Morgellons & Carbon Monoxide

Morgellons & Carbon Monoxide

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 14 2016
(To Be Continued)

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

Methods have been developed that confirm the existence of carbon monoxide gas production by the microorganism identified as a source of the “Morgellons” condition.  The existence of this gas as a repeatable and identifiable phenomenon from the metabolism of the microorganism poses a host of serious health implications to consider.

The presence of the gas during growth was first established and identified with the methods of gas chromatography.  Carbon dioxide production is in the majority proportion and carbon monoxide accompanies this in a lower proportion, as is shown below.

CDB CO2_CO Production2

Reference gas chromatogram depicting a comparison between carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide isolated from automobile exhaust and that of the microorganism (CDB).  Retention times correspond and support the identification of both carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide production.

As described in previous papers, the tentative nomenclature for the microorganism has been designated as a “cross-domain bacteria“, or CDB.  This terminology remains in place by this researcher as study continues; all evidence does continue to support the hypothesis of a predominant bacterial origin and nature.

The conclusions regarding the gas as a product of metabolism have been further confirmed with the use of infrared spectrometry.  The carbon dioxide spectrum (gas) presents strong absorbance peaks in the 2100 – 2200 cm-1 wavenumber range.  These peaks have been repeatedly identified within the gaseous samples from the CDB microorganism.

CDB Gas Production CO Segment Average Aug 13 2016 - 13

Infrared spectrum of the gaseous metabolic product from the CDB.  Absorbance in the 2100 – 2200 cm-1 wavenumber range has been repeatedly identified, and is shown above.  This absorbance in this specific infrared range further supports the conclusion of carbon monoxide production by the microorganism.


 Reference spectrum of gaseous carbon monoxide.  Absorbance in the 2100-2200 cm-1 wavenumber range exists as a unique identifying characteristic of the gas.  Source of image : NIST

Gas chromatography and infrared spectrometry methods, applied repeatedly to multiple samples of CDB growth, both support the conclusions of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide production reached in this report.

The concentration of carbon dioxide within the samples is relatively high and easily detected.  The concentration of carbon monoxide is lower, and is at roughly the limits of detection with the instrumentation available.  A first and partial estimate of the carbon monoxide concentration is on the order of 50-100 parts per million (ppm) within the sample volumes examined.  The existence of continuous gas production by the CDB, irrespective of concentrations to be determined in the future, is sufficient to warrant serious health impact investigations.

Additional gaseous production, such as that from hydrocarbons, remains an additional topic of investigation and remains for future discussions.

The primary purpose of this paper is to disclose the result in preparation for future examinations.  A few historical and leading comments will be made with respect to the health issues that warrant mention, but this topic is obviously deserving of its own discussion in future days.

The finding is, of course, of significance.  However, for those familiar with the history of research on this site, the disclosure should not be one of total surprise.  There is now a record over several years of an ongoing chronicle of reported and expected interference with major systems of the body from the Morgellons condition.  This interference and damage to human health most emphatically concerns all aspects of energy production, oxygen transport, iron utilization and respiration.  It has been reported on continuously for a period of many years now.  What differs in the the current situation is that a primary mechanism for a portion of that harm may be under definition.

I will spare the reader of citing the legacy of work on this site that is completely and totally consistent with a finding of carbon monoxide within the metabolism of the organism; I do, however, encourage that investigation to understand the depth of work that leads us to this occasion.

The most immediate need will be a preview to some of the potential health risks from carbon monoxide in the body.  I would suggest that a focal point of investigation be that of chronic low level exposure and the associated symptoms and conditions that might result. Higher concentration impacts, for a myriad of practical reasons, would not seem to be relevant at this time. Carbon monoxide and human health is serious business no matter how you choose to look at it.   It will also be of interest in our future to compare the low level exposure symptoms with those that will, in due time, become known from the investigative survey (MRP) conducted by this Institute.  The investigations will be complicated further by the broad array of disruptors that been brought forth in the course of the research over many years.

It will also be of interest to investigate those groups of bacteria or related microorganisms that share in the property of producing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and/or various hydrocarbons within their metabolism.  The commonality of that trait will also be of interest.

Let us look at the latter question first.

To Be Continued

Morgellons : An International Presence


An International Presence


Clifford E Carnicom

Aug 10 2016

In an effort to provide continuing documentation of the Morgellons condition, the following images are provided.   The magnification of the series progresses from approximately 100x to 5000x. The samples originate from the scalp of an individual and multiple examples have been provided under clean and controlled conditions.  The network of filaments, although compact and dense, is completely commensurate with previous samples that have been examined over the years.

The filament networks taken from the skin of the affected individual come from a person that resides in France.  Overwhelming evidence continues to mount that the source of the condition is environmental  in nature, origin and distribution. This most recent example demonstrates the international scope of the this continuing and unaddressed public health issue.


Low power image (top lit) of a representative filament network taken from the skin of the individual.  The sample, in general, is difficult to image because of the density of the network.  The samples measure approximately 1 mm in length.  Various microscopy configurations have been used to collect these images. 

Magnification approx. 100x.


A silhouette view on the edge of the filament network.

Magnification approx. 350x.


First level of internal detail of filament network becomes visible.

Magnification approx. 1500x.


The complex internal nature of filament network is revealed.  Extensive discussion on the internal structure of the filament form of growth exists on this site.

Magnification approx. 5000x.

CDB Lipids : An Introductory Analysis

CDB Lipids : An Introductory Analysis

Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 12 2015
Edited May 29 2016

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective. 

An introductory qualitative and analytical analysis of certain lipids that have been extracted from the cross-domain bacteria (CDB), as they are designated on an interim level by this researcher, has been made.   Lipids are a primary biological molecule within any living organism and future studies of this component will be of the greatest importance.

Several major characteristics have been identified using modest means and methods, and the results bring to the forefront additional unusual properties of the organism under study with respect to the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  There are, potentially, several important health implications that arise from this recent work; these health factors are in complete accord with the historical record of discovery and examination that is available on this site.  This paper will be relatively brief in coverage but it will,  hopefully,  serve to reiterate certain themes and directions of research that remain to be confronted by society and that are deserving of appropriate support and resources.

The primary characteristics or factors that have been identified in the course of this study are:

1.  The lipids from the CDB appear to be highly non-polar in nature.

2.  The lipids have a relatively high index of refraction.

3. The lipids appear to be composed, in the main, from long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids.

4. The lipids appear to support combustion (i.e., oxidation) with ease.

5. The lipids appear to react readily with the halogens, such as iodine.

6. The visible light spectrum of the lipid – iodine reaction is unique and it serves as an additional means of identification.  Peak absorbance of the reaction is at  approximately 498 nanometers.

7.  A significant portion of the extracted lipids is expected to originate from the membranes of the CDB.

8. Endoxtoxins within the CDB are suspected to exist and this subject remains as a serious prospect for research in the future.

These characteristics will now be discussed in greater detail to formulate a general but composite assessment of the lipid character, as well as a reference to certain health impacts that are necessary to consider.

Variable Solubility of the Lipids as it Relates to Polarity

Polarity is a defining property of a molecular structure, and it is a measure of the distribution of charges within a molecule.  Non-polar molecules are generally symmetric in their nature with a tendency toward an equal and symmetric distribution of charges.  Polar molecules, in contrast, are usually of an asymmetric nature with the charges on the molecule unevenly distributed.  Information on polarity, therefore, provides some generalized nature as to the form or nature of the molecule or substance under study.

In this photo, The lipids are mixed with a mildly polar solvent in the tube to the left in the photo; a clear separation remains after settling.  In contrast, the lipids dissolve much more readily in a highly polar solution to the right in the photograph.

The significance of this result is as follows:

Fatty acids are a dominant component of many lipids.  They are comprised of a carboxyl group that is attached to a hydrocarbon chain.  The length of this chain can vary depending upon the particular fatty acid that is involved.  The carboxyl group is polar in nature and therefore the charge distribution on that particular functional group is asymmetric.  The carboxyl group is also acidic in nature and this is the origin of the name of fatty acids that is attached to this common lipid structure.

The hydrocarbon chain that is attached to the carboxyl group is generally of a non-polar nature, and it serves to counteract the polar effect from the carboxyl group.  Therefore, the more non-polar the lipid is, the more likely it is that the hydrocarbon is of relative greater length.  A very long hydrocarbon chain (non-polar) will tend to dominate the character of the molecule in this case and ultimately make the molecule less polar.

This relationship between the polarity of and the length of the attached hydrocarbon chain provides our first useful interpretation as to the structure of the lipid molecule.  Some lipids are more or less polar than others; a highly polar lipid is indicative of lengthy hydrocarbon chains within the fatty acid.  The longer the fatty acid is, the more complex the lipid structure or interactions with other molecules is likely to be.  The structure of any molecule is of the highest importance, as one of the dogmas of biology is that structure determines function.  We are after both, structure and function, and usually in that same order. 

A couple of examples of short vs. long chain fatty acids follows; it can be seen that the differences in form and structure can be substantial:

Short Chain Fatty Acids

Short Chain Fatty Acids
Image Source :

The specific conclusion in this case is that we are more likely to be dealing with a lipid form that contains more extensive hydrocarbon chains.

The next topic of interest concerns the index of refraction.  The index of refraction is a measure of the ability of a substance to bend a light wave that passes through it.  It is also a measure of the speed of light though that same material.  It is also an important defining physical property of a substance, and its measurement can be made with relative ease and modest cost.  Tables of the index of refraction for a wide variety of substances, including lipids and oils are readily available for comparison purposes.

The index of refraction for the lipids under examination measures at 1.487 as the average between two different samples.  The instrument has been calibrated with numerous comparison oil samples and is performing accurately and reliably.  The estimated error of the measurement is +/- .001.

The measurement of 1.487 is a relatively high index of refraction, especially as far as oils are concerned.  This higher measurement also leads to interpretations of significance as we shall soon discover.

There is a relationship between the index of refraction and the degree of saturation within a fatty acid or lipid.  The saturation level (i.e., saturated vs unsaturated) property of a lipid is also a very important characteristic as it expresses itself in terms of the the bond types within the molecule; this is an additional aspect of structure that we have declared as our pursuit.

Let us begin with the definitions for saturated vs. unsaturated fats.  A saturated fat is one in which a full complement of attached hydrogen atoms exists.  A saturated fat contains only single bonds between the carbon atoms.  An unsaturated fat, in contrast, has double (or higher) bonds between the carbon atoms, and there will be fewer hydrogen atoms attached as a result.  Let us present a couple of images to clarify the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats.

An example of a saturated vs. an unsaturated fat

An example of a saturated vs. an unsaturated fat
image source :

In addition, a distinction should be made between mono-unsaturated fats and poly-unsaturated fats.  In essence, a mono-saturated fat has a single double carbon bond within the hydrocarbon chain and a poly-unsaturated fat has more than one double carbon bond within the chain.  The image below shows this difference
The top image shows another example of a saturated fat.
The lower two images show the distinction between monounsaturated and polysaturated fats.
Notice the number of number of double carbon bonds present in the latter examples.
image source :

As information is gained, let us never lose sight of the end goal:The more that can be understood about the structure of a biological molecule, the closer that we are towards learning about the behavior, interaction and function of that molecular structure.  This information is a prerequisite toward the design of effective mitigation strategies.  While much of this pursuit remains in our future, we nevertheless can report the modest levels of progress as they occur, albeit under restricted conditions.

Now that we understand the variations of saturation within fats and oils (lipids), let us return to something that can be measured to give us information about the state of saturation within a lipid.  Once such measurement is the index of refraction, as has been referred to above.

It will be found in the literature that that there is a ‘relationship’ between the degree of saturation in a fat and the ‘iodine number’.  The iodine number is a measure of the level of absorption of iodine by fats, and this number can be used in turn to infer the degree of saturation by that same lipid or fat.  The method is commonly used in the food industry to determine the quality of fats.  The degree of fat saturation is a variable of high interest within the food industry as it affects the spoilage rate and this in turn affects the economics of the food industry.  There are many important reasons to understand the qualitative characteristics of lipids beyond our immediate interest in the ‘Morgellons’ issue.

Determination of the iodine number is a more demanding laboratory method and it requires additional time, protocols and reagents in comparison to alternative methods that have developed within this study.

There is, however, a more accessible method to fulfill our immediate need, and that is to get some sense of the likely saturation level of this particular lipid.  It will be found, with study, that there is also a relationship that can be established between the index of refraction of an oil and the iodine number of that same oil.  An increase in the iodine number is indicative of a higher unsaturation level and in parallel it will be found that a higher index of refraction is strongly correlated with a higher iodine number.  We are able, therefore, to make an equally viable interpretation of the saturation (i.e, unsaturation as well) level with the use of the index of refraction as our primary dependent variable.  Ultimately, a higher iodine number estimate will indicate a higher level of unsaturation within the lipid.  Such a relationship has been researched and established as presented below.

linear reg

Several different oil types have been investigated and the correlation between the index of refraction is reasonably strong (r = 0.92, n = 13).  The accuracy of the refractometer in use has been included as a part of the study.  The result of this work is that a viable method to estimate the level of relative saturation from a direct measurement of the index of refraction of the lipid under study now exists.

The application of the linear regression model to the measured index of refraction (1.487) yields an estimate for the iodine value as 218.  This magnitude for the estimated iodine value is extremely high and it is significant in its own right.

The conclusion to be reached from this iodine value is meaningful.  This stage of the study indicates that the character of the lipid is more likely to be that of a highly poly-unsaturated lipid.  This result is corroborative with the first interpretation of a relatively lengthy fatty acid chain within the lipid structure.  These two interpretations are mutually supportive of one another.  This means that the lipid hydrocarbon chains are more likely to be lengthy with several double carbon bonds along the chain.  This, in turn, will affect the structure as double bonds cause a bend to take place in the hydrocarbon chain.  Several double bonds would only enhance that feature further.

In addition, double bonds within a hydrocarbon chain have another likely and important result.  They are much more likely to produce chemical reactions.  Two likely candidates for reaction are oxygen and the halogens.  Lipids with a high iodine value are more subject to oxidation and therefore have a greater likelihood of becoming rancid (spoiled).  High iodine level lipids are also more likely to produce free radicals.  Lastly, highly polyunsaturated lipids are more likely to polymerize (i.e, ‘plasticize).  Each of these impacts offer the prospect of additional harm to the body, and great attention to the effects of oxidation and free radicals has been given in the history of research on this site. 

There is a wealth of information that is available on the health risks associated with polyunsaturated fats.  The following citations are a couple of representative examples of the issues involved, the first from a lay standpoint and the second from the Commission of European Communities:

Reports of the Scientific Committee for FoodsSource : Reports of the Scientific Committee for Foods, Commission of European Communities

Readers may recall the extensive attention that has given within this site to the role that antioxidants can play in the mitigation of excessive oxidation to the body.  Those discussions, once again, appear to be especially relevant in the amelioration of the harmful influences of polyunsaturated fats. The impact of halogens to the thyroid and metabolism have also been extensively discussed on this site and we will return to that topic later in this paper as well.

The issue of oxidation in combination with combustion tests should now be raised.  The tests, at this stage of investigation, indicate that this particular species of lipids may be highly subject to the process of oxidation.  The purity of the sample can not be quantified at this point since there may be other compounds present within the lipid samples.  However, all indications are that the character of the lipids is somewhat unusual with respect to oxidation and, for that matter, combustion.

The lipids that have been extracted ignite easily, as is shown in the photograph below on the left side:

Lipid Combustion Tests 1  Lipid Combustion Tests 2
Lipid Combustion Tests 3
Lipid Combustion Tests

In this case, the method involves placing a small amount of the lipids into a watchglass with a small piece of paper acting as a wick.  The lipids burn easily and steadily under these conditions, and the behavior is somewhat akin to lamp oil.  Due to the biological and apparent polyunsaturated nature of the lipids, a comparison might be made with whale oil, which was an important source of fuel in earlier times.  There is no suggestion here that the lipids are chemically identical to whale oil by any means, however, the fish oils and whale oil share many interesting properties of the highly polyunsaturated fats. The photograph on the right shows the wick remaining at the end of combustion; this demonstrates that the oil itself is the primary source of fuel within combustion. The last photograph shows an inclusive example of the failure of any of the other tested lipids or oils to support direct combustion.

Combustion goes hand in hand with oxidation; something that burns oxidizes. It is of interest that of all the other oils tested under similar conditions (approximately 8 varieties of varying degrees of unsaturation), only the lipids under examination here showed any ease of combustion at the level shown within the photographs.  Along with the highest index of refraction found within the group that has been examined, the dramatic display of combustion of the sample further reinforces the case for a lipid that is highly unsaturated and thus prone to excessive oxidation.  This finding is once again corroborative of the extensive case for excessive oxidation within the body that occurs in association with the ‘Morgellons’ condition; readers may also recall the lengthy discussions on the apparent marked oxidation of iron within during the examination of blood samples.  All signs of the accumulated research indicate that excessive oxidation within the body is one of the most likely outcomes expected to be found within any future studies of the ‘Morgellons’ condition.  Preliminary data from early questionnaires submitted to the public also strongly indicates this same result.

