be introduced first; these will  be followed by more complex or advanced stages of growth.  In general, the time period of examination here covers up to approximately two months of time under controlled culture conditions.  It is understood that abundant reports of even more diverse and less understood growth formations exist, and those studies await us by the moment.  The objective here, however,  is to introduce in a systematic way that which can be replicated and documented under known conditions.

CDB - Primitive Form

CDB – Primitive Form
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

This image above represents the basis of all subsequent work here.  It is an explicit image of the cross-domain bacteria (CDB) themselves, as the term has been tentatively adopted by this researcher.  The evolution of that terminology, along with the rationale for its use, has been described in greater detail within the paper entitled Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation (Mar 2014).  The terminology, as expressed, is not intended to be restrictive in any sense and future discretions should and will allow this terminology to modify itself should circumstances and knowledge dictate.  What has been done is to introduce and force into the discussion a reference point from which earnest discussion and progress in the scientific community, and in society as a whole, can be made.  Fair-minded terminology at this stage of waiting (i.e, more than a decade) does not restrict us; in contrast, it will force us to discover what is true or not.  If the educated propositions turn out to be incorrect and require revision so be it; we will ultimately be the better for it as it means that the actual progress that is required and overdue will have been made. The process of CDB isolation is also described in more detail in that same paper.  

The above image is a clear and unhindered presentation of the CDB as they have been isolated.  They are visually not of dramatic form or impact and they could easily be passed over as one of the nuances of the microscopic world.  As in the case of the filament studies described exhaustively on this site, however, there appears to be an important story and set of events that are held within the simplistic structure above and it is our duty to make these characteristics, behaviors and capabilities known.  It is not an overstatement to say that such advanced knowledge appears to be at the heart of understanding the changes in biology now underway on this planet and that we should make haste and be earnest in the pursuit of it.

CDB Cellular Division Captured

CDB Cellular Division Captured

CDB Cellular Division Captured.  Two Hour Time Interval.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

The photograph above is an important one and it has been difficult to capture.  The existence of this image makes the case for a form of reproduction and growth that is understood and accepted within conventional biology, i.e., cell division.  All efforts to understand the nature of this organism are to be based upon such conventional knowledge, reason and processes unless the circumstances or situation requires otherwise.  Any observations or processes that fall within conventional reference frames of knowledge of science will allow certain assumptions to be more readily considered and they will act as a governor to unwarranted or disproven speculative discourse. If the situation requires an extension of our creative and imaginative talents they will be employed, but not without due and fair consideration to the eons of effort and hard work that has been given to us by our scientific predecessors.  The issue of artificial constructive devices to growth are not required at this point based upon the demonstration of cellular division above; all evidence collected to date continues to support the argument for a living organism operating under the framework of known biology.  This biology may hold numerous surprises for us and they may well involve processes of manipulation (e.g., human, genetic, engineering, etc.) but any such proclamations will need to be supported by rational and convincing scientific presentation.  The unknowns here obviously are many, and it is to our advantage to use known science to understand and interpret our discoveries instead of imaginative discussion that can lead to confusion and misinformation and that causes more harm than good.

What are the known methods of reproduction?  How does the above observation fit within that spectrum?  Is the observation above consistent with the primitive form designated as a “cross-domain bacteria“?

The perpetuation of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell division1.

Two types of cells exist : prokaryotic and eukaryotic.  Prokaryotes are non-nucleated and, in general, single celled organisms but there are some exceptions such as cyanobacteria and  myxobacteria.  The prokaryotes include the bacteria and archaea domains of life; these domains have been introduced elsewhere on this site (see Morgellons : A New Classification (Feb 2010)).  

Eukaryotes are nucleated and contain organelles within the cell and are therefore generally more complex in nature.  Eukaryotes include all life except the prokaryotes, such as plants, animals, fungi, algae, and protists (most protists are unicellular and all are eukaryotes).  

We can see that classification systems themselves have their own complications, and these difficulties were undoubtedly a driving force toward the three-domain system developed by Carl Woese in 1978 (as referenced in the mentioned paper).  

Three types of cell reproduction exist : binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.  Binary fission, as the name implies, refers literally to the division of a single cell into two parts and is asexual.  Mitosis is the division of the nucleus2 and is also asexual.  Meiosis is also a process of nuclear division (sexual) that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cells3.

For the current situation, we need to find what fits best with what is observed.  For the time being, this is binary fission, which happens to occur under the domains of the Bacteria and Archaea.  We have in our case an apparent single celled non-nucleated organism without organelles of an appropriate size that is splitting in two.  Again,  our discussion is restricted at this stage to the most primitive known form of the organism, i.e., the CDB.  The most common form of reproduction by bacteria is that of binary fission.  Additional arguments for the introduction of the cross-domain bacterial terminology (primitive form of the organism only) are substantial and they are outlined further in the Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation paper.  In addition, a great deal more information has accumulated over history on the Bacteria vs. Archaea (5,000 – 15,000 species  vs. a few hundred; these represent a small fraction of the total thought to exist) and the Archaea domain itself is a relatively recent taxonomic creation.

Bacteria can also vary their state of existence and their genetic nature4 by a process known as recombination.  This comes in three forms : conjugation, transformation, or transduction.  Conjugation involves the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through a tubular physical connection.  Transformation involves the assimilation of DNA from the environment.  And lastly, transduction is an exchange of DNA through bacteriophages, a type of virus that is specific to bacteria.  The methods of observation for these advanced methods of alteration does not exist within the Institute at this time.  

Archaea also reproduce by binary fission, and they remain under consideration from that perspective as well as others.  As we shall see, the term “cross-domain” has been introduced specifically for the prospect of allowance, if not expectation, of sharing other significant attributes of the remaining domains of life.  This argument is presented in force within the Morgellons : A New Classification  paper referenced earlier.  The discussion before us will only become increasingly complex as we proceed, and it is the reason that the discussion and study remains so highly focused on this most primitive form of existence of the organism that has been identified to date.

Eukaryotes cells divide by the processes of mitosis and meiosis, which involve a nucleus within a cell.  At this point there is not the means or observational equipment to identify a nucleus within this primitive form (because of its size); in addition, an expanded discussion on the case for tentative bacterial classification (primitive form only) has already been made.  At the current level of knowledge, a binary fission characteristic of a prokaryote is sufficient and reasonable to propose as the the form of cell division for the CDB.  The photograph above provides further justification for this argument.