There are at least two primary forms of lipids in the body, one for storage of energy within the cells and another within the membranes of the cell, where they act to to encapsulate and protect the cell.  Saturated fats are more likely to be associated with the storage of energy internal to the cell and unsaturated fats are more likely to be associated with the membranes of a cell .  Phospholipids are a very important class of lipids that are found within the cell membranes.   The degree of unsaturation within phospholipids varies, with one or both tails having double carbon bonds (the site of oxidation).  An image of a representative phospholipid follows:

Phospholipid within a Cell Membrane
Source :

The oxidation of lipids is referred to as lipid peroxidation, and it is especially prone to occur with polyunsaturated lipids, as we appear to have in this case.  Phospholipids (a bi-layer) are a major constituent of cell membranes, and the oxidation of these lipids subsequently causes damage to the cell.  Lipid peroxidation is essentially the theft of electrons from the lipids in the membranes and it occurs as a free radical chain reaction.  The oxidation occurs when there is an excess availability of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species. The point of oxidation will be the location of the double bond, which occurs at the bent location within the unsaturated fatty acid tail, as shown in the picture above.  An illustration of the lipid peroxidation reaction is shown below; notice the site of activity at the carbon double bond:

Source : Colorado State University

It appears to be the case at this point that the CDB contain within them a highly polyunsaturated fat and/or fatty acids, most likely to occur within the membranes of the CDB, and that the CDB may therefore be subject to, or result in, lipid peroxidation in the presence of free radicals.  This process, once started, is a chain reaction and is only terminated in the presence of appropriate antioxidants, such as Vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase, transferrin (binding free iron), enzymes (such as catalase), in addition to others[see Robbins above].  As shown within earlier culture trials, Vitamin C and NAC (N-acetyl cysteine acting as a glutathione precursor) may show themselves to be effective antioxidants as well.  The issue of oxidants vs. antioxidants has emerged earlier within the research and this information remains available to review.  Those seeking therapeutic protocols dependent upon oxidizing protocols vs. antioxidant protocols may wish to examine further the fundamental differences that are apparent within the scientific literature.  Each individual must , of course, seek health consultation that is appropriate to their individual needs.

Another more complete description of lipid peroxidation comes from Robbins Pathologic Basic of Disease, 4th Edition, where the following sequence is described:

“Lipid peroxidation is one well-studied…mechanism of free radical injury.  It it initiated by hydroxyl radicals, which react with unsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids to generate organic acid free radicals, which in turn react quickly with oxygen to form peroxides.  Peroxides themselves then act as free radicals, initiating an autocatalytic chain reaction, resulting in further loss of unsaturated fatty acids and in extensive membrane damage”

To reiterate the attention that has been given in the research to the oxidation and antioxidant issues in the case of ‘Morgellons’, please recall some of the earlier papers (this paper included) that complement this discussion:

Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal – February 2010
Morgellons : Growth Inhibition Confirmed – March 2010
Morgellons : The Extent of the Problem – June 2010
Morgellons : In the Laboratory – May 2011
Morgellons : A Thesis – October 2011
Morgellons : The Breaking of Bonds and Reduction of Iron – November 2012
Amino Acids Verified – November 2012
Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis : Part I – December 2013
Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis : Part II – December 2013
Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis : Part III – December 2013
Growth Inhibition Achieved – January 2014
Biofilm, CDB and Vitamin C – April 2014
CDB : General Characteristics (In Progress) – July 2014
CDB Lipids : An Introductory Analysis – March 2015

Lipid peroxidation is a complex area for study, however, the importance of doing so can be understood from the following statement by Marisso Repetto, from the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Argentina:

“Currently, lipid peroxidation is considered [as one of] the main molecular mechanisms involved in the oxidative damage to cell structures and in the toxicity process that lead[s] to cell death.”

The complete paper is detailed but insightful,  and it demonstrates the extensive research that is now available on the subject of lipid peroxidation.  The paper in its entirety may be accessed here.

Let us introduce an observed reaction with one of the halogens, in this case, iodine. The reaction is shown below on the right hand side, and in comparison to a negative reaction with vegetable oil on the left. Similar to the case of combustion from above, the CBD lipids under study are the only lipids (of approximately eight in comparison) that have displayed this pronounced reaction with iodine. It appears to be a unique, important and characteristic reaction.

CBD Lipids

It is understood that iodine reacts with lipids; in fact, this is the very basis of the ‘iodine number’ method and it is used as a measure of the unsaturation level of the lipid.  The higher the iodine level, the higher the level of unsaturation in the lipid.  We have already discussed the relationship between the iodine number and correlation with the index of refraction, and we have very good reason to suspect a very high level of unsaturation within the lipids examined.

What is under discussion here is the formation of a bright red colored iodine complex which, thus far, presents itself only within this particular lipid form, at least in relation to numerous sample types that it has been compared with.  The colored complex reaction formed is, in itself, worthy of continued chemical analysis and investigation.  This reaction has not occurred in like fashion to any other lipid samples examined thus far.  The nature of the complex is not completely understood at this time;  the consideration of an iron-lipid-iodine or transition metal complex, however, is extremely high on the list of possibilities.

What can be concluded from visible light spectroscopy, however, is that the colored complex formed once again assures us that we are dealing with a structure that contains numerous double carbon bonds.  Visible light spectroscopy is highly dependent upon what is termed conjugation; conjugation is a molecular structure that is based upon alternating single and double carbon bonds.  The greater the degree of conjugation, the longer the wavelength of the color that will be absorbed.  An example of a highly conjugated form is as follows:

 An example of a conjugated structure within a chromophore
An example of a conjugated structure within a chromophore
(portion of a molecule that absorbs color).
Source : wikipedia

Notice the numerous alternating single and double bonds in the above structure.  Chromophores are especially likely to form with compounds that involve the transition metals, such as iron.  The color of the complex lends itself well to visual light spectrometry and a spectral plot of the CDB complex formation in the visible light range is shown below:

 Visible Light Spectrum of the CDB Lipid-Iodine Complex
Visible Light Spectrum of the CDB Lipid-Iodine Complex

The peak absorbance occurs at approximately 498 nanometers.  This spectral examination of the lipid-iodine complex is an important identification method to establish the presence or existence of this particular CDB lipid form.

The identification of an iron-lipid-iodine complex is further substantiated with tests for the detection of iron using 1,10 phenanthroline reagent in combination with the lipids in a mildly polar solution.  These initial tests are weak in color but nevertheless positive for the presence of the Fe+2 ion within the CDB lipids.  This finding is in coincidence with the paramount conclusion of significant Fe+2 iron use and metabolism by the CDB, as it has been discussed extensively within earlier papers.

The impact of halogens upon the body has been discussed extensively in earlier work and it will not be repeated here.  Readers are referred to the paper entitled Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis (esp. Parts II & III) for the important effects and toxicity potential discussed therein.


The next topic of importance to discuss is that of polymerization.  A polymer is a molecular structure that is composed of many repeating smaller units.  They can be either synthetic or natural, and they usually have a large molecular mass compared to that of the basic structural unit.  Latex and Styrofoam are examples of both a natural and a synthetic polymer.  The architecture and length of the polymer chains strongly affect the physical properties of the polymer, such as elasticity, melting point, and solubility, amongst others.  A diagram of various structural forms is shown below:

Source : Wikipedia

The reason that polymerization is relevant here is that unsaturated lipids are prone to polymerization.  The higher the degree of unsaturation, the more likely that polymerization will take place.  This is due to the oxidation at the double carbon bonds that have been brought to attention repeatedly here.  A familiar example of polymerization to many of us is with the use of linseed oil.  Linseed oil is a highly unsaturated lipid that is applied to furniture as a protective coating; this is one of the so-called “drying oils”.  As this type of oil weathers (or oxidizes), it will form a harder and protective coating over the wood surface.  This is an excellent example of the oxidation of a highly unsaturated oil, or lipid, that produces a polymer.  As mentioned, polymers can vary widely in their physical properties, and the plastics are an excellent additional example of synthetic polymers.  Oil paints that artists use are another example of the “drying oils” that share these same characteristics.

It appears that the probability of polymerization for the CDB lipid complex appears to be high at this point, as all of the prerequisite characteristics appear to be in place.  It appears to be highly unsaturated and therefore subject to oxidation as has been detailed above.  This places us on the alert that the CDB lipids may be a candidate to produce polymers which, in general, would be anticipated to cause harm if internal to the body.

With respect to lipid discovery and extraction, we would be remiss if the subject of endotoxins was not again introduced.  Readers may recall that all tests conducted on the CDB to date indicate that they are Gram-negative.  A Gram-negative test is important for bacteria as it indicates at least three characteristics of importance:

1. The cell walls are lipid-rich in comparison to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. The negative test indicates the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) within the cell wall; lipopolysaccharides are essentially synonymous with endotoxins.
3. Pathogenic bacteria are often associated with endotoxins.

Let us visually compare the cell walls of a Gram-positive bacteria vs. a Gram-negative bacteria:

Gram-positive bacteria vs. a Gram-negative bacteria

Source :

There are distinctive differences that can be noticed.  Starting from the bottom, we can see that both cells contain phospholipids (the lipid bi-layer presented earlier).  The Gram-negative cell, however, is lipid rich, while the Gram-positive cells have a much lower lipid content. The lipid content of the Gram-negative cell wall is approximately 20-30%, which is very high compared to the Gram-negative cell wall.  The relatively high volume of lipids that have been extracted from the CDB are supportive of the Gram-negative test result.

In the Gram-negative cell, the peptidoglycan layer is about 5-20% by dry weight of the cell wall; in the Gram-positive cell the peptidoglycan layer is about 50-90% of the cell wall by dry weight.  Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of amino acids and sugars.

Gram negative bacteria are generally more resistant to antibiotics than Gram-negative bacteria.  In consideration of the cross-domain terminology currently in use, it is of interest to note that the archaea can be either Gram-negative or Gram-positive; the archaea and the eukaryotes remain under equal consideration within the studies.  It is also of interest to know that until relatively recent times that the archaea were classified as bacteria and that the classification systems of biology remain dynamic.

A central difference between the two forms, beyond the relative lipid content and peptidoglycan layer, is the presence of lipopolysaccarides (LPS) on the Gram-negative bacteria.  LPS, or endotoxins, elicit a strong immune response in animals.

Aerosolized endotoxins are known to have a significant effect upon the pulmonary system and chronic exposures are known to increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  COPD is now the third leading cause of death in the United States. Sub-lethal doses cause fluctuations in body temperature (short term increases and longer term decreases),  and changes in the blood, immune, endocrine systems and metabolism.  They can result in “flu-like” symptoms, cough, headache and respiratory distress.  They are linked to increases in asthma and chronic bronchitis.  There are no regulatory standards for the levels of endotoxins in the environment (source : National Resources Defense Council).

Endotoxins are associated with increased weight gain, obesity, gum and dental infections and diabetes. A linkage with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome exists, as well as with atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, chronic conditions, cardiovascular disease and Parkinson’s Disease.  The condition of endotoxins within the blood is referred to as endotoxemia.

There may be a discomforting familiarity with the above symptoms in correlation with the so-called “Morgellons” condition; this familiarity justifies intensive research into the potential linkage between “Morgellons” and endotoxins.

Lastly, let us now review an infrared investigation into the nature of the extracted lipids.

Infrared Spectrum of CDB Lipids

Although a low resolution IR spectrophotometer has been used for this project, a very clear spectrum has been obtained.  The spectrum is dominated by peaks at 2900 cm-1 and 1700 cm-1.   The 2900 cm-1 peak can be attributed to sp3 single carbon-hydrogen bonds.  This functional group is perfectly in accord with the structure that forms the core of a fatty acid, as:


In addition, the peak at 1700 cm-1 can be attributed to carbon-oxygen double bonding, also in perfect accord with an unsaturated fatty acid, subject to oxidations as extensively described in this report.

A probability model has been developed for the analysis of infrared spectrums, subject to the constraints of the technology available to the Institute. The application of the model to the infrared spectrum above presents the following relative probabilities for the existence of the various functional groups:

Functional Group Relative Probability of Existence
Ketones 90%
Alkanes 70%
Aldehyde 60%
Carboxylic Acid 45%
Phosphonate 45%
Silane 37%
Phosphonic Acid 30%
Ether 30%
Ester 30%
Amide 20%
Phosphine 20%
Sulfate 15%

An analysis of the above probability table will demonstrate that it is highly dominated by the combination and presence of carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen single and double bonds functional groups.  The study and examination of the high probability functional groups and their potential impacts upon health will continue; the strong appearance of the ketone and aldehyde groups with a double carbon-oxygen bond (carbonyl group) is also of high interest here; the aldehydes are very easily subject to oxidation.  The potential presence of impurities within the sample will also need to be examined further, including those that might be a part of the extraction process.

All assessments in this report are highly corroborative of one another and they support the assessment of a highly unsaturated lipid, and all that this entails, as comprising a core structure of the CDB extraction that has taken place.


Additional Note:

Some additional analysis of biomolecules with the use of more capable and advanced infrared spectroscopy instrumentation has been completed as of May 2016.  The structural information identified continues to support the hypothesis that the CDB derive from the bacterial domain and this remains a primary focal point of research as to its origin.  The degree of overlap of genetics, if any, with the remaining archaea or eukaryote domains remains an open topic of research.


Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 12 2015
Edited May 29 2016

born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

CDB: Growth Progressions

CDB : Growth Progressions

Clifford E Carnicom
Jun 13 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

This paper will outline specific, identifiable and repeatable growth stages of the cross-domain bacteria (CDB) and its associated forms.  It will be seen that a wide variety of growth forms will ultimately emerge from what appears to be a simple, non-descript spherical living entity; as such the term ‘pleomorphic’ is fully justified in this presentation.  This is the case even when the study is restricted to the most primitive form of existence (i.e., the CDB) and this sets the stage to for us anticipate a high level of survivability and adaptability for the organism.  Thus far, this has certainly been proven to be the case, as the means to eradicate or destroy the organism in any meaningful way appears to be unavailable under the current state of knowledge.

The outline of presentation is based primarily upon chronology.  The simpler and more primitive states of existence will be introduced first; these will  be followed by more complex or advanced stages of growth.  In general, the time period of examination here covers up to approximately two months of time under controlled culture conditions.  It is understood that abundant reports of even more diverse and less understood growth formations exist, and those studies await us by the moment.  The objective here, however,  is to introduce in a systematic way that which can be replicated and documented under known conditions.

CDB - Primitive Form

CDB – Primitive Form
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

This image above represents the basis of all subsequent work here.  It is an explicit image of the cross-domain bacteria (CDB) themselves, as the term has been tentatively adopted by this researcher.  The evolution of that terminology, along with the rationale for its use, has been described in greater detail within the paper entitled Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation (Mar 2014).  The terminology, as expressed, is not intended to be restrictive in any sense and future discretions should and will allow this terminology to modify itself should circumstances and knowledge dictate.  What has been done is to introduce and force into the discussion a reference point from which earnest discussion and progress in the scientific community, and in society as a whole, can be made.  Fair-minded terminology at this stage of waiting (i.e, more than a decade) does not restrict us; in contrast, it will force us to discover what is true or not.  If the educated propositions turn out to be incorrect and require revision so be it; we will ultimately be the better for it as it means that the actual progress that is required and overdue will have been made. The process of CDB isolation is also described in more detail in that same paper.  

The above image is a clear and unhindered presentation of the CDB as they have been isolated.  They are visually not of dramatic form or impact and they could easily be passed over as one of the nuances of the microscopic world.  As in the case of the filament studies described exhaustively on this site, however, there appears to be an important story and set of events that are held within the simplistic structure above and it is our duty to make these characteristics, behaviors and capabilities known.  It is not an overstatement to say that such advanced knowledge appears to be at the heart of understanding the changes in biology now underway on this planet and that we should make haste and be earnest in the pursuit of it.

CDB Cellular Division Captured

CDB Cellular Division Captured

CDB Cellular Division Captured.  Two Hour Time Interval.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

The photograph above is an important one and it has been difficult to capture.  The existence of this image makes the case for a form of reproduction and growth that is understood and accepted within conventional biology, i.e., cell division.  All efforts to understand the nature of this organism are to be based upon such conventional knowledge, reason and processes unless the circumstances or situation requires otherwise.  Any observations or processes that fall within conventional reference frames of knowledge of science will allow certain assumptions to be more readily considered and they will act as a governor to unwarranted or disproven speculative discourse. If the situation requires an extension of our creative and imaginative talents they will be employed, but not without due and fair consideration to the eons of effort and hard work that has been given to us by our scientific predecessors.  The issue of artificial constructive devices to growth are not required at this point based upon the demonstration of cellular division above; all evidence collected to date continues to support the argument for a living organism operating under the framework of known biology.  This biology may hold numerous surprises for us and they may well involve processes of manipulation (e.g., human, genetic, engineering, etc.) but any such proclamations will need to be supported by rational and convincing scientific presentation.  The unknowns here obviously are many, and it is to our advantage to use known science to understand and interpret our discoveries instead of imaginative discussion that can lead to confusion and misinformation and that causes more harm than good.

What are the known methods of reproduction?  How does the above observation fit within that spectrum?  Is the observation above consistent with the primitive form designated as a “cross-domain bacteria“?

The perpetuation of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell division1.

Two types of cells exist : prokaryotic and eukaryotic.  Prokaryotes are non-nucleated and, in general, single celled organisms but there are some exceptions such as cyanobacteria and  myxobacteria.  The prokaryotes include the bacteria and archaea domains of life; these domains have been introduced elsewhere on this site (see Morgellons : A New Classification (Feb 2010)).  

Eukaryotes are nucleated and contain organelles within the cell and are therefore generally more complex in nature.  Eukaryotes include all life except the prokaryotes, such as plants, animals, fungi, algae, and protists (most protists are unicellular and all are eukaryotes).  

We can see that classification systems themselves have their own complications, and these difficulties were undoubtedly a driving force toward the three-domain system developed by Carl Woese in 1978 (as referenced in the mentioned paper).  

Three types of cell reproduction exist : binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.  Binary fission, as the name implies, refers literally to the division of a single cell into two parts and is asexual.  Mitosis is the division of the nucleus2 and is also asexual.  Meiosis is also a process of nuclear division (sexual) that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cells3.

For the current situation, we need to find what fits best with what is observed.  For the time being, this is binary fission, which happens to occur under the domains of the Bacteria and Archaea.  We have in our case an apparent single celled non-nucleated organism without organelles of an appropriate size that is splitting in two.  Again,  our discussion is restricted at this stage to the most primitive known form of the organism, i.e., the CDB.  The most common form of reproduction by bacteria is that of binary fission.  Additional arguments for the introduction of the cross-domain bacterial terminology (primitive form of the organism only) are substantial and they are outlined further in the Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation paper.  In addition, a great deal more information has accumulated over history on the Bacteria vs. Archaea (5,000 – 15,000 species  vs. a few hundred; these represent a small fraction of the total thought to exist) and the Archaea domain itself is a relatively recent taxonomic creation.

Bacteria can also vary their state of existence and their genetic nature4 by a process known as recombination.  This comes in three forms : conjugation, transformation, or transduction.  Conjugation involves the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through a tubular physical connection.  Transformation involves the assimilation of DNA from the environment.  And lastly, transduction is an exchange of DNA through bacteriophages, a type of virus that is specific to bacteria.  The methods of observation for these advanced methods of alteration does not exist within the Institute at this time.  

Archaea also reproduce by binary fission, and they remain under consideration from that perspective as well as others.  As we shall see, the term “cross-domain” has been introduced specifically for the prospect of allowance, if not expectation, of sharing other significant attributes of the remaining domains of life.  This argument is presented in force within the Morgellons : A New Classification  paper referenced earlier.  The discussion before us will only become increasingly complex as we proceed, and it is the reason that the discussion and study remains so highly focused on this most primitive form of existence of the organism that has been identified to date.

Eukaryotes cells divide by the processes of mitosis and meiosis, which involve a nucleus within a cell.  At this point there is not the means or observational equipment to identify a nucleus within this primitive form (because of its size); in addition, an expanded discussion on the case for tentative bacterial classification (primitive form only) has already been made.  At the current level of knowledge, a binary fission characteristic of a prokaryote is sufficient and reasonable to propose as the the form of cell division for the CDB.  The photograph above provides further justification for this argument.


Linear Alignment Process Prior to Filament Formation

CDB – Linear Alignment Process Prior to Filament Formation
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x


The next photograph above ushers in an important transitional state, and this is the alignment of the individual cocci  into a linear arrangement.  The knowledge and observation of the transformation process towards the filament form is a crucial piece of information to acquire and this has now been captured on repeated occasions.  The specific process by which this alignment takes place is not known, however, it can be projected that biochemical charge dynamics could easily be at play here.

The term ‘self-assembly’ has certain connotations that may be helpful to discuss and elaborate upon.  The term ‘self-assembly’ is often used with that of an ‘artificial’ process implied, frequently to the point of insinuating robotic, engineered or mechanical methods in the ‘construction’ process.  If such mechanisms are observed and documented they will be reported on.  There is, however, a biochemical reference and interpretation for the term which is much closer at hand and that is more sensible and rational to introduce with the photograph above.  The vast majority of the dynamics of chemistry (and bio-chemistry, for that matter) is governed and determined by charges; i.e., the classic interaction between positive and negative charges that are at the very essence of dynamic interactions within the cosmos.  The understanding of the essence of those forces remains enough of a mystery to mankind,; we may not need to seek a human or ‘artificial’ construct to explain states of nature that are not completely understood by humans to begin with.  The explanation here may best be made with example and simulation (which, incidentally, has been helpful to my own understanding) as to what ‘self-assembly’ actually means from the conventional biochemical perspective.  The following demonstration that is available at the Concord Consortium replaces much of a verbal discussion with simple and observable dynamics; it is suggested that the reader become familiar with both the simplicity, magic and power of this process in nature.  Self-assembly is likely to become an important aspect of future research and discussion as it relates to the growth stages of this organism.

Visit the Concord Consortium to view the self-assembly simulation using the Molecular Workbench software (Java based).

Excerpts from a simulation of self-assemblage at the Concord Consortium
with the use of the Molecular Workbench Software.
(Link to the Concord Consortium here)

The forces at work in the ‘self-assembly’ discussed here are the fundamental attractive and repulsive forces of electrons and protons.  Since these forces drive the vast majority of chemical reactions and energy transfer within living organisms, it should not come as a surprise to us that we will encounter  this process in our future study.  Clearly, there remains much work to be done to identify the nature, location and driving mechanisms of any charge interactions and this research remains immediately before us.  With that knowledge also comes the prospect of interfering with those charge dynamics that are likely involved in the growth of the organism; this offers potential benefits that are not difficult to recognize.  In fact, there are numerous prospects for disruption and interference to the the life cycle of the organism, and the knowledge sought by this Institute and other researchers hopefully will be supported by those that understand these potential benefits.  

Electromagnetic studies of the CDB that are underway do indicate a possible separation of charge within cultures that are under investigation.  If this charge separation is verified there may be a relationship between this and the ‘assembly’ or alignment process that is shown above.


 Filament Development with Internal CDB

 Filament Development with Internal CDB
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x

The next stage of growth that is shown above represents an important transgression from the usual propagation of a bacteria within its own species.  We see in the case above that not only is there an alignment process that can take place;  there is also the development of a filament structure that eventually can encase the CDB and ultimately create a more complex and protective form of growth.  The CDB have shown themselves to be quite resistant to traditional methods of breakdown or disintegration; the appearance of a surrounding filament sheath makes this even more so.  It is not impossible for filaments to associate with bacterial development but it is not especially common.  It is for this and other reasons that the modifier and extension of  “cross-domain” has been added once we begin to examine beyond the primitive and original form of growth and existence.   CDB terminology is  proposed simply as a common reference point for discussion and further study and as the original, most primitive, known and identifiable form of existence for the organism. 

Let us start by identifying some of those cases where filaments are known to be associated with bacterial growth:

The first case that I am aware of that shares this property is that of some fossilized remains.  In Tortora’s Microbiology, An Introduction5, a photograph (copyright protected) of a fossilized filamentous prokaryote from western Australia that is 3.5 billion years old is shown.  We know, therefore, that filamentous prokaryotes can date back essentially to the origin of the earth.  Whether or not coccus forms can be seen internally in that particular case is a different matter, as the image of the remains is simply not of sufficient quality to determine this.

There is another novel case of filamentous bacteria found recently deep underground in a South African mine and this likely indicates an ancient origin as well.  Under more contemporary circumstances, the cyanobacteria  exist as a rather unusual class of “nonproteobacteria gram-negative bacteria”.  This group is unique in that they are morphologically and physiologically distinctive from other bacteria and their classification is based upon genetic origins per the breakthoughs by Carl Woese discussed in earlier papers.  They were once called blue-green algae but they are currently classified as bacteria, however, and they can exist in at least three different forms.  Photographs are, as usual, helpful to visualize the level of variance involved here:



filamentous cyanobacteria


The non-filamentous form of cyanobacteria. As this form of the bacteria is approximately 8-10 microns in diameter, it is clear that this remains a separate species from that under study. Image source :

The filamentous form of cyanobacteria.  This image shows that various bacteria can indeed develop into a filament form.  In addition, there appears what are called heterocysts (the larger and more circular cells) which are specialized for fixing nitrogen gas.  This type of variation can be important within the current studies as will be seen later within this paper. Image source :

This is the branching form of cyanobacteria.  Although the dimensions of this species are radically different from that of the CDB, the variation of form is nevertheless especially interesting and calls to attention the broad diversity of structure and form that can occur within the bacterial domain.  Image source :

There is also a case of a ‘sheathed’ bacteria that is interesting and potentially relevant to introduce.  The species is that of Sphaerotilus natus and it appears as follows:

Sphaerotilus natus

 Sphaerotilus natans bacteria.  This bacteria is rod shaped and, therefore, does not match the CDB in form as well as in size.  It is of interest, however, in the fact that it produces an enclosing sheath in which to live.  The sheaths are of a protective nature and it is thought that they aid in nutrient accumulation.  It also stains as Gram negative and has an alternative common name of “sewage fungus” as it is often found in sewage locales. Image source :


What we can see in these cases, therefore, is that the bacteria can actually vary fairly widely in their form and structure.  Some bacteria create filament structures, some create unique and specialized cells, and some rarely encase themselves in a protective sheath; these cases are exceptions to the rule but we see that they are possible and known to exist.  It certainly is more typical to regard filament structures and multi-celled structures as representative of the fungi and eukaryotes but that presumption must be reserved until additional information becomes available.   The lines of definition have already become blurred at this stage.  The introduction of genetic classification systems has radically altered our views that are based upon visible morphology and physiology.  We can see that the “classification of life” is under a state of continuous revision and that exceptions abound to the attempts that are made to place the biology of the planet into a set of tidy boxes.  The introduction of genetic manipulation by human beings has opened up its own Pandora’s Box in this regard, and it is unlikely that the classification systems of the past will ever entirely serve the complexities of our future.


Early Stages of Filament Development

Early Stages of Filament Development

 Early Stages of Filament Development with Internal CDB.  Development of reddish (probable protein aggregation) conglomerates along filaments.  Original Magnification Approx. 5000x.


The stage of growth shown above appears to be important in the development of structural mass for the organism.  In this case, additional material of a reddish-brown color can be seen to accumulate around and within the CDB-filament complex that precedes it.  The composition of this material is unknown at this time.  There is, however, a presumption in place that this material could easily be of a proteinacous nature.  The color of the material is also highly suggestive of an iron complex that is included; it is known that iron compounds eventually become a significant compositional compound of the organism growth.  This particular material is not especially reactive to hydrogen peroxide but further developments that are highly reactive to hydrogen peroxide will be described below.  A reasonable supposition, for the time being, is that this material may be dominated by the presence of an proteinaceous-iron complex.  It is also known from previous work and studies that the filaments themselves are most likely constructed largely of proteins, with keratin based materials as the strongest candidate.  In terms of function, it is reasonable that proteins will be a major component to the growth processes that are being recorded here.  The nature and identity of such proteins is a major pursuit of research for Carnicom Institute.


time lapse

 Time Lapse of CDB – Filament Growth Stage on Agar Culture
Original Magnification Approx. 500x


The animated image above represents a time lapse capture of the filament growth under relatively low magnification.  This particular growth has been recorded from an agar based culture.  The period of time covered by the time lapse movie is two hours and it is compressed into an interval of 40 seconds.  The growth appears to be uniform and  substantial.  The rate of growth for the organism at this stage and under these conditions is estimated at approximately 200 microns per hour.  This growth rate, if undisturbed and unrestrained, translates to approximately 5 inches in length per month of time under the conditions shown.  The impact of this type of growth within a suitable environment or within a host organism (e.g., a human body) is obviously of serious concern.  Any knowledge or or means to inhibit such growth can equally be of obvious benefit; it may be of interest and value for the health professions and communities to evaluate and further research the inhibition and mitigation strategies that have been developed within this site.


Agar Culture Vacuum Testing.

7 Days Filament Form

Agar Culture Vacuum Testing.
CDB readily progress to filament form directly.   Vaccum environment does not promote growth.

Agar Culture Growth Stage – Approx. 7 Days
Filament Form.


The images above are of agar culture trials and two points of interest, as a minimum, are demonstrated ..  The first is the development of cultures in a highly specific fashion that are essentially free from contamination of other organisms such as common molds and fungi.  This is the result of work and study that have gradually isolated  a set of conditions that are favorable for growth; these will be identified in greater detail within separate writing.  Many non-specific culture environments, both liquid and agar based, have been investigated and the results presented on the site over a period of many years.  One advantage of the current progress is that it allows for a more accurate assessment of the early growth processes that are specific to this particular organism.  It is expected that this process can and will be refined further as the research extends itself within the health professions and laboratory environments.

The second illustration is of the importance of both moisture and the atmosphere to the growth process.  Significant decreases in atmospheric pressure have been applied to the culturing process and in all cases a corresponding marked decrease in growth and proliferation is observed.  This leads us to understand that the composition of the atmosphere is, in some fashion, beneficial and important to growth.  The most obvious and likely beneficial candidates to consider here will be that of oxygen and nitrogen.  Additional work to be described further increases the evidence for favoritism towards an oxygen rich environment, but that result is not exclusive in any way to the potential importance or role of additional gases during growth.  

It should also be understood that a growth benefit is an entirely separate issue than that of a growth requirement.  The above information does not, in any fashion, demonstrate that the atmosphere is required for the existence or even perpetuation of the organism -only that it appears to be beneficial and favorable for growth or for growth to proceed more quickly.  As a matter of act, the evidence to date indicates that the organism can exist in stasis indefinitely under especially harsh or severe environmental conditions.  These conditions could well include that of a vacuum, a complete lack of moisture, and extremes in temperature.  The subject of exobiology may ultimately be relevant to this discussion as there remain many unknowns as to what that final limiting environment may be.  Readers may wish to investigate the topic of the attempted destruction of microorganisms and how it relates to our own space exploration programs from earth.  It may be a surprise to learn how ‘hardy’ life has shown itself to be and even the role of humans themselves in ‘seeding’ the cosmos, let alone studying the prospect of cosmic intrusion of life forms onto and into this planet.   Ames Research Center, as one of the early visitors to the body of research here, may be a place to start the inquiry.  There is, obviously, room for discussion on these subjects and on the origins of life in general.  It is probably of benefit to us a species that we no longer regard the theories of panspermia as being novel.


 Advanced Filament Form

 Advanced Filament Form
 Advanced Filament Form  Advanced Filament Form

 Advanced Filament Form – Cellular Production.  Cells amass additional CDB within.  Also note the CDB saturated filament form in addition to cellular production.  Sheathed bacterial forms, heterocytes and ‘erythrocytic‘ related formations are under current consideration.  All possibilities that provide for a transition from an apparent single-celled organism to a multi-cellular organism will be considered in the study process.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x.


The images above show a series of remarkable developments that take place; it is at this point that the conventional boundaries of growth become radically challenged.  What occurs, in general, is the transformation from an apparent single celled primitive form (CDB) to a multi-celled organism that demonstrates increasingly sophisticated growth forms and specialization.  Many important unknowns immediately make their presence with the transformations that are shown above.  

It is possible that we still remain in the domain of the heterocyst and the cyanobacteria, as it has been introduced, earlier in this paper.  Certainly the variation in form of the cyanobacteria is a remarkable and unusual case in the study of bacterial evolution; we must recall that they were once called ‘blue-green’ algae in a period of earlier understanding.  In either case, it can be seen that the case of the cyanobacteria required specialized and extensive study to account for the morphological changes, not the least of which required a knowledge of its genetic origin.  It is expected to be no different in the case of the CDB, as the mysteries within are not likely to be evident from any conventional or external study.  There is only so far that we will be able to go with the microscope.  

What is shown above appears to be more than the case of a heterocyst.  We also can recognize that there may be some similarities, however, so it is in our interest to understand the function and nature of the heterocyst.  The primary function of the heterocyst (a specific form of cell development that is apparently unique to cyanobacteria) is to fix, or utilize, nitrogen.  Nitrogen fixation is a process whereby a cellular form uses nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to ammonium that the organism can then use for nourishment.  Nitrogen fixation is a definite field of study that is immediately germane to the investigations underway with the CDB.  We recall from the vacuum studies mentioned above that both nitrogen and oxygen are at the forefront of nutrient investigation and they are of equal interest.  Therefore, the creation of a specialized cell for the purpose of nitrogen fixation does exist as a distinct and real possibility.  The following two points are also of high interest with regard to the development shown above:

1.  All of the nitrogen-fixing organism are prokaryotes, i.e., bacteria6.  This fact increases the interest and attention on the primitive form (i.e., CDB) as having a core of origin within the bacterial domain.