 

Linear Alignment Process Prior to Filament Formation

CDB – Linear Alignment Process Prior to Filament Formation
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

 

The next photograph above ushers in an important transitional state, and this is the alignment of the individual cocci  into a linear arrangement.  The knowledge and observation of the transformation process towards the filament form is a crucial piece of information to acquire and this has now been captured on repeated occasions.  The specific process by which this alignment takes place is not known, however, it can be projected that biochemical charge dynamics could easily be at play here.

The term ‘self-assembly’ has certain connotations that may be helpful to discuss and elaborate upon.  The term ‘self-assembly’ is often used with that of an ‘artificial’ process implied, frequently to the point of insinuating robotic, engineered or mechanical methods in the ‘construction’ process.  If such mechanisms are observed and documented they will be reported on.  There is, however, a biochemical reference and interpretation for the term which is much closer at hand and that is more sensible and rational to introduce with the photograph above.  The vast majority of the dynamics of chemistry (and bio-chemistry, for that matter) is governed and determined by charges; i.e., the classic interaction between positive and negative charges that are at the very essence of dynamic interactions within the cosmos.  The understanding of the essence of those forces remains enough of a mystery to mankind,; we may not need to seek a human or ‘artificial’ construct to explain states of nature that are not completely understood by humans to begin with.  The explanation here may best be made with example and simulation (which, incidentally, has been helpful to my own understanding) as to what ‘self-assembly’ actually means from the conventional biochemical perspective.  The following demonstration that is available at the Concord Consortium replaces much of a verbal discussion with simple and observable dynamics; it is suggested that the reader become familiar with both the simplicity, magic and power of this process in nature.  Self-assembly is likely to become an important aspect of future research and discussion as it relates to the growth stages of this organism.

Visit the Concord Consortium to view the self-assembly simulation using the Molecular Workbench software (Java based).

Excerpts from a simulation of self-assemblage at the Concord Consortium
with the use of the Molecular Workbench Software.
(Link to the Concord Consortium here)

The forces at work in the ‘self-assembly’ discussed here are the fundamental attractive and repulsive forces of electrons and protons.  Since these forces drive the vast majority of chemical reactions and energy transfer within living organisms, it should not come as a surprise to us that we will encounter  this process in our future study.  Clearly, there remains much work to be done to identify the nature, location and driving mechanisms of any charge interactions and this research remains immediately before us.  With that knowledge also comes the prospect of interfering with those charge dynamics that are likely involved in the growth of the organism; this offers potential benefits that are not difficult to recognize.  In fact, there are numerous prospects for disruption and interference to the the life cycle of the organism, and the knowledge sought by this Institute and other researchers hopefully will be supported by those that understand these potential benefits.  

Electromagnetic studies of the CDB that are underway do indicate a possible separation of charge within cultures that are under investigation.  If this charge separation is verified there may be a relationship between this and the ‘assembly’ or alignment process that is shown above.

 

 Filament Development with Internal CDB

 Filament Development with Internal CDB
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

The next stage of growth that is shown above represents an important transgression from the usual propagation of a bacteria within its own species.  We see in the case above that not only is there an alignment process that can take place;  there is also the development of a filament structure that eventually can encase the CDB and ultimately create a more complex and protective form of growth.  The CDB have shown themselves to be quite resistant to traditional methods of breakdown or disintegration; the appearance of a surrounding filament sheath makes this even more so.  It is not impossible for filaments to associate with bacterial development but it is not especially common.  It is for this and other reasons that the modifier and extension of  “cross-domain” has been added once we begin to examine beyond the primitive and original form of growth and existence.   CDB terminology is  proposed simply as a common reference point for discussion and further study and as the original, most primitive, known and identifiable form of existence for the organism. 

Let us start by identifying some of those cases where filaments are known to be associated with bacterial growth:

The first case that I am aware of that shares this property is that of some fossilized remains.  In Tortora’s Microbiology, An Introduction5, a photograph (copyright protected) of a fossilized filamentous prokaryote from western Australia that is 3.5 billion years old is shown.  We know, therefore, that filamentous prokaryotes can date back essentially to the origin of the earth.  Whether or not coccus forms can be seen internally in that particular case is a different matter, as the image of the remains is simply not of sufficient quality to determine this.

There is another novel case of filamentous bacteria found recently deep underground in a South African mine and this likely indicates an ancient origin as well.  Under more contemporary circumstances, the cyanobacteria  exist as a rather unusual class of “nonproteobacteria gram-negative bacteria”.  This group is unique in that they are morphologically and physiologically distinctive from other bacteria and their classification is based upon genetic origins per the breakthoughs by Carl Woese discussed in earlier papers.  They were once called blue-green algae but they are currently classified as bacteria, however, and they can exist in at least three different forms.  Photographs are, as usual, helpful to visualize the level of variance involved here:

 

non-filamentous

filamentous cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

The non-filamentous form of cyanobacteria. As this form of the bacteria is approximately 8-10 microns in diameter, it is clear that this remains a separate species from that under study. Image source : wikimedia.org.

The filamentous form of cyanobacteria.  This image shows that various bacteria can indeed develop into a filament form.  In addition, there appears what are called heterocysts (the larger and more circular cells) which are specialized for fixing nitrogen gas.  This type of variation can be important within the current studies as will be seen later within this paper. Image source : waterboards.ca.gov.

This is the branching form of cyanobacteria.  Although the dimensions of this species are radically different from that of the CDB, the variation of form is nevertheless especially interesting and calls to attention the broad diversity of structure and form that can occur within the bacterial domain.  Image source : world.edu.

There is also a case of a ‘sheathed’ bacteria that is interesting and potentially relevant to introduce.  The species is that of Sphaerotilus natus and it appears as follows:

Sphaerotilus natus

 Sphaerotilus natans bacteria.  This bacteria is rod shaped and, therefore, does not match the CDB in form as well as in size.  It is of interest, however, in the fact that it produces an enclosing sheath in which to live.  The sheaths are of a protective nature and it is thought that they aid in nutrient accumulation.  It also stains as Gram negative and has an alternative common name of “sewage fungus” as it is often found in sewage locales. Image source : vt.edu.

 

What we can see in these cases, therefore, is that the bacteria can actually vary fairly widely in their form and structure.  Some bacteria create filament structures, some create unique and specialized cells, and some rarely encase themselves in a protective sheath; these cases are exceptions to the rule but we see that they are possible and known to exist.  It certainly is more typical to regard filament structures and multi-celled structures as representative of the fungi and eukaryotes but that presumption must be reserved until additional information becomes available.   The lines of definition have already become blurred at this stage.  The introduction of genetic classification systems has radically altered our views that are based upon visible morphology and physiology.  We can see that the “classification of life” is under a state of continuous revision and that exceptions abound to the attempts that are made to place the biology of the planet into a set of tidy boxes.  The introduction of genetic manipulation by human beings has opened up its own Pandora’s Box in this regard, and it is unlikely that the classification systems of the past will ever entirely serve the complexities of our future.

 

Early Stages of Filament Development

Early Stages of Filament Development

 Early Stages of Filament Development with Internal CDB.  Development of reddish (probable protein aggregation) conglomerates along filaments.  Original Magnification Approx. 5000x.

 

The stage of growth shown above appears to be important in the development of structural mass for the organism.  In this case, additional material of a reddish-brown color can be seen to accumulate around and within the CDB-filament complex that precedes it.  The composition of this material is unknown at this time.  There is, however, a presumption in place that this material could easily be of a proteinacous nature.  The color of the material is also highly suggestive of an iron complex that is included; it is known that iron compounds eventually become a significant compositional compound of the organism growth.  This particular material is not especially reactive to hydrogen peroxide but further developments that are highly reactive to hydrogen peroxide will be described below.  A reasonable supposition, for the time being, is that this material may be dominated by the presence of an proteinaceous-iron complex.  It is also known from previous work and studies that the filaments themselves are most likely constructed largely of proteins, with keratin based materials as the strongest candidate.  In terms of function, it is reasonable that proteins will be a major component to the growth processes that are being recorded here.  The nature and identity of such proteins is a major pursuit of research for Carnicom Institute.

 

time lapse

 Time Lapse of CDB – Filament Growth Stage on Agar Culture
Original Magnification Approx. 500x

 

The animated image above represents a time lapse capture of the filament growth under relatively low magnification.  This particular growth has been recorded from an agar based culture.  The period of time covered by the time lapse movie is two hours and it is compressed into an interval of 40 seconds.  The growth appears to be uniform and  substantial.  The rate of growth for the organism at this stage and under these conditions is estimated at approximately 200 microns per hour.  This growth rate, if undisturbed and unrestrained, translates to approximately 5 inches in length per month of time under the conditions shown.  The impact of this type of growth within a suitable environment or within a host organism (e.g., a human body) is obviously of serious concern.  Any knowledge or or means to inhibit such growth can equally be of obvious benefit; it may be of interest and value for the health professions and communities to evaluate and further research the inhibition and mitigation strategies that have been developed within this site.

 

Agar Culture Vacuum Testing.

7 Days Filament Form

Agar Culture Vacuum Testing.
CDB readily progress to filament form directly.   Vaccum environment does not promote growth.

Agar Culture Growth Stage – Approx. 7 Days
Filament Form.

 

The images above are of agar culture trials and two points of interest, as a minimum, are demonstrated ..  The first is the development of cultures in a highly specific fashion that are essentially free from contamination of other organisms such as common molds and fungi.  This is the result of work and study that have gradually isolated  a set of conditions that are favorable for growth; these will be identified in greater detail within separate writing.  Many non-specific culture environments, both liquid and agar based, have been investigated and the results presented on the site over a period of many years.  One advantage of the current progress is that it allows for a more accurate assessment of the early growth processes that are specific to this particular organism.  It is expected that this process can and will be refined further as the research extends itself within the health professions and laboratory environments.

The second illustration is of the importance of both moisture and the atmosphere to the growth process.  Significant decreases in atmospheric pressure have been applied to the culturing process and in all cases a corresponding marked decrease in growth and proliferation is observed.  This leads us to understand that the composition of the atmosphere is, in some fashion, beneficial and important to growth.  The most obvious and likely beneficial candidates to consider here will be that of oxygen and nitrogen.  Additional work to be described further increases the evidence for favoritism towards an oxygen rich environment, but that result is not exclusive in any way to the potential importance or role of additional gases during growth.  

It should also be understood that a growth benefit is an entirely separate issue than that of a growth requirement.  The above information does not, in any fashion, demonstrate that the atmosphere is required for the existence or even perpetuation of the organism -only that it appears to be beneficial and favorable for growth or for growth to proceed more quickly.  As a matter of act, the evidence to date indicates that the organism can exist in stasis indefinitely under especially harsh or severe environmental conditions.  These conditions could well include that of a vacuum, a complete lack of moisture, and extremes in temperature.  The subject of exobiology may ultimately be relevant to this discussion as there remain many unknowns as to what that final limiting environment may be.  Readers may wish to investigate the topic of the attempted destruction of microorganisms and how it relates to our own space exploration programs from earth.  It may be a surprise to learn how ‘hardy’ life has shown itself to be and even the role of humans themselves in ‘seeding’ the cosmos, let alone studying the prospect of cosmic intrusion of life forms onto and into this planet.   Ames Research Center, as one of the early visitors to the body of research here, may be a place to start the inquiry.  There is, obviously, room for discussion on these subjects and on the origins of life in general.  It is probably of benefit to us a species that we no longer regard the theories of panspermia as being novel.

 

 Advanced Filament Form

 Advanced Filament Form
 Advanced Filament Form  Advanced Filament Form

 Advanced Filament Form – Cellular Production.  Cells amass additional CDB within.  Also note the CDB saturated filament form in addition to cellular production.  Sheathed bacterial forms, heterocytes and ‘erythrocytic‘ related formations are under current consideration.  All possibilities that provide for a transition from an apparent single-celled organism to a multi-cellular organism will be considered in the study process.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x.

 

The images above show a series of remarkable developments that take place; it is at this point that the conventional boundaries of growth become radically challenged.  What occurs, in general, is the transformation from an apparent single celled primitive form (CDB) to a multi-celled organism that demonstrates increasingly sophisticated growth forms and specialization.  Many important unknowns immediately make their presence with the transformations that are shown above.  

It is possible that we still remain in the domain of the heterocyst and the cyanobacteria, as it has been introduced, earlier in this paper.  Certainly the variation in form of the cyanobacteria is a remarkable and unusual case in the study of bacterial evolution; we must recall that they were once called ‘blue-green’ algae in a period of earlier understanding.  In either case, it can be seen that the case of the cyanobacteria required specialized and extensive study to account for the morphological changes, not the least of which required a knowledge of its genetic origin.  It is expected to be no different in the case of the CDB, as the mysteries within are not likely to be evident from any conventional or external study.  There is only so far that we will be able to go with the microscope.  