2.  It is of special interest to note that iron-protein complexes (ferridoxins), in light of the previous statements made, play an essential role in the nitrogen fixation process by bacteria.  Readers may recall that iron-sulfur proteins have been introduced as a subject for further study within earlier research papers.

It does seem, however, that there are also some complications to this singular focus, based upon what we see and what is known about CDB behavior.  The function, capability and form of the heterocyst does not appear to be sufficient to explain all that is observed as well as the subsequent development of the organism.  The function of nitrogen fixation, however, could certainly be implicit within the transformations that are shown above.  At this time, there simply remains no known visual documentation of the growth process that is shown above.   

It also appears that the heterocyst is a specialized cell that develops separately and distinct from the non-filamentous cyanobacteria form.  In our case, the three different entities:  CDB, filament, and cellular construct, all seem to be joined and intermingled in about any way that is conceivable.  In the case above, the filament has become densely packed with the CDB.  In the live view of this particular case, the CDB were so numerous as to form a ‘river’ or a ‘stream’ of continuous and flowing CDB within the filament.  Subsequently what we see is the filament forming internal cellular divisions across its length.  These cellular divisions eventually segregate from the filament  in essentially perfect circular form.  It will then be seen that the separated circular cells are in turn themselves densely packed with the CDB, where they continue to develop and and presumably accomplish additional function at a more sophisticated level.  It should also be understood that the images above are not a normal and daily occurrence of development; they required protracted and difficult culture circumstances to develop.  Any casual study made of the organism would not likely even reveal the potential, let alone the expression of the growth forms that have been documented above.

We must also, at this point, introduce the uncanny similarity and potential relationships to the ‘erythrocytic’ forms that have been repeatedly presented on this site within in earlier work (e.g., see “Blood Issues Intensify“, Apr 2009 and “Morgellons : 5th, 6th & 7th Match“, Jan 2008, “Artificial Blood?“, Aug. 2009).  Any possible association between the unusual imagery immediately above with that of earlier work shown immediately below is not to be ignored.  Let us recall some of that early work with the limited imaging equipment that was available at the time.  It should also be realized that the culture methods employed in that work differ from the methods under current use and that the issue of pleomorphism, as it can be aptly demonstrated, must be taken into account with any comparisons that we can make from the limited knowledge base that is available to us.


Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

Filament - Erythrocyte

 2008-2009 Filament – Erythrocyte Research Images.

Biconcavity visible in top right and lower left photos. Earlier tests for hemoglobin within these previous cultures produced a positive presumptive result by two different methods in addition to visual analysis and measurement. Image at lower right is of human erythrocytes subjected to the Gram stain process; excessive CDB are within. Please refer to earlier referenced papers for the details of those studies.  Limited CCD imaging capability – Original magnification approx. 9000x.




Enlargement of cellular structure (“heterocyte” – see below) after separation from filament transformations and as based upon the current culture work (2014 : shown above).  Similarity to “erythrocytic” forms as shown in 2008 – 2009 work is evident.  Cellular structure is embedded with CDBs similar to human erythrocyte documented above (post Gram stain process).  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Reconstituted “erythrocytic” structure as described in the August 2009 paper entitled “Artificial Blood?”.  The similarity of size, shape, form and presence of CDB within to that of the current culture developments is evident and remarkable.
Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Human blood cell (erythrocyte) that demonstrates cellular and membrane damage from CDB (red arrows) adhesion and intrusion. Image excerpted from “Advances in Microscopy“, (Nov. 2013).  Original magnification approx. 12,000x.


Studies to investigate any potential relationships between heterocysts, “erythrocytic” forms and hemoglobin tests will continue with respect to this novel life form and organism.  During this interim of understanding, I shall refer to the unique cellular formation from the CDB as a “heterocyte” (i.e., as in a different, or other cell, and as opposed to heterocyst).  It is now clear that these cells originate from the CDB and the term CDB heterocyte may also be used during this research stage.


Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form

Advanced filament form – reddish aggregation (probable protein nature) with internal CDB and cellular production.  Lower image shows combination of primitive CDB-filament form, larger filament dominated by streaming CDB and external cellular development.  Original Magnification Approx. 5000x


From this point on there appears to be increasing variability in the forms of growth that can be assumed by the organism.  The CDB and the heterocytes appear to be at the root of each of these forms that subsequently develop and they remain, therefore, at the core of study. Some of the variations shown are repeatable and controllable; others are incidental and the conditions only partially defined.  The combination of all circumstances shown above observed in a single session is more akin to the latter; the heterocyte cellular division from the filaments remains as a rare event thus far.  In the filaments shown within these images the densely packed streaming and flowing version of the CDB does occur.  This has been recorded on more than one occasion and it represents massive CDB production within the filaments.  Heterocyte production within a filament appears to be enhanced under these concentrated CDB conditions; the heterocytes can be seen as units of division and development within the second row of the image set.  What also makes this observation group unusual is the appearance of an enclosing sac which then itself contains a cluster of heterocytes.  This can be seen most clearly in the right photograph of the second row.  There is reason to believe, as mentioned before, that this reddish-brown material (most clearly demonstrated in the top left image) may well be an iron-protein complex.  Work will continue on identifying the nature of the various forms and substrates that are being observed.  The bottom image contains a representative cross section of various forms within one image: a primitive filament enclosing a single linear array of the CDB, a larger branching filament filled with concentrated and streaming CDB, a few isolated CDB in the interstitial space, and an isolated heterocyte in the lower left of the image.  In the main, the patterns of growth are highly repeatable and identifiable, especially those that involve the CDB, the encasing filament structures and the production of the heterocytes.


blue compound

blue compound

A blue compound that forms in combination with CDB cultures and growth forms.  This compound has a direct affinity for oxygen; spherical structures in both images are oxygen pockets within an electrolysis culture.  Notice that both red and blue hues are common with advanced filament production, especially those associated with skin growth samples.
Original Magnification Approx. 5000x


The images above will be provided primarily as a matter of record while the phenomena is studied further.  The case above falls within a culture that was subjected to electrolysis.  Significant efforts have been extended to include a series of electromagnetic investigations upon growth behavior; these studies will need to be developed and presented in future days.  For now, the immediate observation to record is that of an apparent preference by the CDB for an oxygen rich environment; this has been demonstrated by a migration of the CDB to the anode during electrolysis tests.  It is a curious affair that the rich blue compounds were intermittently observed during this same period of testing.  It is quite possible that oxygen pockets or bubbles are an important part of the process and color formation.  There is also an interest in any role that copper (as well as other metals) may play within the growth process.  This issue will simply be revisited as circumstances permit; the apparent preference for an oxygen rich environment will be discussed further in the more immediate future.



Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction Original Magnification

CDB – Advanced Culture Development

Gel Diameter Approx. 6 cm.

Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction with Gel
Magnification Approx 200x 

Original Magnification Approx. 5000x 

The final set of observations here record the culmination of culture studies over an extended time period.  These results are biologically impressive but potentially quite dangerous  because of the scale of growth.  The photo on the left is the final stage of a liquid broth culture that was allowed to mature for approximately one month.  This culture did progress with the onset of CDB growth and was followed by filament growth as it has been aptly demonstrated throughout this paper.  At the more mature stage of growth, a gel like material formed at the top of the culture and is shown on a watch glass.  The amount of sheer mass here is of consequence; what is shown is growth on on the order of inches rather than the customary microns or nanometers that are involved at the origin.  Readers may wish to recall the time lapse record above to realize that the scale of growth postulated there is not hypothetical.  This amount of mass developing within a favorable environment or host is of consequence.  Reports of individuals with internal masses or filaments on the order of scale shown are to be taken quite seriously as this report proves that it can and will happen under the appropriate conditions.  The nature of the material is partially ambiguous and partially known; further studies will hopefully present that result in due time.  Material of a protenaceous nature is under strong consideration.

It will also be noticed that a bright red hue exists across a portion of the surface; this is an evolution beyond the ruddy reddish-brown compounds that have been mentioned above.  It has been observed and reported on earlier; please see “Biofilm, CDB & Vitamin C“, (Apr 2014).  The photo in the center of the group shows the reaction of this reddish material to hydrogen peroxide, and the reaction is vigorous.  The same reaction is shown in kind within the paper referenced above.  The most direct interpretation here is that of a positive catalase reaction.  Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen and it  decomposes hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen gas and water7.  Clearly, we may conclude that we are dealing with a living organism but this fact has already become evident.  We are therefore each obligated to find out what the true nature and extent of this organism is, as it been equally and clearly demonstrated to be affecting the biology of the entire planet.  It is of more than passing interest that this gel material is of a bright red color and that it combines with hydrogen peroxide to produce the vigorous reaction.  Many readers may also be familiar with the reaction of hemoglobin with hydrogen peroxide and the similarity should not escape us since it also involves catalase8.  This preliminary reaction with peroxide was the basis for additional presumptive hemoglobin tests during research of past years; it should be recalled that the results of these tests for the presence of hemoglobin within the cultures were positive.  Regardless of where this research will lead to in future days, the nature of this material and this reaction should be of concern to each of us.

The final photograph on the right shows this same material under the microscope at reasonably high power.  What we find is a structurally more advanced and rigorous construct of the crossing filament and CDB embedded network in a familiar display  The reddish hue material is also abundant here and these observations further support the hypothesis of an iron-protein complex that is under formation.

This paper has introduced a roadmap of increasing complexity to each of us.  The path that emerges, regardless of the many branches that we choose, ultimately must return to the origin of growth as it is identified.  This, in all cases examined thus far, is indeed the CDB, or “cross-domain bacteria” as they have been tentatively designated.  This identified point of origin remains the focal point of current research by the Institute; each individual on this planet has the concomitant obligation to seek the truth on these matters and to make this same truth known to all. 

Clifford E Carnicom
Jun 07 2014

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19 1953


1. Biology, Neil A. Campell, Benjaming/Cummings Publishing Company, Third Edition, 1993. p. 221.

2. Modern Biology, Albert Towle, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1999. p. 149.

3. Ibid., Towle, p 153.

4. Bacterial Reproduction, Regina Bailey,

5. Microbiology, An Introduction.  Gerard J. Tortora. Benjamin Cummings Publishing, 2001. p 281.

5. Wanger, G; Onstott, TC; Southam, G (2008). “Stars of the terrestrial deep subsurface: A novel ‘star-shaped’ bacterial morphotype from a South African platinum mine”. Geobiology 6 (3): 325–30. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2008.00163.x.

6. The Microbial World: The Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Fixation, Jim Deacon, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh,  University of Edinburgh, (archive copy).

7. Catalase,

8. Why Does Hydrogen Peroxide Foam When You Put It On a Cut?,

Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation

Cross-Domain Bacteria Isolation

Clifford E Carnicom
May 17 2014


A sufficient time period has elapsed to allow for the identification, classification and designation of a novel and ubiquitous life-form that is known to exist in association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  This call has thus far gone unheeded within the scientific community and more rapid progress is required.  It has been stated, by discovery (ref. The New Biology Jan 2014),  that this informal nomenclature is no longer sufficient to characterize the situation; that of an extensive, repeating and culturable life form with known properties and characteristics.  

It is known that a primary form of growth is an encapsulating filament sheath which is dominated by a keratin nature; this portion has many similarities to various fungal growths. The internals of the sheath are, however, without doubt the more captive interest of the matter and they have been studied extensively over a period of several years by this researcher.  Interest throughout this period has focused on a particular sub-micron structure that I have continually characterized as “bacterial-like” or “chlamydia-like” over the years.  This particular structure appears to originate the growth process and is therefore of the greatest importance and attention in study.  In the absence of formal participation by the scientific community in the nomenclature process, progress must be made and certain liberties will be taken until they can be refined by more formal procedures.  Henceforth, terms such as ‘bacterial-like’ will no longer be promulgated as they are now more ambiguous than is necessary or called for.  These internal structures will, for the sake of forcing the issue, be designated as a “cross-domain bacteria” (CDB) until further information or correction calls for any change.

The will be given this designation for several reasons, one of which is to no longer condone the extended procrastination that is referred to above. The additional reasons are based upon years of study and observation.  When and if additional information comes to light that justifies change, that change can and will take place.  In the meantime, however, the rationale for the deployment of this terminology is as follows:

1. Size.  The work has continually focused on the smallest identifiable living and propagating unit, and this is the sub-micron spherical structure.  The best size estimate on this structure ranges between 0.3 and 0.8 microns, or an average of 0.5 – 0.6 microns.  This measurement is limited only by the capability of the microscope and the imaging equipment that is being used.  As the equipment has improved the size measurement has trended toward the lower end of the scale as the means of focusing improves.  It is difficult to work with what cannot be seen  (e.g, virus, prion, molecule, atom, etc), and it has always been stated that there are expectations of additional discovery when such means become available.  

One of the first classification systems for living organisms is size, and so here it is that we must begin:

size chart

A chart of the approximate size ranges of organisms, biological structures and cells.  It will be noticed that most bacteria range between 1 and 10 microns in size.  Two of the smaller bacteria that are known to exist are mycoplasma and chlamydia  pneuomoniae; these are on the order of 0.1 to 0.4 microns in size.  Image Source : Estrella Mountain Community College.

In lieu of additional information and as an obvious point of reference, it is more than reasonable to suggest a bacterial nature (modified or otherwise) for the organism and unit under study.  As mentioned, structural units beneath the current limit of observation and measurement are difficult to propose within this scope of the study.

2.  Shape.  The next most obvious approach (again, within the means available) to classification is that of shape.  The requirement to maintain the argument for a bacterial nature must include the existence of the observed spherical form.  This condition is not difficult to meet, as bacteria commonly exist  in the following major shapes or forms:  spherical, rod like, spiral, , or as combinations or aggregates of these forms.

shapes chart

A chart of the shapes and geometry of known bacteria.  The organism under study clearly falls under the coccus, or spherical shape.  The subsequent development of the CDB within an encasing filament adds an entirely different aspect of consideration to a more comprehensive classification and identification.
Image Source : Microbiology Online.

The measured size and observed shape of the organism is sufficient, in itself, to advance and justify the use of “bacterial” terminology in a classifying sense at this stage of the investigation.  Clearly, there are additional dimensions of growth form and development that will eventually transcend this current reference point.  Readers may wish to review the papers entitled, “Morgellons : A New Classification” (Feb 2010) and “The New Biology” (Jan 2014) for the more immediate “complications” of this simplification.  

There remains, nevertheless, more that can be offered within the scope of conventional consideration that supports the “bacterial” proposal.

3. Gram Stain.  The following statement, from the University of Maryland Pathogenic Microbiology division,  is provided to exemplify the importance of the Gram staining procedure in the world of microbiology.

“The Gram stain is the most important and universally used staining technique in the bacteriology laboratory. It is used to distinguish between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which have distinct and consistent differences in their cell walls.”

The procedure, therefore, is a major tool in seeking an understanding of a primary difference in the morphology of bacteria; it is highly relevant to the current need to classify and identify the primary and primitive (i.e., original) observable form of the organism. We must start somewhere and eliminate the vacillations and ambiguity that have obfuscated progress over the last two decades; a greater sense of definition is required and I will assertively advance that motion.  

The first question on the Gram stain issue is whether or not it even applies.  Does this particular organism accept the stain and, if so, with what results?  It does, and the tests indicate a Gram-negative result.  The interpretation of that test remains an outstanding need and it will undoubtedly play a larger role within the current work involving protein examinations.

Investigations of this nature will be found as far back as 2008; readers may wish to visit the earlier papers entitled, “And Now Our Children” (Jan 2008), “Morgellons : 5th, 6th and 7th Match” (Jan 2008), “Morgellons : Pathogens and the General Population” (April 2008), and “Morgellons : A Status Report” (Oct 2009) for the earlier work on this primary classification method.

This current paper and the results presented herein continue to support that earlier work.

4. Positive Membrane Lipid Test.  A test has been developed for the presence of lipids in the outer membrane.  The test results are positive.  This test result is consistent with a gram-negative test for bacteria.  The results of this test are shown and described in more detail in a separate paper entitled : “CDB : General Characteristics”.  This test result has significant ramifications that are likely to affect the future study of the internal nature of the CDB.

5. Cultures.  The next rationale for the use of “bacteria” terminology (albeit, modified) is that of observation of the culturing process.  Again, restricting our consideration to the originating observable form of the organism (subsequent developments are, as mentioned, an entirely more complex issue which suggest highly sophisticated biological engineering), the cultures under development demonstrate a response that is perfectly in accord with any bacterial expectations.  The cultures are highly responsive to temperature and nutrient variations.  The growth curve is one of rapid increase at the onset, followed by diminishing returns with the corresponding decrease in available nutrients.  The logistical form of population growth is one model that can be reasonably applied to the observations, and it is accord with population modeling.  The responses of the cultures to both Fenton’s reaction as well as inhibition methods that have been described are in further accord with a bacterial element to the life form.

6. Biofilm.  The next topic relating to bacterial consideration is that of biofilm development.  Recent work indicates significant masses of a biofilm product can be produced from affected oral cavities using a relatively simple method; this description is in process at this time.  The production of biofilm is a protective measure taken by many bacteria to insulate themselves from effect by the local surrounding biological environment.  The biofilm under investigation in this case can easily be verified by microscopic means to contain significant numbers of the very same CDB that are under examination here  Biofilms are an attribute of most microorganisms; they are especially notable in the bacteria and archaea domains.  The purpose of biofilm is “to protect the organism from a hostile environment or to act as a trap for nutrient acquisition” (see Biofilm Formation in the Industry – VTT Research).  Biofilm is a polymer composed primarily of DNA, proteins and polysaccharides.

7. Proteins.  Certain laboratory tests, specifically Coomassie Blue stain, ninhydrin tests, UV absorbance and Biuret tests,  confirm the existence of proteins within the CDB.  The known characteristics of many of the bacteria and archaea classes are in accord with the investigations underway that involve metallic protein complexes as an important aspect of their structure.  It is known that iron is one of the essential elements of the proteins under examination.

8. DNA.  The apparent successful isolation of DNA from the cultures under development is direct evidence of a viable, reproducing and unique life form.  This aggregate of information, i.e., size, shape, stain properties, growth behavior, biofilm production and DNA existence continues to support the argument for the most primitive form of existence as that of a “modified” bacterial class.

9. CDB.  The modifier “cross-domain” to the bacteria terminology has been intentionally and deliberately introduced by this researcher.  The purpose of the term is to force the consideration and discussion of the more complex issues that arise when the more ‘mature’ stages of growth of the organism are examined. The issues include the subsequent development, under favorable environmental and nutrient conditions, of an encapsulating sheath, or filament, that contains the bacterial forms.  This pattern and form of growth has been extensively described and reported on within this site.  It is here that we must step outside of the originating form, and we will undoubtedly be forced to develop new and additional terminology to encompass these unusual circumstances.  The use of the term ‘cross-domain bacteria‘ is simply to provide a reference point for further discussion, the rationale of which is hopefully agreed upon to be consistent with classification systems up to and including the existence of the originating form ONLY.  The issue becomes only increasingly complex from the filament production level onwards, as the erthyrocytic question develops (again under increasingly favorable environmental and nutrient conditions) from there, whether we wish to confront this fact or not.  Clearly, we are dealing with a remarkable construct of biology here, and it will eventually be impossible to ignore it as it makes it mark further upon this planet.

There is nothing sacred or dogmatic about the proposals in terminology here.   There is precedent for the terminology in the literature as will be found; the act of crossing the domains of biological life forms is known to exist.  As one example, please note the Symposium of 2007 entitled,  “Cross-Domain Bacteria : Emerging Threats to Plants, Humans and Our Food Supply” by the American Phytopathological Society.  One of the primary questions here is whether this particular form is of natural or engineered origin; the evidence speaks to the latter.  The primary purpose of this controversial injection into the discussion is exactly that – to force the issue of proper scientific analysis and nomenclature by the responsible and competent parties within society.  It is to no longer condone the acceptance and use of ambivalent, ambiguous and obstructive cultural lexicons as a perpetual subsititute to honest and open research and disclosure.  When these circumstances improve and when the benefits are apparent and  known to the public, I will amend my own ways and discussion to reflect the progress that humanity deserves.

Additional Notes:

The following images derived from culture growths are representative examples of this external and internal known structure:





Original magnification of images to left: approx. 5000x.  Images on right are at original magnification, approx. 7000x.

The means to separate and isolate the cross-domain bacteria has been achieved.  The method uses a combination of caustic solutions, heat and iron ions; evidence of that separation is presented below.  The presence of iron ions in solution appears to be a very important factor in making the cross-bacteria readily visible.  A definite chemical reaction takes place between the isolated and purified culture in alkaline solution subjected to heat and the addition of either iron sulfate or chelated iron.  Chemically, there appears to be an immediate reaction between the bacteria and the iron and this is verified with microscopic examination.  Iron as a part of the culture medium is what has allowed this discovery to eventually take place.

pure isolation of cbd

A good example of pure isolation of the cross-domain bacteria, as separated from the encasing filament.  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

oil immersion of cbd

An oil immersion image of the cross-domain bacteria at maximum magnification.  A colored attribute of the bacteria does appear to exist.  Magnification approx. 13,000x.


gram stain of cbd

The Gram stain process applied to the cross-domain bacteria.  All indications are that the cross-bacteria stains Gram stain negative due to the pinkish color apparent.  This is in accordance with results achieved several years ago with preliminary investigations.  An excellent example of the bounding filament enclosing the cross-domain bacteria is central to the photograph.  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

Biofilm, CDB and Vitamin C

Biofilm, CDB and Vitamin C

Clifford E Carnicom
Apr 22 2014
Edit Jun 13 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

A method has been established that shows promise of being effective in removing significant masses of biofilm that encapsulate large quantities of the “cross-domain bacteria” (CDB) as they have been identified and designated by this researcher.  This method applies to oral cavities only and it is simple to investigate as to its efficacy.  The identification of the CDB has been confirmed by microscopy; one  unique feature of this organism is the frequent co-linear arrangement of the bacteria within an encasing filament.  The various stages of growth of this life form have been documented extensively on this site, and a progression of development is understood.   The term “Morgellons” as popularly used, is insufficient to characterize both the uniqueness of the life form and its ubiquity in the environment.  The term “cross-domain bacteria” (i.e., CDB) has been established as being intrinsic to the origin of the life form;  attention has been called to the the fact that the scientific nomenclature for this ‘new biology’ remains woefully inadequate.  Any perception that this so-called “condition” is restricted to the human species is false; planetary consequences are before us.   Please refer to earlier discussions that elevate the seriousness of this need for increased participation by the scientific and health communities.

biofilm 1

A representative example of the biofilm removed from the gum-dental line region of an individual using ascorbic acid as outlined in this report.  This particular biofilm encases massive numbers of the cross-domain bacteria  that are are centric to the organism’s growth and development.


biofilm 2

A low power observation of the biofilm sample; bottom and top lighting combined.   Magnification approx. 200x.

The biofilm was extracted from an oral cavity by subjecting the gum line to a fairly concentrated solution of ascorbic acid in water (approx. 1 gm. in 30 ml of water).  The solution was held in place for approximately 15 minutes and the test procedure was repeated three times for an accumulation of material.  There was some local tooth discomfort at the region of collection for this individual.

biofilm 3

A reddish hue and formation that develops within the biofilm after approximately three days.  This color formation has been observed on more than one occasion and it remains to be identified.  Iron complexes and hemoglobin production are topics that are under consideration; please review earlier papers that involved tests for hemoglobin within advanced cultures.  Contrast on photograph has been increased to emphasize the visible color change.

biofilm 4

biofilm h2o2

The biofilm extract after 1-2 weeks of development.  Highly developed  reddish color is evident.

A very strong reaction of the developed red biofilm extract to a hydrogen peroxide (3%)  solution.  The investigation of hemoglobin existence from previous papers or current catalase tests are under further consideration here.  The “erythrocytic” formations, however, are not prominent in this biofilm extract development.

biofilm uv

The sample above subjected to UV radiation.  The pink-magenta fluorescent hue is highly distinctive.  This particular characteristic of the CDB, its association with the biofilm and the more advanced stages of CDB growth is an important subject that is deserving of additional research in its own right.  The same tint has been observed on the skin surface as well as with dental observations.

biofilm micro 1

biofilm micro 2

Microscopic examination of the biofilm extract.  The existence of massive amounts of CDB within the extract are verified with this inspection.  The biofilm extract is dominated by the presence of the CDB, and not the filament form.  The filament form of growth is a more advanced stage of growth and occurs later in the development cycle of the organism.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

An additional microscopic view of the biofilm and excessive CDB existence within. Microscopic  The presence of the co-linear arrangement of the CDB within a filament structure is also visible.  The early stages of linear formation of  CDB, also referred to as the ‘pleomorphic’ form’ are also occurring within this sample.  The sample upon collection is primarily whitish in color as is shown above.   Magnification approx. 5000x.

biofilm micro 3

biofilm micro 4

The filament form as it has developed from the biofilm extract and culture after approximately 2 weeks.  This systematic development will be described in greater detail within a separate paper.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

A microscopic image at the boundary of the reddish formation within the biofilm extract after a period of approximately 2 weeks.  An extended filament network exists at this stage along with extensive rich color development.  The variations of formation within the filament structures will also be discussed in greater detail within a separate paper.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

Readers may also wish to review a paper entitled “Growth Inhibition Achieved” (Jan 2014) that examines the role of ascorbic acid and various antioxidants in the culture growth process.  Articles under this same topic exist several years prior to the current studies of antioxidants.  In addition, the Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis (Neural, Thyroid, Liver, Oxygen, Protein and Iron Disruption) (Dec 2013) also extensively discuss the role of antioxidants within the studies of the growth process.

Growth Inhibition Achieved

Growth Inhibition Achieved


Clifford E Carnicom
January 31 2014

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.



Inhibition of growth of the so-called “Morgellons” condition in a cultured environment has been achieved.  The primary agents of reduction here, both literally and chemically, are a series of powerful antioxidants.  These include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and glutathione.  The photograph below shows the result of a culturing process which has been subjected to these antioxidants and their impact upon growth; the effects are rapid and repeatable.  The source of this culture is the result of a series of incubation, collection, isolation, extraction and purification processes applied to previous cultures.  The original cultures are based upon the use of a variety of human, animal and plant samples, each of which produces identical growth forms.  One of many precedents for this work is contained within a previous paper entitled, “Morgellons : A Discovery and A Proposal” (Feb 2010).  The basis of the current work is a significant advancement in the development of culture methods.


At the heart of this “condition”, from the perspective of this researcher,  is the presence of a sub-micron cross-domain bacteria that is extremely resistant to extinction.  This postulated bacteria has the property of developing the growth of an enclosing sheath, or filament which further serves to house, protect and transport these same bacteria.  This sheath, or enclosing filament, also exists in its most primitive form at the sub-micron level.  This protective and resilient sheath appears to be composed largely of a keratin (protein) construct, but it also remains impervious and inpenetrable in comparison to other keratin structures such as hair.  It is also known that iron is a core constituent of the bacteria composition, as well as amino acids.  A more detailed analysis of the organic nature of the life form is available and has been presented within the paper, “Morgellons – A Working Hypothesis” (Dec 2013).  Additional important health considerations and strategies are integrated within that paper, and the issue of antioxidants are one of many central themes presented therein.  Readers are seriously advised to become familiar with that work; many equally important issues beyond that of oxidative stress are discussed in detail there.


DNA from this life form has been isolated and it exists as a priority of research for Carnicom Institute; please see the paper, “DNA Isolated”  (Jan 2014).


It has been stated that the term “Morgellons” is completely insufficient to describe the nature of this life form and its ubiquity in the environment and biology of the planet.  The scientific community will be forced to address this deficiency in our future and adequate nomenclature will need to be developed.  Ubiquity within biological domains and permanence of existence, even under adverse conditions, will be central to the more complete and scientific characterization and understanding of the life form.  Please refer to the paper entitled, “The New Biology” (Jan 2014).



growth inhibition

A comparison of the original culture growth with the same growth subjected to a series of powerful antioxidants : ascorbic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, and glutathione.  The culture growth and treatments span a period of approximately 18 hours.  The early stage of culture growth is dominated by a rapid increase in the growth of the bacteria-like form; the filament sheaths represent a more advanced stage of growth to come later in the process.  The culture mediums are composed of water, carbohydrates (fructose) and a chelated metal complex that includes iron, manganese and zinc.  The culturing methods are rapid and repeatable and they eventually lead to DNA extraction and isolation.  One primary mechanism at work in the effectiveness of the antioxidants is the reduction of iron complexes (specifically, ferric to ferrous) within the bacteria.



Note : It is recommended that citizens and the public copy, duplicate and mirror this site in its entirety in multiple instances (both online and offline) to assist in the distribution and disclosure of the information contained within.  There are indications of access and distribution filtering systems that may be in place.  Your efforts and attention toward creating a network of permanent history, access and record are appreciated on behalf of the public interest and welfare.    


Clifford E Carnicom , Jan 31, 2014
(Born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19, 1953)

DNA Isolated

DNA Isolated

Clifford E Carnicom
January 24 2014


DNA has been successfully isolated from cultures that have been developed. The samples are based upon the cross-domain bacteria isolation methods referred to previously.  The tests have been repeated on numerous occasions with identical positive results.  The methods use classical methods of DNA extraction.  These methods involve the mechanical or chemical decomposition of the original biological material and the use of salt, ice, detergents, enzymes and ethanol.

dna in ethanol

The material at the upper portion of the test tube shown, in ethanol, is DNA extracted from a culture based upon oral filaments in association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition.

dna oral filament

Second sample test of DNA isolated from oral filament culture.

collected dna

Collected DNA from several cross-domain bacteria culture sample runs.

onion dna

Control photograph of the DNA isolation process with onion.  Identical results of DNA production with the same chemical techniques involving breakdown of original biological material, use of salt, detergents, enzymes and ethanol.  A more dense layer of DNA material is visible immediately above the alcohol-onion solution interface.  DNA separates with this process, as shown, into the alcohol layer at the top of the test tube.

The New Biology

The New Biology

Clifford E Carnicom

 Jan 18 2014
Edited Apr 09 2014
Edited Nov 28 2015

It is generally perceived that the so-called “Morgellons” issue is primarily, if not exclusively, a human condition. It is not. It will be found that this condition actually represents a fundamental change in the state and nature of biology as it is known on this earth. The evidence now indicates and demonstrates that there is, at the heart of the “condition”, a new growth form that transcends, as a minimum, the plant and animal boundaries.

The precedent for this argument was made some time past in the paper entitled “Morgellons: A New Classification” (Feb 2010); the central theme of that paper remains valid at this time. The very classification of the domains of life is central to that paper. Readers may also wish to refer to the papers entitled, “Animal Blood” (Jan 2010) and “And Now Our Children” (Jan 2008), where additional precedents were established. The August 2011 video presentation, “Geo-Engineering & Bio-Engineering: The Unmistakable Link” is also relevant here.

It is to be accepted that this growth form appears to be ubiquitous in the environment, food supply, plants, and animals and that the reference frame for its existence must be fundamentally changed to be in accord with this reality.


oral potato  rejuvenated

Macro view of variable source culture growths. Human oral filament culture to left, potato filament culture in middle and to the right, the rejuvenation of a dormant culture from a three year old lye extract solution.  Dormancy is established with extremes in temperature, lack of moisture, or caustic chemical environments, as reported earlier.  Growth medium in all cases is a fructose and iron sulfate solution under incubation.  The cultures are identical in view, structure and growth characteristics.  Period of development and growth is approximately 2 weeks.   Click on photos to enlarge.

culture 2 culture 1  culture 3

Microscopic views of the three variable culture types from above (left-oral sample culture, center- potato culture and right-rejujvenated dormant culture) under high magnification.  All cultures are identical to the sub-micron level including external sheath and internal bacterial-type form.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

calf liver 3 calf liver 4

calf liver 1 calf liver 2

Calf liver examined.  Calf liver shows presence of identical filament and bacterial-like structures.  Growth forms are not unique to the human species; the food supply, animal and plant kingdoms are under equal consideration for the presence of the live form.  Abundant fat cells observed embedded with countless bacterial structural form, as in top left image.  Image to top right shows presence of filament form, fat cells and embedded bacterial forms in large numbers.  Lower left photograph demonstrates primary filament form with secondary filament structure under development.  Lower right photograph shows sub-filament structure within primary filaments.  All forms and structures identical to those observed within human samples. Two separate slide preparations examined; filament structures located after extensive study of both slides. This liver sample has also rapidly produced a viable and representative filament culture growth within the span of a few days.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

ninhydrin 1 ninhydrin 2

Comparison of ninhydrin visible light spectrometric analysis of oral filament sample culture and potato filament culture.  Results are identical to a remarkable level.  Method involves: 1. Incubation of cultures for approximately 2 weeks in a fructose-iron sulfate solution.  2.Cultures extracted and placed within a sodium hydroxide-potassium hydroxide boiling water bath for approximately 15 minutes; a rich burgundy solution will result from the essentially colorless filament form (refer to paper entitled, “Environmental Filament Penetration, C.E. Carnicom, Jan. 2013).  3. Further extract approx. 15 drops of this colored solution into approx. 4 ml. distilled water with 5 drops ninhydrin solution added; heat again for approx. 15 minutes in hot water bath.  4.  Second deep-colored reaction will occur due to amino acids present in solution; spectral analysis is then conducted at this stage.  This method further substantiates the identical visual, metric, and chemical comparisons of the incubated oral and plant based filament culture forms.

potato 1 potato 2

Examination, to the left, of thin (”organic”) potato slice showing background cellular structure and several starch cells in the upper right quadrant.  Notice presence of intermeshed filament stucture overlayed or crossing cell wall boundaries.  Microphotograph to right demonstrates equally the presence of an internal sub-micron filament network.  This photographic examination prompted the more thorough investigation of plant and food supply issues, and the development of alternative cultures for comparison to human sample cultures.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.