What is shown above appears to be more than the case of a heterocyst.  We also can recognize that there may be some similarities, however, so it is in our interest to understand the function and nature of the heterocyst.  The primary function of the heterocyst (a specific form of cell development that is apparently unique to cyanobacteria) is to fix, or utilize, nitrogen.  Nitrogen fixation is a process whereby a cellular form uses nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to ammonium that the organism can then use for nourishment.  Nitrogen fixation is a definite field of study that is immediately germane to the investigations underway with the CDB.  We recall from the vacuum studies mentioned above that both nitrogen and oxygen are at the forefront of nutrient investigation and they are of equal interest.  Therefore, the creation of a specialized cell for the purpose of nitrogen fixation does exist as a distinct and real possibility.  The following two points are also of high interest with regard to the development shown above:

1.  All of the nitrogen-fixing organism are prokaryotes, i.e., bacteria6.  This fact increases the interest and attention on the primitive form (i.e., CDB) as having a core of origin within the bacterial domain.

2.  It is of special interest to note that iron-protein complexes (ferridoxins), in light of the previous statements made, play an essential role in the nitrogen fixation process by bacteria.  Readers may recall that iron-sulfur proteins have been introduced as a subject for further study within earlier research papers.

It does seem, however, that there are also some complications to this singular focus, based upon what we see and what is known about CDB behavior.  The function, capability and form of the heterocyst does not appear to be sufficient to explain all that is observed as well as the subsequent development of the organism.  The function of nitrogen fixation, however, could certainly be implicit within the transformations that are shown above.  At this time, there simply remains no known visual documentation of the growth process that is shown above.   

It also appears that the heterocyst is a specialized cell that develops separately and distinct from the non-filamentous cyanobacteria form.  In our case, the three different entities:  CDB, filament, and cellular construct, all seem to be joined and intermingled in about any way that is conceivable.  In the case above, the filament has become densely packed with the CDB.  In the live view of this particular case, the CDB were so numerous as to form a ‘river’ or a ‘stream’ of continuous and flowing CDB within the filament.  Subsequently what we see is the filament forming internal cellular divisions across its length.  These cellular divisions eventually segregate from the filament  in essentially perfect circular form.  It will then be seen that the separated circular cells are in turn themselves densely packed with the CDB, where they continue to develop and and presumably accomplish additional function at a more sophisticated level.  It should also be understood that the images above are not a normal and daily occurrence of development; they required protracted and difficult culture circumstances to develop.  Any casual study made of the organism would not likely even reveal the potential, let alone the expression of the growth forms that have been documented above.

We must also, at this point, introduce the uncanny similarity and potential relationships to the ‘erythrocytic’ forms that have been repeatedly presented on this site within in earlier work (e.g., see “Blood Issues Intensify“, Apr 2009 and “Morgellons : 5th, 6th & 7th Match“, Jan 2008, “Artificial Blood?“, Aug. 2009).  Any possible association between the unusual imagery immediately above with that of earlier work shown immediately below is not to be ignored.  Let us recall some of that early work with the limited imaging equipment that was available at the time.  It should also be realized that the culture methods employed in that work differ from the methods under current use and that the issue of pleomorphism, as it can be aptly demonstrated, must be taken into account with any comparisons that we can make from the limited knowledge base that is available to us.

 

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

 2008-2009 Filament – Erythrocyte Research Images.

Biconcavity visible in top right and lower left photos. Earlier tests for hemoglobin within these previous cultures produced a positive presumptive result by two different methods in addition to visual analysis and measurement. Image at lower right is of human erythrocytes subjected to the Gram stain process; excessive CDB are within. Please refer to earlier referenced papers for the details of those studies.  Limited CCD imaging capability – Original magnification approx. 9000x.

 

heterocyte

erythrocytic

Enlargement of cellular structure (“heterocyte” – see below) after separation from filament transformations and as based upon the current culture work (2014 : shown above).  Similarity to “erythrocytic” forms as shown in 2008 – 2009 work is evident.  Cellular structure is embedded with CDBs similar to human erythrocyte documented above (post Gram stain process).  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Reconstituted “erythrocytic” structure as described in the August 2009 paper entitled “Artificial Blood?”.  The similarity of size, shape, form and presence of CDB within to that of the current culture developments is evident and remarkable.
Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Human blood cell (erythrocyte) that demonstrates cellular and membrane damage from CDB (red arrows) adhesion and intrusion. Image excerpted from “Advances in Microscopy“, (Nov. 2013).  Original magnification approx. 12,000x.

 

Studies to investigate any potential relationships between heterocysts, “erythrocytic” forms and hemoglobin tests will continue with respect to this novel life form and organism.  During this interim of understanding, I shall refer to the unique cellular formation from the CDB as a “heterocyte” (i.e., as in a different, or other cell, and as opposed to heterocyst).  It is now clear that these cells originate from the CDB and the term CDB heterocyte may also be used during this research stage.

 

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form – reddish aggregation (probable protein nature) with internal CDB and cellular production.  Lower image shows combination of primitive CDB-filament form, larger filament dominated by streaming CDB and external cellular development.  Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

 

From this point on there appears to be increasing variability in the forms of growth that can be assumed by the organism.  The CDB and the heterocytes appear to be at the root of each of these forms that subsequently develop and they remain, therefore, at the core of study. Some of the variations shown are repeatable and controllable; others are incidental and the conditions only partially defined.  The combination of all circumstances shown above observed in a single session is more akin to the latter; the heterocyte cellular division from the filaments remains as a rare event thus far.  In the filaments shown within these images the densely packed streaming and flowing version of the CDB does occur.  This has been recorded on more than one occasion and it represents massive CDB production within the filaments.  Heterocyte production within a filament appears to be enhanced under these concentrated CDB conditions; the heterocytes can be seen as units of division and development within the second row of the image set.  What also makes this observation group unusual is the appearance of an enclosing sac which then itself contains a cluster of heterocytes.  This can be seen most clearly in the right photograph of the second row.  There is reason to believe, as mentioned before, that this reddish-brown material (most clearly demonstrated in the top left image) may well be an iron-protein complex.  Work will continue on identifying the nature of the various forms and substrates that are being observed.  The bottom image contains a representative cross section of various forms within one image: a primitive filament enclosing a single linear array of the CDB, a larger branching filament filled with concentrated and streaming CDB, a few isolated CDB in the interstitial space, and an isolated heterocyte in the lower left of the image.  In the main, the patterns of growth are highly repeatable and identifiable, especially those that involve the CDB, the encasing filament structures and the production of the heterocytes.