Time lapse microscopic views of carrot cells.  Motile bacterial-like structures are especially visible and evident in cell in lower right quadrant.   Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

swine lung 3 swine lung 1 swine lung 2
swine lung 6 swine lung 4  swine lung 5

Microscopic views of dried swine lung sample.  Extensive filament network exists within sample; the filament forms are identical in structure, form and size to plant, human and animal samples.  The pig lung also rapidly produces a viable and identical filament culture within the sucrose-iron fluid environment.  Click on photos to enlarge.  Magnification : approx. 5000x.

swine lung controlReference prepared slide of lung tissue from  No extensive filament network visible at this level of magnification or known source for its existence in a control photograph.


Diseased rhododendron leaf received for observation and study with respect to the bacterial-like forms.  This sample is to be examined under the microscope to further assess the extent of distribution on the conditions reported above.

rhododendron micro rhododendron micro 2

Identical bacterial-like forms located within the rhododendron sample.  The rhododendron leaf is a more difficult sample to prepare due to the thickness and density of the leaf; sufficient visiblity was acquired, nevertheless, with the use of the microtome.  Ease of observation and examination occurs primarily at the leaf edge, and numerous regions of the bacterial-like forms were identified.  Isolated examples are shown above as outlined.  Magnification approx. 5000x.

Perpetuation and confirmation of the original growth form within the rhododendron leaf through the culturing process.  The existence of bacterial-like forms within an additional plant form, i.e., ornamental, is confirmed.  The age of the culture is one day. The rhododendron culture has also produced the filamentous form within approximately one week of time; it is therefore in keeping with all observations and conclusions stated on this paper.  Original magnification approx. 5000x.

rhododendron micro 3

This work demonstrates that the “Morgellons” situation has been completely understated and underestimated in its significance and distribution.  It is no longer to be considered as unique to any life form or species.  The term itself, as commonly interpreted to represent a condition or disease,  is inadequate to encompass the scope of impact to the biology of the planet.  The nominal attention to classification and nomenclature of the life form by the scientific community is also long overdue, and this community will soon be forced to enter into that review process.  It is recommended that such nomenclature capture the true nature of this life form, as it is now known to cross the domains of biological existence on this planet.

Note: Appreciation is extended to Ryan Hannigan for his provision of the rhododendron sample for comparative analysis.  Readers may wish to stay attuned to any further developments from Ryan’s research that is under development, including that of botanical study.  CEC


Morgellons : A Working Hypothesis
Neural, Thyroid, Liver, Oxygen, Protein and Iron Disruption
(Link to Parts I, II, III – Click Here)


Clifford E Carnicom
Dec 18 2013

Art work courtesy of David Dees with permission.

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.


This paper seeks to identify a host of organic compounds that are likely to comprise the core physical structure of biologically produced filaments characteristic of the Morgellons condition.  A biological oral filament sample will be analyzed for the presence of candidate organic functional groups using the methods of infrared spectrophotometry.  Potential health impacts from these same core structures are examined and compared to the observed , reported and documented symptoms (in part) of this same condition.  Potential mitigating strategies, from a research perspective only, are discussed.

A body of evidence, accumulated over a period of several years, reveals that the Morgellons condition is likely characterized by a host of serious physiological and metabolic imbalances.  These imbalances are caused by the  disruption of a variety of major body processes including, as a minimum, the regulation of metabolism by the thyroid, potential liver enlargement, a decrease of oxygen in the circulatory system, the utilization of amino acids important to the body, the oxidation of iron and a potential impact to neural pathways.  The impact of this degradation to human health can be concluded to be serious, debilitating and potentially lethal in the cumulative sense; the reports of those who suffer from the condition are in alignment with these conclusions.  This paper will summarize the body of work and chronology which leads to this more comprehensive hypothesis.

The health, medical and governmental communities will again be invited to offer their expertise and contributions , as well as to assume their role of responsibility and the obligations of their professions to serve the public.

This paper will be divided into three phases:

I. Identification of the functional groups / components

II. Potential health impacts of the various functional groups identified.

III. Potential mitigating strategies (research-based)



We now begin the final phase of this paper, and this is to introduce, recall and compile a host of strategies and considerations that may be helpful to mitigate some of the impacts upon health by the Morgellons condition.  Some of the work that has been done previously will also be incorporated into and repeated within this section; much of this work remains especially valuable and relevant here as well.  It is important to understand that this information is derived from an individual research standpoint only, and that it does not represent any medical advice or diagnosis whatsoever.  The usual disclaimer and caveat will be repeated before we begin the conversation:

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

Before we begin in earnest, it is worthwhile to examine the basic mechanisms of disease.  In my own journey of study and discovery in the field of health and disease, it astounds me that these principles are actually so well established and yet they are often not understood and applied.  There may be a fairly broad gap between what has been understood for some time and what the public is generally aware of with respect to disease; it is hopeful that this situation continues to improve.  What especially interests me is that these principles exist irrespective of the particular condition or disease examined; we often think of each situation as being so unique and complex that we think that we can only make headway with advanced and specialized knowledge.  This is not necessarily the case if we take the list that follows to heart.  We find these “mechanisms” listed in the standard textbooks of pathology and, in particular, within the very first chapter of the well established tome entitled, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease57, 4th Edition.  It is succinctly stated that:

“Although it is not always possible to determine the precise biochemical site of action of an injurious agent, four intracellular systems are particularly vulnerable:

(a) maintenance of the integrity of cell membranes

(b) aerobic respiration

(c) synthesis of enzymic and structural proteins and

(d) preservation of the integrity of the genetic apparatus of the cell.”

What we have been given here close to 25 years ago, if we care to address it, is the basis of disease in the body.  The statement is not qualified with respect to what type of disease is taking place, it is the basis of disease itself.  From my studies, I find no important exceptions to this as it applies to the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  

We can all interpret this in our own light, but my rudimentary interpretation is that to remain healthy:

1. We must remain intact and structurally sound at a cellular level.

2. We must use oxygen efficiently and effectively in our bodies, as respiration is the source of all energy to the body.

3.  We must continue to repair the actual structures of the body to compensate for decay and age.

4. We must be able to reproduce in a healthy fashion to flourish and prosper as a species.  

This is the challenge that we must assume to combat disease or ill health, regardless of what the particular situation or circumstances are.  It is no different here, at the most basic level of understanding, from the case of harm in general.  Of course we seek to be specific as to how this is done under the specific plight of the Morgellons condition, but it is rather astounding how evident that course is when armed with the most rudimentary knowledge of pathology.  Dr. Stanley Robbins will also get us off to a good start on this topic58, with his equally succinct listing of causative agents, such as physical agents, chemical agents and drugs, infectious agents, immune responses, genetic damage and nutritional imbalances.  We should never miss this grand view before becoming engrossed in the detail.  

I have spoken earlier to those that seek a simple pill in life to take care of the complexities that are before us; I am not your person to listen to for a myriad of reasons.  My course of research is one that seeks the fundamental understanding of the situation and that seeks to make this information accessible to all.  Remedies to problems as needed must, therefore, also be accessible to all – at least to the highest degree possible.  Specialized drugs and technologies are under the purview of others with resources, means and motive.  You must seek them elsewhere.  The work of this Institute is to research and educate on behalf of the general welfare and public with the resources that the public makes available to us.

Keeping the above foundation in mind at all times, let us go to work on the specifics.  It is helpful to have the master list that has evolved before us again.  This list basically identifies potential causative agents or mechanisms in conjunction with potential heath impacts (either reported or research-based).  This master list, as formulated, will have numerous overlaps and redundancies occurring between the two sets, and it is not to be viewed in a style of one-to-one correspondence.  Let us see if we can make some headway after the table is reviewed again:

Candidate Functional Groups or Constituent Identified within the Biological Filaments:
(potential correlations are  established at this stage)

Reported, Observed or Research-Based Candidate Health Impacts or Symptoms of the Morgellons Condition:
(potential correlations are  established at this stage)

(Fe+3 in the more highly oxidized state)

Bacterial or Bacterial-Like (Chlamydia P. or Chlamydia P.-like) Repeating Structure within both Blood and Filaments

Amino Acid Deficiency – in general

Specific Amino Acid: Cysteine

Specific Amino Acid : Histidine


Carboxylic Acids


Aromatic substituted Alkenes

Aromatic substituted Amines




Alkyl Halides


Oxygen deprivation;diminished oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Amino Acid Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]

Significant oral filament production; the presence of filament structures (ferric iron – anthocyanin complexes) within oral samples.  (red wine test)
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Skin-borne filament production; skin manifestation at the more developed levels (the skin is an excretory organ).
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure]


Extended or Chronic Fatigue
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Amino Acid Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]

Hair alterations, i.e., texture, thickness, loss of hair
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Amino Acid Deficiency, Cysteine Deficiency]


Gastro-intestinal imbalance
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Amino Acid Deficiency, Histidine Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Alkyl Halides – Halogens]

Immune system breakdown
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure, Amino Acid Deficiency, Histidine Deficiency, Cysteine Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Alkyl Halides – Halogens] 

The impact of increased oxidation, greater free radical presence and their damaging effects upon the body.
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Amino Acid Deficiency, Cysteine Deficiency,  Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Alkyl Halides – Halogens]


Lower energy levels due to interference in the ATP production cycle; greater fatigue
(iron is a transport medium for electrons within the cells)
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Amino Acid Deficiency]


Any bacterial forms that infect the blood requires iron if it is to grow and reproduce.
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure]


The smoking population may exhibit an increased incidence of the condition due to additional oxygen inhibition within the blood.
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure]


Specific blood abnormalities
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Histidine Deficiency,Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Metabolic disruption
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure, Amino Acid Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Alkyl Halides – Halogens]


Liver toxicity, gall bladder and bile duct complications.
(binding of oxidized iron to toxic molecules, e.g., cyanide and carbon monoxide)
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Alkyl Halides – Halogens]


An increased level of acidity in the body.
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure,
Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Skin lesions
[Amino Acid Deficiency, Cysteine Deficiency, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Chronic Decreased Body Temperature
[Amino Acid Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General]


Neurological Impairment (e.g., blurred vision, slurred speech, ringing of ears (tinnitus), loss of coordination, loss of strength)
[Amino Acid Deficiency, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Cognitive impairment, i.e., mental confusion, inability to concentrate, short term memory loss, “brain fog”
[Amino Acid Deficiency, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Joint Pain
[Amino Acid Deficiency, Histidine Deficiency, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis]


Liver Toxicity
[Amino Acid Deficiency, Cysteine Deficiency, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Respiratory problems, including proclivities toward a chronic cough or walking pneumonia-like symptoms
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure, Aromatic Amines – Halogenated Aromatic Amines – Thyroid Inhibitors in General, Phenols – Aromatic Amines, Alkyl Halides – Halogens]


The presence of a bacterial-like component (chlamydia-like) within or surrounding the red blood cells
[Iron & Bacterial or Bacterial-Like Structure, Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]


Unusual or extreme dental issues; tooth decay or loss
[Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]

Chronic itching of the skin
[Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis, Phenols – Aromatic Amines]

Associations between oxygen deprivation, glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, cancer, energy production (ATP), and intracellular acidity
[Carboxylic Acids – Over Acidity – Acidosis]

Research indicates the urinary tract may be equally affected with the presence of the filament structures
[Alkyl Halides – Halogens]

On a macro scale, we can see that some of the more obvious issues to be addressed concern iron disruption, amino acid presence and protein rebuilding, acidity, oxidative stress, availability of oxygen, thyroid and metabolism issues, halogen toxicity and substitution concerns, joint and skeletal integrity and elasticity, blood and cellular integrity, and potential neural disruption.  Unfortunately, the list is not exhaustive but it is representative of some of the health concerns that have been brought to the forefront and reported on.  

One of the interesting prospects of mitigation is that improving a limited set of disrupting influences may have benefits that extend to the wider system of health.  It might seem overwhelming to address such an array of problems, but the more that is understood between the relationships of mitigation, the greater are the chances of improvement to health on the whole.  We must all start somewhere when we begin to assume greater responsibility for our awareness and state of health; this beginning can basically become a way of life rather than a fix to a singular problem.

Let’s begin with the iron problem, as it has been discussed extensively59,60,61 and it remains as a paramount issue.  If it is accepted that iron interference is taking place, what course(s) of action might exist?  Studying these previous papers, it can be seen that a fair degree of effort has already been extended to this question.  It is appropriate to recall some of this information as follows:

1. ” Increasing the utilization and absorption of existing iron within the body.  Iron is certainly one of the most important elements of the body.  Referring to the Linus Pauling Institute,

“Iron has the longest and best described history among all the micronutrients. It is a key element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. In humans, iron is an essential component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes.”

One of the findings from the study of coordination chemistry described above is that iron has the ability to bond with numerous other molecules.  For example, iron (in the Fe2+ state) preferentially bonds to oxygen.  If the iron is altered to the Fe(3+) state. it will no longer bond to oxygen.  In this modified state, the iron will then form additional bonds to other molecules, many of which are harmful as has also been described above.  The idea of a chelator is to keep the oxygen bound in a protected state where it can not bind so easily with other, often harmful, molecules.  Heme itself, within hemoglobin, is a classic example of a chelator.  If our iron has been altered to where it becomes free or bound to other molecules (potentially harmful ligands), the solution to that problem would not seem to be to take more iron, any more than increasing the oxygen intake is expected to resolve a problem of oxidation.

The more effective solution would appear to be to keep the iron in a chelated state, where it is bound and protected by the expected molecules and proteins such as heme in the body.  This therefore suggests that increased attention would be devoted to the study and role of chelators in human health.  It does not seem reasonable that we would automatically pursue a path of increasing iron intake; indeed this process can be quite harmful and dangerous to human health.  Again, the importance of consultation with the medical professionals of choice is unequivocally stated; the stakes of the issues we are speaking of are of the highest importance.

2. The inhibition of the growth of iron-consuming bacteria (and bacteria-archea like) forms.

We know now that the organism uses iron for its existence and growth.  It appears that iron in the further oxidized state (i.e, Fe3+) is of primary benefit to the organism.  We also know, in retrospect, that iron is a critical metabolic element within many of the bacteria (or bacteria-archaea like forms).  One strategy that develops with such organism is that of inhibiting the ability of the organism to access or metabolize the iron.  This once again brings up the idea of a chelator.  This topic has also been discussed in an earlier paper, and introduced the role of human breast milk and its resistance to bacterial forms in infant growth96. Lactoferrin (found in whey) was identified as a potential strong chelating protein within that research.  Transferrin is another protein chelator within the human digestive tract that serves a similar purpose, i.e., binding of the iron and consequently it becomes less accessible to iron-consuming bacteria (or bacteria-archea like forms).”

We also recall from the earlier papers mentioned an important discussion about the potential benefits of Vitamin C, NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) and glutathione.  These three compounds are powerful anti-oxidants and they also relate directly to the issue of oxidative stress in addition to that of iron disruption:

“Three methods that appear to interfere with the molecular bonding of the iron-dipeptide complex that is now understood to be characteristic of the “Morgellons” growth structure have been established and identified.  The iron-protein complex is believed to be of, or similar to, the “Rieske Protein” (iron-sulfur) form.  These three methods also appear to be variably successful in reducing the oxidation state of the encapsulated iron from the Fe(III) state to the Fe(II) state.  The discovered methods involve the use of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glutathione.  The results of applying glutathione appear to be especially promising at this time, as it appears that a major disruption in the bond structure has taken place after approximately 72 hours.  The methods have been established and verified through visual, chemical and spectroscopic methods and each has an effect independent of the others.  The hypothesis to be made here is that the growth of the organism itself may be interfered with as a result of this work.

The reader is advised to consult the Institute referenced papers for the detailed information that underlies the excerpts given:

Morgellons : In the Laboratory

Morgellons : A Thesis

Morgellons, The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron

A Carnicom Institute  research discussion on this and related issues has also been made available to the public previously.  In addition, a series of videos that discuss the importance of glutathione (and its precursors) has also been included within the earlier papers.

Listen to a Research Discussion on This Topic

View A Series of Informational YouTube Videos on Glutathione
(Note the references to N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and whey(lactoferrin) in the second video of the series(Dr. Mark Hyman))
(No endorsements of products to be implied or stated herein)

The question of whether to take a supplement of iron or not will not be discussed here; this harkens to the pill philosophy discussed earlier.  This question will not only apply to iron supplements, it will apply to any and all questions that will be addressed concerning supplements of any kind.  I will report on the research facts available to us all; we must then assume our individual responsibilities of action or discussion with the health professionals and advisors of our choice.  It is not my role or position to be involved in any individual concerns or requests.  I am not acting in any medical capacity whatsoever; I am acting fully and completely as an independent researcher.  