 

blue compound

blue compound

A blue compound that forms in combination with CDB cultures and growth forms.  This compound has a direct affinity for oxygen; spherical structures in both images are oxygen pockets within an electrolysis culture.  Notice that both red and blue hues are common with advanced filament production, especially those associated with skin growth samples.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

 

The images above will be provided primarily as a matter of record while the phenomena is studied further.  The case above falls within a culture that was subjected to electrolysis.  Significant efforts have been extended to include a series of electromagnetic investigations upon growth behavior; these studies will need to be developed and presented in future days.  For now, the immediate observation to record is that of an apparent preference by the CDB for an oxygen rich environment; this has been demonstrated by a migration of the CDB to the anode during electrolysis tests.  It is a curious affair that the rich blue compounds were intermittently observed during this same period of testing.  It is quite possible that oxygen pockets or bubbles are an important part of the process and color formation.  There is also an interest in any role that copper (as well as other metals) may play within the growth process.  This issue will simply be revisited as circumstances permit; the apparent preference for an oxygen rich environment will be discussed further in the more immediate future.

 

Gel

Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction Original Magnification

CDB – Advanced Culture Development

Gel Diameter Approx. 6 cm.

Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction with Gel
Magnification Approx 200x 

Original Magnification Approx. 5000x 


The final set of observations here record the culmination of culture studies over an extended time period.  These results are biologically impressive but potentially quite dangerous  because of the scale of growth.  The photo on the left is the final stage of a liquid broth culture that was allowed to mature for approximately one month.  This culture did progress with the onset of CDB growth and was followed by filament growth as it has been aptly demonstrated throughout this paper.  At the more mature stage of growth, a gel like material formed at the top of the culture and is shown on a watch glass.  The amount of sheer mass here is of consequence; what is shown is growth on on the order of inches rather than the customary microns or nanometers that are involved at the origin.  Readers may wish to recall the time lapse record above to realize that the scale of growth postulated there is not hypothetical.  This amount of mass developing within a favorable environment or host is of consequence.  Reports of individuals with internal masses or filaments on the order of scale shown are to be taken quite seriously as this report proves that it can and will happen under the appropriate conditions.  The nature of the material is partially ambiguous and partially known; further studies will hopefully present that result in due time.  Material of a protenaceous nature is under strong consideration.

It will also be noticed that a bright red hue exists across a portion of the surface; this is an evolution beyond the ruddy reddish-brown compounds that have been mentioned above.  It has been observed and reported on earlier; please see “Biofilm, CDB & Vitamin C“, (Apr 2014).  The photo in the center of the group shows the reaction of this reddish material to hydrogen peroxide, and the reaction is vigorous.  The same reaction is shown in kind within the paper referenced above.  The most direct interpretation here is that of a positive catalase reaction.  Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen and it  decomposes hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen gas and water7.  Clearly, we may conclude that we are dealing with a living organism but this fact has already become evident.  We are therefore each obligated to find out what the true nature and extent of this organism is, as it been equally and clearly demonstrated to be affecting the biology of the entire planet.  It is of more than passing interest that this gel material is of a bright red color and that it combines with hydrogen peroxide to produce the vigorous reaction.  Many readers may also be familiar with the reaction of hemoglobin with hydrogen peroxide and the similarity should not escape us since it also involves catalase8.  This preliminary reaction with peroxide was the basis for additional presumptive hemoglobin tests during research of past years; it should be recalled that the results of these tests for the presence of hemoglobin within the cultures were positive.  Regardless of where this research will lead to in future days, the nature of this material and this reaction should be of concern to each of us.

The final photograph on the right shows this same material under the microscope at reasonably high power.  What we find is a structurally more advanced and rigorous construct of the crossing filament and CDB embedded network in a familiar display  The reddish hue material is also abundant here and these observations further support the hypothesis of an iron-protein complex that is under formation.

This paper has introduced a roadmap of increasing complexity to each of us.  The path that emerges, regardless of the many branches that we choose, ultimately must return to the origin of growth as it is identified.  This, in all cases examined thus far, is indeed the CDB, or “cross-domain bacteria” as they have been tentatively designated.  This identified point of origin remains the focal point of current research by the Institute; each individual on this planet has the concomitant obligation to seek the truth on these matters and to make this same truth known to all. 

Clifford E Carnicom
Jun 07 2014

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19 1953


References:

1. Biology, Neil A. Campell, Benjaming/Cummings Publishing Company, Third Edition, 1993. p. 221.

2. Modern Biology, Albert Towle, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1999. p. 149.

3. Ibid., Towle, p 153.

4. Bacterial Reproduction, Regina Bailey, www.biology.about.com

5. Microbiology, An Introduction.  Gerard J. Tortora. Benjamin Cummings Publishing, 2001. p 281.

5. Wanger, G; Onstott, TC; Southam, G (2008). “Stars of the terrestrial deep subsurface: A novel ‘star-shaped’ bacterial morphotype from a South African platinum mine”. Geobiology 6 (3): 325–30. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2008.00163.x.

6. The Microbial World: The Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Fixation, Jim Deacon, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh,  University of Edinburgh, www.ed.ac.uk (archive copy).

7. Catalase, wikipedia.org

8. Why Does Hydrogen Peroxide Foam When You Put It On a Cut?, science.howstuffworks.com.

Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation

Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation

Clifford E Carnicom
May 17 2014

 

A sufficient time period has elapsed to allow for the identification, classification and designation of a novel and ubiquitous life-form that is known to exist in association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  This call has thus far gone unheeded within the scientific community and more rapid progress is required.  It has been stated, by discovery (ref. The New Biology Jan 2014),  that this informal nomenclature is no longer sufficient to characterize the situation; that of an extensive, repeating and culturable life form with known properties and characteristics.  

It is known that a primary form of growth is an encapsulating filament sheath which is dominated by a keratin nature; this portion has many similarities to various fungal growths. The internals of the sheath are, however, without doubt the more captive interest of the matter and they have been studied extensively over a period of several years by this researcher.  Interest throughout this period has focused on a particular sub-micron structure that I have continually characterized as “bacterial-like” or “chlamydia-like” over the years.  This particular structure appears to originate the growth process and is therefore of the greatest importance and attention in study.  In the absence of formal participation by the scientific community in the nomenclature process, progress must be made and certain liberties will be taken until they can be refined by more formal procedures.  Henceforth, terms such as ‘bacterial-like’ will no longer be promulgated as they are now more ambiguous than is necessary or called for.  These internal structures will, for the sake of forcing the issue, be designated as a “cross-domain bacteria” (CDB) until further information or correction calls for any change.

The will be given this designation for several reasons, one of which is to no longer condone the extended procrastination that is referred to above. The additional reasons are based upon years of study and observation.  When and if additional information comes to light that justifies change, that change can and will take place.  In the meantime, however, the rationale for the deployment of this terminology is as follows:

1. Size.  The work has continually focused on the smallest identifiable living and propagating unit, and this is the sub-micron spherical structure.  The best size estimate on this structure ranges between 0.3 and 0.8 microns, or an average of 0.5 – 0.6 microns.  This measurement is limited only by the capability of the microscope and the imaging equipment that is being used.  As the equipment has improved the size measurement has trended toward the lower end of the scale as the means of focusing improves.  It is difficult to work with what cannot be seen  (e.g, virus, prion, molecule, atom, etc), and it has always been stated that there are expectations of additional discovery when such means become available.  

One of the first classification systems for living organisms is size, and so here it is that we must begin:

size chart

A chart of the approximate size ranges of organisms, biological structures and cells.  It will be noticed that most bacteria range between 1 and 10 microns in size.  Two of the smaller bacteria that are known to exist are mycoplasma and chlamydia  pneuomoniae; these are on the order of 0.1 to 0.4 microns in size.  Image Source : Estrella Mountain Community College.

In lieu of additional information and as an obvious point of reference, it is more than reasonable to suggest a bacterial nature (modified or otherwise) for the organism and unit under study.  As mentioned, structural units beneath the current limit of observation and measurement are difficult to propose within this scope of the study.

2.  Shape.  The next most obvious approach (again, within the means available) to classification is that of shape.  The requirement to maintain the argument for a bacterial nature must include the existence of the observed spherical form.  This condition is not difficult to meet, as bacteria commonly exist  in the following major shapes or forms:  spherical, rod like, spiral, , or as combinations or aggregates of these forms.

shapes chart

A chart of the shapes and geometry of known bacteria.  The organism under study clearly falls under the coccus, or spherical shape.  The subsequent development of the CDB within an encasing filament adds an entirely different aspect of consideration to a more comprehensive classification and identification.
Image Source : Microbiology Online.

The measured size and observed shape of the organism is sufficient, in itself, to advance and justify the use of “bacterial” terminology in a classifying sense at this stage of the investigation.  Clearly, there are additional dimensions of growth form and development that will eventually transcend this current reference point.  Readers may wish to review the papers entitled, “Morgellons : A New Classification” (Feb 2010) and “The New Biology” (Jan 2014) for the more immediate “complications” of this simplification.  

There remains, nevertheless, more that can be offered within the scope of conventional consideration that supports the “bacterial” proposal.

3. Gram Stain.  The following statement, from the University of Maryland Pathogenic Microbiology division,  is provided to exemplify the importance of the Gram staining procedure in the world of microbiology.

“The Gram stain is the most important and universally used staining technique in the bacteriology laboratory. It is used to distinguish between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which have distinct and consistent differences in their cell walls.”

The procedure, therefore, is a major tool in seeking an understanding of a primary difference in the morphology of bacteria; it is highly relevant to the current need to classify and identify the primary and primitive (i.e., original) observable form of the organism. We must start somewhere and eliminate the vacillations and ambiguity that have obfuscated progress over the last two decades; a greater sense of definition is required and I will assertively advance that motion.  

The first question on the Gram stain issue is whether or not it even applies.  Does this particular organism accept the stain and, if so, with what results?  It does, and the tests indicate a Gram-negative result.  The interpretation of that test remains an outstanding need and it will undoubtedly play a larger role within the current work involving protein examinations.

Investigations of this nature will be found as far back as 2008; readers may wish to visit the earlier papers entitled, “And Now Our Children” (Jan 2008), “Morgellons : 5th, 6th and 7th Match” (Jan 2008), “Morgellons : Pathogens and the General Population” (April 2008), and “Morgellons : A Status Report” (Oct 2009) for the earlier work on this primary classification method.

This current paper and the results presented herein continue to support that earlier work.

4. Positive Membrane Lipid Test.  A test has been developed for the presence of lipids in the outer membrane.  The test results are positive.  This test result is consistent with a gram-negative test for bacteria.  The results of this test are shown and described in more detail in a separate paper entitled : “CDB : General Characteristics”.  This test result has significant ramifications that are likely to affect the future study of the internal nature of the CDB.

5. Cultures.  The next rationale for the use of “bacteria” terminology (albeit, modified) is that of observation of the culturing process.  Again, restricting our consideration to the originating observable form of the organism (subsequent developments are, as mentioned, an entirely more complex issue which suggest highly sophisticated biological engineering), the cultures under development demonstrate a response that is perfectly in accord with any bacterial expectations.  The cultures are highly responsive to temperature and nutrient variations.  The growth curve is one of rapid increase at the onset, followed by diminishing returns with the corresponding decrease in available nutrients.  The logistical form of population growth is one model that can be reasonably applied to the observations, and it is accord with population modeling.  The responses of the cultures to both Fenton’s reaction as well as inhibition methods that have been described are in further accord with a bacterial element to the life form.

6. Biofilm.  The next topic relating to bacterial consideration is that of biofilm development.  Recent work indicates significant masses of a biofilm product can be produced from affected oral cavities using a relatively simple method; this description is in process at this time.  The production of biofilm is a protective measure taken by many bacteria to insulate themselves from effect by the local surrounding biological environment.  The biofilm under investigation in this case can easily be verified by microscopic means to contain significant numbers of the very same CDB that are under examination here  Biofilms are an attribute of most microorganisms; they are especially notable in the bacteria and archaea domains.  The purpose of biofilm is “to protect the organism from a hostile environment or to act as a trap for nutrient acquisition” (see Biofilm Formation in the Industry – VTT Research).  Biofilm is a polymer composed primarily of DNA, proteins and polysaccharides.