The importance of the honest and dedicated involvement of the health and medical communities should be obvious to all of us; I encourage you to force this issue as it deserves.

In the particular case of iron supplements, there are risk involved as with most to all things that human beings can ingest.  Specifically, unwarranted iron consumption can lead to:

“Iron supplements can cause indigestion, stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, back pain, muscle pain, chest pain, chills, lightheadedness and fainting, rapid heartbeat, fever, sweating, flushing, headache, metal taste, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, rash and breathing problems62.”

In the case of high dosages, it can:

“High doses of iron can cause stomach and intestinal problems, liver failure, dangerously low blood pressure and death. Iron poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning deaths in children, according to Medline Plus. Symptoms of iron poisoning include bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, sharp stomach pain and severe vomiting — possibly of blood — a blue tint to the lips, nails and palms, seizures, pale or clammy skin, shallow or rapid breathing, extreme fatigue and a weakened or fast heartbeat63.”

Obviously, it would seem to be of greater interest to efficiently utilize existing iron within the body rather than to assume the addition of iron automatically addresses the problem.  It has also been discussed in previous papers that Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), in addition to being a powerful antioxidant, helps to increase the absorption of iron into the body.  From a current reference, we can see that there are two methods by which this occurs64:

1.  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) helps to prevent the formation of non-soluble iron forms.

2.  Vitamin C reduces iron from the ferric (Fe3+) to the ferrous (Fe2+) state.

The importance of this latter statement must be emphasized again, and it is the very basis of the paper entitled “The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron” presented in November of 201265.

We can see, therefore, that iron in the ferrous (Fe2+) state is generally going to be more bio-available in the ferric state vs. in the ferric state, both from the standpoint of iron-oxygen binding in the blood as well as in the direct absorption of iron by mucosal cells.  It has been shown in the laboratory through Institute research that vitamin C, NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) and glutathione have each been effective in this reduction process from the ferric to the ferrous state.  It would be worthwhile to review the details of the Institute reference papers that have been cited in this report; the discussions related to glutathione and its precursors (as opposed to direct supplementation) are especially important (i.e., the use of NAC).
The roles of chelation as well as anti-oxidants, as they have been discussed, should also be given full consideration for their potential benefits prior to assuming supplementation is a logical strategy.


Understanding the co-existence between iron and bacteria should also help in the process of setting priorities for healing.  Also, from the earlier paper66:

“A bacterium that infects the blood requires a source of iron if it is to grow and reproduce.”

“Like their human hosts, bacteria need iron to survive and they must obtain that iron from the environment.  While humans obtain iron primarily through the food they eat, bacteria have evolved complex and diverse mechanisms to allow them access to iron…  Iron is the single most important micronutrient bacteria need to survive… understanding how these bacteria survived within us is a critical element of learning how to defeat them”We may, therefore conclude that:

The elimination of bacterial infections in the body would, therefore, obviously be beneficial in increasing the utilization of existing iron; additional iron via a supplement might simply act as a facilitating nutrient to detrimental bacterial forms.

It is also of much interest to present within in this research that NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) has two additional benefits in addition to its effectiveness as an anti-oxidant.  In the following paper by the pathologist David Wheldon it is clearly stated that NAC also68:

1. has the ability to destroy chlamydial elementary bodies.

2.  replenishes intracellular glutathione.

Those familiar with the research of this site will be aware of the extensive investigation and study that has been placed upon the “chlamydia-like” or “bacterial-like” form that has been repeatedly identified within the filament structures.   The difficulties of eliminating that particular bacterial form have also been made apparent; hence the chronic respiratory symptoms that accompany its presence.  The imperviousness of these “elementary bodies” (i.e, a spore-like form that remain dormant for extended periods) is  at the heart of that difficulty.  The use of NAC as an important precursor to the formation of glutathione (one of the most powerful anti-oxidants that exists) has also been previously discussed on this site.  The many benefits of NAC (and also its reported anecdotal success with its use with Morgellons) can now be better understood with respect to its chemistry, its specific actions of reduction (anti-oxidation) and its precursive role in the formation of glutathione.  It is also of clear and immediate interest that this same paper states that the mechanism of destruction of these elementary bodies is by the breaking of disulphide bonds within the chlamydia organism (see discussion immediately below).


We now migrate to the amino acid – protein issue, and it becomes increasingly apparent that any separation of our topics is largely artificial.  In addition to the withdrawal and diversion of iron from the body to support a parasitic life form,  the redirection of amino acids and proteins to support such a life form is an equally serious matter.  Proteins make up more than fifty-percent of our bodily constitution and they are made from amino acids; if these are interfered with in any fashion it is inevitably to our detriment.  The research evidence does indicate that such interference is taking place.  There are a minimum of three amino acids that exist at the top of the interest list, and it should not be surprising if there are others.  The three of immediate interest include cysteine, histidine and tryrosine; again, there may well be others.

The original interest in cysteine emerged from the original observations of strength of the bonds of the filament materials, both environmental and biological.  The materials, from the beginning, have shown tremendous resistance to chemical and physical agents, such as acids, alkalies and temperature.  This indicates, from the onset,  the likely existence of disulphide bonds,  which are characteristic of both cysteine and cystine forms.  Cysteine is an amino acid that is characterized by the presence of sulfur, which can then further form disulphide bonds.   For example, hair is largely composed of keratin (a protein), and this protein is largely composed of such disulphide bonds.  This is one reason that hair is similarly so resistant to chemical breakdown.  The presence of cysteine with the filament forms (environmental and biological) has been further supported by direct observation via visible light spectrophotometry in combination with ninhydrin testing.  The presence of amines (building blocks of amino acids) has been further confirmed with infra-red spectrophotometry described in this report.  

The interest in histidine has also come about with the use of visible light spectrophotometry in combination with ninhydrin; please refer to the earlier paper entitled “Amino Acids Verified” for additional details of this earlier project67.  This interest has also been extended with the knowledge of the existence of the histidine side chain in the heme (hemoglobin) molecule coupled with the observation of the extensive breakdown in the integrity of the red blood cells (erythrocytes).  There is ample reason to focus on the likely existence of histidine (an amino acid) as a part of the biological filament growth form.

The interest in tryosine comes solely from the current work with IR spectrometry and the subsequent relationships that have been identified with both dopamine (a neuro-transmitter) and thyroxine (a primary metabolic hormone of the thyroid).  Interest in this particular amino acid is also increased due to knowledge of some of the mechanisms of aromatic chemistry, particularly the substitution reactions involving the halogens and the hydroxyl groups.  These have been discussed at length in this report and they both suggest the very real possibility of structural disturbances to both thyroxine and dopamine within the body.  In addition, the observed symptoms of the Morgellons condition are primary data points in our study and must not be denied.  The strong presence of metabolic, neural and cognitive interference in conjunction with the Morgellons condition gives, by itself, just cause to investigate any tyrosine disruptions that may be in place.  The combination of all factors above, IR observations, aromatic chemistry and reported symptoms all lend themselves to a deep investigation of the tyrosine, thyroxine, dopamine and oxidopamine issues and relationships.

An additional interest regarding collagen, a protein, has also developed prominently over the this last year especially in relation to the issue of joint pains.  Joint pains are another of the primary symptoms that are on record in association with the Morgellons condition.  These issues were introduced in a Carnicom Institute webinar presented last year and the access to it is repeated here for your listening and review:

Listen to an Institute Research Discussion on Amino-Acids – Collagen

The research interest, as a result of all of the above, now includes amino acids and proteins in general.  If there is strong evidence to show that a host of amino acids are either diverted or disrupted to support the growth of the filament structure then there is an equally strong case to consider supporting the body with those same amino acids.  Amino acids and proteins are structural features of the body that give it both form and function; these proteins are to be rebuilt if they are lacking in the body.  There should be no hesitation in promoting the use of foodstuffs in the body and the proteins are once such main group.  There are numerous methods by which one might accomplish such an increase, such as in the use of supplements, protein powders, diet and the like.  No specific recommendations on that approach will be given here, but such means are readily available for all to consider.  We have already considered whey (a particular protein form that has value with iron chelation).  Gelatin is another form of protein that is strongly associated with collagen production. Protein rich foods and/or protein powders may be additional forms of nourishment that can be considered in light of the findings.  Again, the reader has the responsibility to develop any health related strategies with the counsel of their own health practitioner and the information here is provided from a research standpoint only.


Let us turn now to the issues of oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage.  Our first clue that a serious issue with oxidation exists is with the repeated and definitive detection of highly oxidized iron within the biological filaments and the cultures that have been developed from them.   Iron in the blood is required to be in the Fe+2 (ferrous) state to bind to oxygen; if the iron is changed to the Fe+3 state (ferric) it will no longer bind to oxygen and the primary function of the blood  to transport oxygen transport throughout the body is no longer properly fulfilled.  The iron in the biological filament is in the Fe+3 state; this means that an electron has been stolen from the iron in the blood in the Fe+2 state, and this represents a transfer in energy, in essence, from the blood of the human to support the growth of the organism.

Another more direct method to investigate the state of oxygen carrying capacity in the body is to look at the blood under sufficient magnification.  It has long been reported on this site that the integrity of the blood cells and the presence of the chlamydia-like bacterial structures within the blood are direct windows into the health impacts from the Morgellons condition.  Please refer to the earlier paper (amongst others) entitled “A Mechanism of Blood Damage”, authored in December of 200969. In the table below are two blood slides of the same individual over a period of several years.  The image to the left is during the earlier investigations of the blood as they relate to the Morgellons condition and as they were extensively reported upon within this site.  The image to the right is of this same individual in a more contemporary state after considerations of the research within this site have been applied.  Knowledge of the benefits of anti-oxidation strategies, along with the strategies to eliminate free radicals within the body, can potentially be demonstrated with these images as examples.

Examples of variability in general red blood cell integrity and the penetration of the cell membrane by the chlamydia-like organism within the blood.  The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is severely impacted by this breakdown in cellular integrity.  The role of anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers may be worthy of consideration in the improvements that are demonstrated in the image to the right.  These images are of the same individual over a period of several years of research.  It is of interest that the chlamydia-like structures appear to remain in the serum external to the cells in the image to the right; they do not appear, however, to be successful in breaching the cell membrane as they do in the image to the left.  It is presumed that the state of the immune system is a primary factor in the defensive effectiveness.

It is also of passing interest that a recently acquired commercially prepared human blood slide also shows this same detrimental blood condition upon sufficient magnification:

A commercially prepared human blood slide presumably representative of the general population.

Some may consider this particular human blood slide condition as a coincidence or as irrelevant; others may be aware of strong claims by this researcher over the years that the general population appears to be subject (by varying degrees) to the health impacts of the “Morgellons” condition.  Any recent statements by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that classify “Morgellons” as a “rare condition” are in conflict with the assessment that has evolved from the research here.

Another indication of excessive oxidative stress in association with the Morgellons condition derives from a study briefly mentioned within the earlier research report, “Morgellons : A Thesis”70.  The particular section of the paper being referred to is entitled “A Proposed Spectral Project”.  In this study, albeit with a limited sample, the results strongly indicate a deficiency in oxygen carrying capacity of the blood of a set of individuals claimed to be severely impacted by the Morgellons condition.  

In addition, there is a body of anonymous functional medicine survey data made available to me that indicates severe oxidative stress conditions that are highly statistically significant within a separate set of individuals that claim to be severely affected by the Morgellons condition  

Further, the functional group analysis from this paper reveals a host of structural features (identified, implied and plausible) that form a reasonable basis for the development of significant oxidative stress.  These include (in addition to the oxidized iron – chlamydia-like presence situation), amino acid deficiencies, any cysteine deficiency,  the presence of aromatic amines (with special attention to aniline or aniline-like structures, halogenated aromatic-amines and thyroid inhibitors in general, carboxylic acids and phenols (acidosis) and alkyl halides.

If we assess that oxidative stress is likely a reality rather than a suspicion or conjecture, we then seek to address the problem with various strategies.  Let us review what these strategies might include.

The first and most obvious consideration is the liberal use of anti-oxidants to combat an oxidative stress situation.  First, we review what has already been presented once again in an earlier paper71:


 The research indicates that excessive oxidation is detrimental to health.  This topic has also been discussed previously in an earlier paper72. Common oxidizers include the bleaches, peroxides and ozone.  The research indicates, from the vantage point of this researcher, that internal use of these substances is likely to be harmful to human health.  We do not solve the problem of oxidation within the body by necessarily increasing the intake of oxygen.  Indeed, one of primary arguments of this paper is that the blood of the affected individual has been oxidized in a fashion that has the net effect of decreasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.  Excessive and misplaced oxidation also creates free radicals, which as been noted, “wreak havoc in the living system.”We do not solve that problem by taking more oxygen; we work on the problem by hindering the oxidative process.  The manner in which this process is conducted in the chemical world is known as reduction.  In common terms, the appropriate term is that of an anti-oxidant, and many of us are familiar with that parlance.

 I  take stock in the following statement, again from Cotran73:

“Once free radicals are formed, how does the body get rid of them?  There are several systems that contribute to termination or inactivation of free radical reactions:

1. Antioxidants (.e.g, vitamins, glutathion, transferrin..) 

2. Enzymes.”  

The statements here are direct and understandable and come from a standard textbook in pathology. It is relatively straightforward that if a problem of excessive oxidation exists within the body, one should strongly consider the role that anti-oxidants play in reversing those effects.  It is equally inadvisable, from this researcher’s point of view, to compound the issue with the addition of known strong oxidizers internal to the body  

Vitamins, across the board (A, B, C, D, E) are powerful antioxidants.  An additional powerful antioxidant identified in the research is that of glutathion.  The role of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the inhibition of the culture growth has already been described.  There remain many additional anti-oxidants of importance in human health74.



I will further discuss and present resources on the topics of oxidative stress (from a health perspective) as well as “free radicals” in more detail to further emphasize their importance.  As mentioned, oxidation is defined as the loss of electrons and reduction is defined as a gain in electrons.  The process of exchanging, transferring or sharing of electrons has already been described as being fundamental to essentially all biochemical reactions; electron transfer is at the core of biochemistry.  It  is essentially the flow of energy within living organisms.  An introduction to the importance of the oxidation stress and free radical issues as they relate to health is given as follows:


“Mounting scientific evidence may support the important role of free radicals in the development of some diseases. Free radicals are molecules or atoms that have at least one unpaired electron which usually increases the chemical reactivity of the molecule. Environmental radiation and physiological processes in the body cause free radicals to form. Free radicals can react with other molecules to cause cell damage or DNA mutation. Molecules called antioxidants protect against free radical damage. When antioxidants are ineffective, enzymes produced by the body work to repair free radical damage. Higher levels of free radicals tend to cause increased cellular damage. This effect is called oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may contribute to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Chemical compounds found in some foods may decrease the accumulated effects of oxidative stress, thus helping to prevent disease.75

As an alternative, the pathological approach of description to the relevance of oxidative stress and free radicals to health is as follows:

“One important mechanism of membrane damage…is injury introduced by free radicals, particularly by activated oxygen species.  It is emerging as a final common pathway of cell injury in such varied processes as chemical and radiation energy, oxygen and other gaseous toxicity, cellular aging, microbial killing by phagocytic cells, inflammatory damage, …and others…  Free radicals are chemical species that have a single unpaired electron in an outer orbital… the radical is extremely reactive and unstable and enters into reactions with ..proteins, lipids, carbohydrates.. and nucleic acids…Free radicals may initiated by oxidative reactions that occur during normal metabolic processes… Iron is particularly important in toxic oxygen injury… The main effects of these reactive species are on membrane, lipid bonds… of proteins and nucleotides of DNA76

Another serious consequence of oxidative stress, and one that is increasingly important within the context of this paper, is that of neural degeneration.  From the following paper on the subject of oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases77, we find that:

“Though, oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, aging and many other neural disorders….Antioxidants have a wide scope to sequester metal ions involved in neuronal plaque formation to prevent oxidative stress.  In addition, antioxidant therapy is vital in scavenging free radicals and ROS preventing neuronal degeneration in post-oxidative stress scenario.”

It is clear that the combination of any neurotoxin with that of oxidative stress, both of which are serious contenders in the research course underway, represents a serious threat to neurological health and functioning.  The list of reported, observed and research-based health impacts of the Morgellons conditions must always be at the forefront in the setting of priorities for research.  The evidence of neurological dysfunction in association with the condition deserves this spotlight in combination with the findings of this report.  It is of no small interest that the commonly (i.e., formerly so) attached “diagnosis” of “delusional parasitosis” (even by supposed medical professionals) appeared at the onset of public knowledge of the condition and that this  occurred prior to any proper investigation or research.  It is fair to ask what motives and what knowledge base were in place to support such an a priori analysis and conclusion. 