7. Proteins.  Certain laboratory tests, specifically Coomassie Blue stain, ninhydrin tests, UV absorbance and Biuret tests,  confirm the existence of proteins within the CDB.  The known characteristics of many of the bacteria and archaea classes are in accord with the investigations underway that involve metallic protein complexes as an important aspect of their structure.  It is known that iron is one of the essential elements of the proteins under examination.

8. DNA.  The apparent successful isolation of DNA from the cultures under development is direct evidence of a viable, reproducing and unique life form.  This aggregate of information, i.e., size, shape, stain properties, growth behavior, biofilm production and DNA existence continues to support the argument for the most primitive form of existence as that of a “modified” bacterial class.

9. CDB.  The modifier “cross-domain” to the bacteria terminology has been intentionally and deliberately introduced by this researcher.  The purpose of the term is to force the consideration and discussion of the more complex issues that arise when the more ‘mature’ stages of growth of the organism are examined. The issues include the subsequent development, under favorable environmental and nutrient conditions, of an encapsulating sheath, or filament, that contains the bacterial forms.  This pattern and form of growth has been extensively described and reported on within this site.  It is here that we must step outside of the originating form, and we will undoubtedly be forced to develop new and additional terminology to encompass these unusual circumstances.  The use of the term ‘cross-domain bacteria‘ is simply to provide a reference point for further discussion, the rationale of which is hopefully agreed upon to be consistent with classification systems up to and including the existence of the originating form ONLY.  The issue becomes only increasingly complex from the filament production level onwards, as the erthyrocytic question develops (again under increasingly favorable environmental and nutrient conditions) from there, whether we wish to confront this fact or not.  Clearly, we are dealing with a remarkable construct of biology here, and it will eventually be impossible to ignore it as it makes it mark further upon this planet.

There is nothing sacred or dogmatic about the proposals in terminology here.   There is precedent for the terminology in the literature as will be found; the act of crossing the domains of biological life forms is known to exist.  As one example, please note the Symposium of 2007 entitled,  “Cross-Domain Bacteria : Emerging Threats to Plants, Humans and Our Food Supply” by the American Phytopathological Society.  One of the primary questions here is whether this particular form is of natural or engineered origin; the evidence speaks to the latter.  The primary purpose of this controversial injection into the discussion is exactly that – to force the issue of proper scientific analysis and nomenclature by the responsible and competent parties within society.  It is to no longer condone the acceptance and use of ambivalent, ambiguous and obstructive cultural lexicons as a perpetual subsititute to honest and open research and disclosure.  When these circumstances improve and when the benefits are apparent and  known to the public, I will amend my own ways and discussion to reflect the progress that humanity deserves.


Additional Notes:

The following images derived from culture growths are representative examples of this external and internal known structure:

cbd1

cbd2

cbd3

cbd4

Original magnification of images to left: approx. 5000x.  Images on right are at original magnification, approx. 7000x.


The means to separate and isolate the cross-domain bacteria has been achieved.  The method uses a combination of caustic solutions, heat and iron ions; evidence of that separation is presented below.  The presence of iron ions in solution appears to be a very important factor in making the cross-bacteria readily visible.  A definite chemical reaction takes place between the isolated and purified culture in alkaline solution subjected to heat and the addition of either iron sulfate or chelated iron.  Chemically, there appears to be an immediate reaction between the bacteria and the iron and this is verified with microscopic examination.  Iron as a part of the culture medium is what has allowed this discovery to eventually take place.

pure isolation of cbd

A good example of pure isolation of the cross-domain bacteria, as separated from the encasing filament.  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

oil immersion of cbd

An oil immersion image of the cross-domain bacteria at maximum magnification.  A colored attribute of the bacteria does appear to exist.  Magnification approx. 13,000x.

 

gram stain of cbd

The Gram stain process applied to the cross-domain bacteria.  All indications are that the cross-bacteria stains Gram stain negative due to the pinkish color apparent.  This is in accordance with results achieved several years ago with preliminary investigations.  An excellent example of the bounding filament enclosing the cross-domain bacteria is central to the photograph.  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Biofilm, CDB and Vitamin C

Biofilm, CDB and Vitamin C

Clifford E Carnicom
Apr 22 2014
Edit Jun 13 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

A method has been established that shows promise of being effective in removing significant masses of biofilm that encapsulate large quantities of the “cross-domain bacteria” (CDB) as they have been identified and designated by this researcher.  This method applies to oral cavities only and it is simple to investigate as to its efficacy.  The identification of the CDB has been confirmed by microscopy; one  unique feature of this organism is the frequent co-linear arrangement of the bacteria within an encasing filament.  The various stages of growth of this life form have been documented extensively on this site, and a progression of development is understood.   The term “Morgellons” as popularly used, is insufficient to characterize both the uniqueness of the life form and its ubiquity in the environment.  The term “cross-domain bacteria” (i.e., CDB) has been established as being intrinsic to the origin of the life form;  attention has been called to the the fact that the scientific nomenclature for this ‘new biology’ remains woefully inadequate.  Any perception that this so-called “condition” is restricted to the human species is false; planetary consequences are before us.   Please refer to earlier discussions that elevate the seriousness of this need for increased participation by the scientific and health communities.

biofilm 1

A representative example of the biofilm removed from the gum-dental line region of an individual using ascorbic acid as outlined in this report.  This particular biofilm encases massive numbers of the cross-domain bacteria  that are are centric to the organism’s growth and development.

 

biofilm 2

A low power observation of the biofilm sample; bottom and top lighting combined.   Magnification approx. 200x.

The biofilm was extracted from an oral cavity by subjecting the gum line to a fairly concentrated solution of ascorbic acid in water (approx. 1 gm. in 30 ml of water).  The solution was held in place for approximately 15 minutes and the test procedure was repeated three times for an accumulation of material.  There was some local tooth discomfort at the region of collection for this individual.

biofilm 3

A reddish hue and formation that develops within the biofilm after approximately three days.  This color formation has been observed on more than one occasion and it remains to be identified.  Iron complexes and hemoglobin production are topics that are under consideration; please review earlier papers that involved tests for hemoglobin within advanced cultures.  Contrast on photograph has been increased to emphasize the visible color change.

biofilm 4

biofilm h2o2

The biofilm extract after 1-2 weeks of development.  Highly developed  reddish color is evident.

A very strong reaction of the developed red biofilm extract to a hydrogen peroxide (3%)  solution.  The investigation of hemoglobin existence from previous papers or current catalase tests are under further consideration here.  The “erythrocytic” formations, however, are not prominent in this biofilm extract development.

biofilm uv

The sample above subjected to UV radiation.  The pink-magenta fluorescent hue is highly distinctive.  This particular characteristic of the CDB, its association with the biofilm and the more advanced stages of CDB growth is an important subject that is deserving of additional research in its own right.  The same tint has been observed on the skin surface as well as with dental observations.

biofilm micro 1

biofilm micro 2

Microscopic examination of the biofilm extract.  The existence of massive amounts of CDB within the extract are verified with this inspection.  The biofilm extract is dominated by the presence of the CDB, and not the filament form.  The filament form of growth is a more advanced stage of growth and occurs later in the development cycle of the organism.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

An additional microscopic view of the biofilm and excessive CDB existence within. Microscopic  The presence of the co-linear arrangement of the CDB within a filament structure is also visible.  The early stages of linear formation of  CDB, also referred to as the ‘pleomorphic’ form’ are also occurring within this sample.  The sample upon collection is primarily whitish in color as is shown above.   Magnification approx. 5000x.

biofilm micro 3

biofilm micro 4

The filament form as it has developed from the biofilm extract and culture after approximately 2 weeks.  This systematic development will be described in greater detail within a separate paper.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

A microscopic image at the boundary of the reddish formation within the biofilm extract after a period of approximately 2 weeks.  An extended filament network exists at this stage along with extensive rich color development.  The variations of formation within the filament structures will also be discussed in greater detail within a separate paper.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

Readers may also wish to review a paper entitled “Growth Inhibition Achieved” (Jan 2014) that examines the role of ascorbic acid and various antioxidants in the culture growth process.  Articles under this same topic exist several years prior to the current studies of antioxidants.  In addition, the Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis (Neural, Thyroid, Liver, Oxygen, Protein and Iron Disruption) (Dec 2013) also extensively discuss the role of antioxidants within the studies of the growth process.

Growth Inhibition Achieved

Growth Inhibition Achieved

 

Clifford E Carnicom
January 31 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

 

 

Inhibition of growth of the so-called “Morgellons” condition in a cultured environment has been achieved.  The primary agents of reduction here, both literally and chemically, are a series of powerful antioxidants.  These include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and glutathione.  The photograph below shows the result of a culturing process which has been subjected to these antioxidants and their impact upon growth; the effects are rapid and repeatable.  The source of this culture is the result of a series of incubation, collection, isolation, extraction and purification processes applied to previous cultures.  The original cultures are based upon the use of a variety of human, animal and plant samples, each of which produces identical growth forms.  One of many precedents for this work is contained within a previous paper entitled, “Morgellons : A Discovery and A Proposal” (Feb 2010).  The basis of the current work is a significant advancement in the development of culture methods.

 

At the heart of this “condition”, from the perspective of this researcher,  is the presence of a sub-micron cross-domain bacteria that is extremely resistant to extinction.  This postulated bacteria has the property of developing the growth of an enclosing sheath, or filament which further serves to house, protect and transport these same bacteria.  This sheath, or enclosing filament, also exists in its most primitive form at the sub-micron level.  This protective and resilient sheath appears to be composed largely of a keratin (protein) construct, but it also remains impervious and inpenetrable in comparison to other keratin structures such as hair.  It is also known that iron is a core constituent of the bacteria composition, as well as amino acids.  A more detailed analysis of the organic nature of the life form is available and has been presented within the paper, “Morgellons – A Working Hypothesis” (Dec 2013).  Additional important health considerations and strategies are integrated within that paper, and the issue of antioxidants are one of many central themes presented therein.  Readers are seriously advised to become familiar with that work; many equally important issues beyond that of oxidative stress are discussed in detail there.

 

DNA from this life form has been isolated and it exists as a priority of research for Carnicom Institute; please see the paper, “DNA Isolated”  (Jan 2014).

 

It has been stated that the term “Morgellons” is completely insufficient to describe the nature of this life form and its ubiquity in the environment and biology of the planet.  The scientific community will be forced to address this deficiency in our future and adequate nomenclature will need to be developed.  Ubiquity within biological domains and permanence of existence, even under adverse conditions, will be central to the more complete and scientific characterization and understanding of the life form.  Please refer to the paper entitled, “The New Biology” (Jan 2014).

 

 

growth inhibition

A comparison of the original culture growth with the same growth subjected to a series of powerful antioxidants : ascorbic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, and glutathione.  The culture growth and treatments span a period of approximately 18 hours.  The early stage of culture growth is dominated by a rapid increase in the growth of the bacteria-like form; the filament sheaths represent a more advanced stage of growth to come later in the process.  The culture mediums are composed of water, carbohydrates (fructose) and a chelated metal complex that includes iron, manganese and zinc.  The culturing methods are rapid and repeatable and they eventually lead to DNA extraction and isolation.  One primary mechanism at work in the effectiveness of the antioxidants is the reduction of iron complexes (specifically, ferric to ferrous) within the bacteria.

 


 

Note : It is recommended that citizens and the public copy, duplicate and mirror this site in its entirety in multiple instances (both online and offline) to assist in the distribution and disclosure of the information contained within.  There are indications of access and distribution filtering systems that may be in place.  Your efforts and attention toward creating a network of permanent history, access and record are appreciated on behalf of the public interest and welfare.    

 

Clifford E Carnicom , Jan 31, 2014
(Born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19, 1953)

DNA Isolated

DNA Isolated

Clifford E Carnicom
January 24 2014

 

DNA has been successfully isolated from cultures that have been developed. The samples are based upon the cross-domain bacteria isolation methods referred to previously.  The tests have been repeated on numerous occasions with identical positive results.  The methods use classical methods of DNA extraction.  These methods involve the mechanical or chemical decomposition of the original biological material and the use of salt, ice, detergents, enzymes and ethanol.

dna in ethanol

The material at the upper portion of the test tube shown, in ethanol, is DNA extracted from a culture based upon oral filaments in association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition.

dna oral filament

Second sample test of DNA isolated from oral filament culture.

collected dna

Collected DNA from several cross-domain bacteria culture sample runs.

onion dna

Control photograph of the DNA isolation process with onion.  Identical results of DNA production with the same chemical techniques involving breakdown of original biological material, use of salt, detergents, enzymes and ethanol.  A more dense layer of DNA material is visible immediately above the alcohol-onion solution interface.  DNA separates with this process, as shown, into the alcohol layer at the top of the test tube.