Continuing to present a series of references that further illustrates the extent of discussion with respect to oxidative stress, the following more comprehensive paper from Enrique Cadenas is also available78.  In this paper, we find further clarification on what the term oxidative stress actually means.  Metabolism, oxidation, and free radicals are an intrinsic part of the living process, and by themselves are not inherently “bad” or “good”.  Cadenas explains quite simply that an imbalance between oxidants and anti-oxidants is what defines oxidative stress.  This imbalance and “consequent damage to cell molecules constitutes the basic tenet of several pathophysiological states, including neurodegeneration, cancer, mutagenesis, cardiovascular diseases, and aging.  A summary of free-radical formation, reactions, impacts upon health and various defenses against these effects is further detailed within this report.

A parting comment from referenced sources regarding oxidative stress is in order, especially as it relates to the iron situation.  From the Alcohol, Research and Health Journal79, Wu Defeng, PhD discusses the role of metals in oxidative stress.  He states that:

“Because of iron’s critical contribution to hydroxyl radical formation, anything that increases the levels of free iron in the cells promotes ROS [Reactive Oxygen Species] and oxidative stress”

Recalling that free iron in the body is usually in the Fe+3 state (ferric) and that this form of iron is being definitively identified within the biological filament samples, it would seem as though the conditions for setting up an imbalance between oxidation and reduction (i.e., oxidative stress) have been satisfied.

It is also recommended that an earlier paper presented be reviewed at this time, entitled “Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal”80.  In this paper a series of direct observations and trials that show interactions between biological filament cultures, iron in different oxidation states, oxidants, antioxidants and culture growth is presented.  The results of those trials and observations are in complete accord with the expected biochemical reactions of oxidative stress that are being discussed here.

Now that information about the mechanisms of oxidative stress are amply available, It is time to start recalling the defensive part of the equation and to reiterate some of the many notable antioxidants that exist.  These anti-oxidants form the basis for one of the primary mitigating strategies under consideration to reduce oxidative stress. Once we know the source of a problem and its likely impacts, we are in a much better position to make headway in solving it.  This will be the case in terms of oxidative stress, and for other problems as well.

Returning to Robbins81 where the question was posed most directly, “Once free radicals are formed, how does the body get rid of them?”

and he answers equally succinctly, with one very important addition in this round of the research:

“There are several systems that contribute to termination of inactivation of free radical reactions.  These include:

1. ..Antioxidants [e.g., vitamins, glutathione, cysteine, transferrin]

2. ..Enzymes [superoxide dismutase, catalase]

3. ..Glutathione peroxidase” [which catalyzes reduced glutathione]

A definite pathway for research and consultation with health professionals has been charted here for anyone that cares to regard this information.  I would encourage you to consider it and evaluate it accordingly.

Let’s provide a specific example of what the oxidation process entails, along with  important definition of what an oxidant is.  An oxidant is known by several different names, all of which are the same thing, including, oxidizing agent, oxidant, free radical, or oxidizer.  An oxidant, or free radical, by definition, is “any species that contains one or more unpaired electrons occupying an atomic or molecular orbital by itself.82”  An oxidizer will essentially aggressively seek an electron from another species to form a bond with another atom or structure.

It is insightful to start the study by looking at oxygen itself, a major source of oxidation in its own right.  The bonding between oxygen atoms is a fascinating case that defies conventional interpretations, and further examination will show that oxygen itself is a radical with two unpaired electrons, and it is therefore known as a diradical.  This explains some of the reactivity characteristics of oxygen as we observe it, along with the interesting properties of paramagnetism (as can be shown with liquid oxygen experiments).  Oxygen in the free state that we breath (O2) has the following Lewis structure83, 84, 85, 86:

The diradical nature of oxygen, showing the two lone electrons of oxygen.  The special reactivity of oxygen can be understood more readily with this interpretation and understanding of oxygen bonding.

We are now in a better position to understand the sequence of free radical formation from oxygen as it forms within the body.  In healthy cellular metabolism, roughly 98% of oxygen is converted to water with the remaining 2% involving free radical production87, and Cadenas shows us a  sequential pathway that can take place, with the appearance of intermediate free radicals along the way ( superoxide anion and they hydroxyl radical)88:

Source : Enrique Cadenas, PhD

In more common language, we have the following description of the situation89:

“..oxidants or free radicals are the major cause of over a hundred human diseases. The process of ageing is also hastened by the onslaught of oxidants in the body. Oxidants are normally produced during healthy cellular metabolism, wherein 98 per cent of the oxygen consumed by a cell is converted to water. The remaining one to two per cent of the unutilised oxygen is free to escape as free radicals. Free radicals or oxidants are molecules containing single unpaired electrons, and are on the lookout for electrons to pair up. Examples of oxidants are superoxide anion, hydroxy one radical, reactive oxygen species like peroxides, hydroxides and singlet oxygen.”

The emphasis upon oxidative stress being an imbalance in the equation above is described again here, again in more generalized terms90:

“When the body’s antioxidative defences are inadequate, or when the supply of nutritional antioxidants is unreliable, or when the oxidant attacks are consistently alarming, the state of balance is tilted from a state of health to a state of slow degeneration.”

With this increased understanding of the route of oxidation within the body, let us return to the topic of countermeasures to oxidative stress.  Fortunately, understanding the nature of the problem does place in a stronger position to pursue countermeasures.  The recurring theme of the role of antioxidants is quite evident in the literature and health related papers available to us all; we simply must avail ourselves to them.  Again,  methods of mitigation are clearly portrayed in the Pharmaceutical Field article:91

“Over the years of evolution the human body has developed a whole arsenal of antioxidative enzyme systems and vitamins for its protection. Antioxidant systems of the body are critically dependent upon external dietary sources. What are these exogenous antioxidants and where are they found?

Natural Antioxidants To The Rescue
The vitamins particularly vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene and other carotenoids, vitamin C or ascorbic acid, and vitamin E as tocopherols and tocotrienols function as independently active natural dietary antioxidants. Minerals are the other dietary antioxidants that are critical to the activation of vital antioxidant enzyme systems in the body. Selenium is required for the antioxidant activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Zinc is essential for the activity of at least 90 enzymes including the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Copper and manganese are also needed for superoxide dismutase activity.

Vitamin A and its polymers are available from brightly coloured vegetables and fruits such as carrots, apricots, dark green leafy vegetables like spinach, red, yellow and green peppers, sweet potatoes, and blue-green algae. Vitamin C is obtained from lemons, limes and other citrus and sour fruits. Vitamin E is found in nuts, whole grains, vegetable oils and to some extent in fruits and vegetables. In general, minerals are available naturally from fruits, nuts and lentils, whole cooked and germinating grains, shell-fish, vegetables and many others. Many other naturally occurring antioxidants that have been studied are pycnogenol from pine bark, grape seeds and red wine, lycopenes from tomatoes and beets, and coenzyme Q10 from red lean meat and blue-green algae. Garlic, tea and blueberries are also rich in natural antioxidants.

Supplementation of these dietary antioxidants in the right concentrations is important for protection against disease and premature ageing. Nutrition, like all sciences is constantly changing. Vitamins, minerals and other nutrients are no more ‘boring’ or old fashioned in the public consciousness. They have now been proven to act as antioxidants and protect against illnesses, repair tissues, and safeguard against the daily stresses of pollution and lifestyle. All of these substances are useful since they act as antioxidants at different levels and with different modes of actions. Consumption of these natural antioxidants through natural foods or commercially available nutraceutical or nutritional supplements will help in retarding the ageing process and increasing life spans, preventing and / or reducing the intensities of diseases like diabetes, artherosclerotic heart disease, cancer, arthritis, skin diseases, eye disorders and many other ailments.”

We continue to consolidate and extend our arsenal against oxidative stress, this time with a short presentation from the University of Colorado.  In the paper entitled “Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen”, we find a helpful section at the tail of the article.  Two different classes of antioxidants are presented in this approach, those that are enzymatic in nature and those that are non-enzymatic.  More explicitly, the section of interest is as follows:

Mechanisms for Protection Against Radicals

Life on Earth evolved in the presence of oxygen, and necessarily adapted by evolution of a large battery of antioxidant systems. Some of these antioxidant molecules are present in all life forms examined, from bacteria to mammals, indicating their appearance early in the history of life.

Many antioxidants work by transiently becoming radicals themselves. These molecules are usually part of a larger network of cooperating antioxidants that end up regenerating the original antioxidant. For example, vitamin E becomes a radical, but is regenerated through the activity of the antioxidants vitamin C and glutathione.

Enzymatic Antioxidants

Three groups of enzymes play significant roles in protecting cells from oxidant stress:

Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are enzymes that catalyze the conversion of two superoxides into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. The benefit here is that hydrogen peroxide is substantially less toxic that superoxide. SOD accelerates this detoxifying reaction roughly 10,000-fold over the non-catalyzed reaction.

SODs are metal-containing enzymes that depend on a bound manganese, copper or zinc for their antioxidant activity. In mammals, the manganese-containing enzyme is most abundant in mitochondria, while the zinc or copper forms predominant in cytoplasm. Interestingly, SODs are inducible enzymes – exposure of bacteria or vertebrate cells to higher concentrations of oxygen results in rapid increases in the concentration of SOD.

Catalase is found in peroxisomes in eucaryotic cells. It degrades hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, and hence finishes the detoxification reaction started by SOD.

Glutathione peroxidase is a group of enzymes, the most abundant of which contain selenium. These enzymes, like catalase, degrade hydrogen peroxide. They also reduce organic peroxides to alcohols, providing another route for eliminating toxic oxidants.

In addition to these enzymes, glutathione transferase, ceruloplasmin, hemoxygenase and possibly several other enzymes may participate in enzymatic control of oxygen radicals and their products.

Non-enzymatic Antioxidants

Three non-enzymatic antioxidants of particular importance are:

Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant, and plays a vital role in protecting membranes from oxidative damage. Its primary activity is to trap peroxy radicals in cellular membranes.

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a water-soluble antioxidant that can reduce radicals from a variety of sources. It also appears to participate in recycling vitamin E radicals. Interestingly, vitamin C also functions as a pro-oxidant under certain circumstances.

Glutathione may well be the most important intracellular defense against damage by reactive oxygen species. It is a tripeptide (glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine). The cysteine provides an exposed free sulphydryl group (SH) that is very reactive, providing an abundant target for radical attack. Reaction with radicals oxidizes glutathione, but the reduced form is regenerated in a redox cycle involving glutathione reductase and the electron acceptor NADPH.

In addition to these “big three”, there are numerous small molecules that function as antioxidants. Examples include bilrubin, uric acid, flavonoids and carotenoids.

Readers may notice the level of overlap and correspondence that is now becoming evident in the specific compounds and substances that are regarded as highly effective antioxidants.  One may refer to the previous section from the pathology textbook that emphasized the role of antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase to become aware of certain standards that have evolved in the oxidative stress research.  The special emphasis upon glutathione should also be noted, to the effect that93:

Glutathione may well be the most important cellular defense against damage by reactive oxygen species [free radicals]“.

Continuing the discussion on the importance of glutathione as an antioxidant, it is highly relevant to again recall the previous research paper entitled, “Morgellons : The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron” from November of 201294.  This paper chronicles in depth research that describes the important role that glutathione is anticipated to assume in the mitigation of the Morgellons condition.  There are strong conclusions arrived at within this report, particularly those that concern the ability of glutathione to break down bonds in the identified proteinaceous structures, as well as  the ability of glutathione to reduce the oxidation state of iron.  It is thought that it may be highly beneficial to review the research presented in that earlier paper, as the proposals mentioned are now only further corroborated with the current research.  The link to this paper is presented immediately below:

Morgellons : The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron

It may also be worthwhile to become familiar with an independent physician’s evaluations of the Morgellons issue and to take note of the acknowledgement of the prospects for glutathione benefits within that same paper95:  

Morgellon’s : The Role of Atmospheric Aerosolized Biological Nano-Particulates

A few other points related to the glutathione issue bear repetition within this current collection.  It has been described in earlier papers that glutathione is another one of the cases where direct supplementation may be of little value.  If we suppose that a body is lacking in a particular compound, substance, or enzyme, for example, a common instinctive reaction by many is that somehow it should simply be taken as a “supplement” to fulfill that deficiency.  This approach can be both unwise and foolhardy as our previous discussion on iron substantiates.  When information becomes available, it is of little value unless it has been interpreted properly and comprehensively.  It is another of the many reasons that professional health and medical counsel is to be sought and why education must be a lifelong pursuit.  There are risks in assuming that we know more than we do.  In that discussion, it was communicated that direct ingestion of glutathione appears to be of marginal value in human health.  The emphasis in glutathione production within the body appears to revolve heavily around the precursor biochemistry of glutathione, more than with glutathione directly.  The role of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has already been discussed in that regard in the previous papers mentioned.  It may be wise to become familiar with that the role of “precursors”, especially as they relate to the glutathione issue.  Over simplification of a problem and the seeking of immediate rewards without proper understanding and comprehension can have their own price in our lives.  The case for immediate and intensive participation by the health and medical communities to solve the health problems before us is patent.

Another topic of developing interest, especially in light of the current research findings, is the role that glutathione may assume in combating neural disorders, such as Parkinson’s Disease.  We are forced to consider the prospect of neural toxins (e.g., oxydopamine related compounds or structures) as being a potential component of the biological filament growth form.  This discussion has already taken place within this paper to some extent.  What is of interest here is to reacquaint ourselves with an introductory library of media on the glutathione issue, as also available in the earlier paper referenced96.


Dr. Oz
Glutathione – Master Antioxidant
(3 min)

Dr. Mark Hyman
Glutathione – The Mother of all Antioxidants
(10 min)

Dr. Don Colbert
Glutathion – The Master Antioxidant
Webinar Presentation (1 hr)

(No endorsements of products or services to be implied or stated herein)

Dr. David Perlmutter
Glutathion Therapy – Part I (2 min)

Dr. David Perlmutter
Glutathion Therapy – Part II (5 min)

(It may be of benefit to research additional presentations by these and other speakers on the issues of
glutathione, oxidative stress, chronic diseases and neuro-degenerative conditions)

An accessible and relatively inexpensive test (~$20) is available to test for oxidative stress in the body; this appears to be a highly valuable piece of information to assess with respect to the impact of the Morgellons condition and health in general.  A body of information at an anonymous level is available to this researcher and it does indicate that oxidative stress may be an especially important factor, as the research also shows in numerous and substantial ways.  The details of this colorimetric test are available at the manufacturer’s site96b and it may be found through numerous sources available to the public96c.  An example of a urine test result for one individual is shown below:

An example of the Oxidata(TM) test for oxidative stress and free radical production.  This test result indicates a high level of oxidative stress for this individual.



The following topic is deserving of more consideration in the future, but the relationships between antioxidiants, minerals and enzymes has been made more than once along this journey of discovery.  As one pharmacist relates (now from a perspective which emphasizes nutrition), speaking of reactions that involve antioxidants96d:


Most of these reactions need something called an enzyme to make them work. And many of these enzymes are actually antioxidants themselves- your body even makes them- that’s how important antioxidants are! Many minerals are vital parts of these reactions too, even though they’re not antioxidants themselves (so they’re equally important to have). These include selenium, manganese, copper and zinc.”


Clearly, there is more research and work to do, but the point has been made, and I suspect that it is an important one.


The next impact upon health that we transition to is that of excessive acidity, or acidosis.  There is significant evidence from the research of record to implicate a serious acidic component to the Morgellons condition.  The effects of excessive acidity in the body have been previously discussed, including demineralization, low energy, dental decay, weak immune system, chronic digestive problems, joint pains, bacterial and fungal infections, and many others.  Please review that section of this paper to recall the numerous and significant health effects that can accrue from over-acidity within the body.  Our desire here is to suggest what means might exist to counter the many problems are know the result from acidosis, and to suggest means by which extent of the problems might be monitored.

Researching the available literature, it is apparent that there is a fair amount of controversy regarding the strategies to counter the effects of excessive acidity.  There are individuals that claim that eating certain food groups are effective at changing the acid state.  There are individuals that claim that drinking water that is alkalized, often by various devices or with additives to the water, will result in beneficial effects.  There are individuals that claim that testing the pH of either urine or saliva is representative of the body chemistry.  There are individuals that will attempt to refute all of the above claims.  This section of the paper is neither to advocate or to dismiss potential methods that be beneficial; it is to increase awareness of the importance of the issue and to provide a modicum of education to point the reader to various possibilities for further research, advice or action.  The process of becoming aware of an idea or method does not imply or state endorsement, agreement or disagreement for that matter; it is to inform us of choices and research ideas.  What is clear is that a fair amount of controversy exists on this particular subject; usually in such cases there is an abundance of misinformation or disinformation (intentional or otherwise) that must be sorted through.  The profit motive of advocating certain and particular strategies, means, products and devices must also be considered in this regard.  

One method to approach this problem is to focus, at an introductory level,  on the medical condition of acidosis and to learn what are the identifying characteristics of that problem.  The term itself is usually used in a strict medical sense applying to reduced pH of the blood, however, it is also sometimes used to express generalized excess acidity at the cellular and tissue level.  Acidosis in the strictest sense of the term may well be a medical emergency, but we can use a study of that condition to our advantage to understand what systems of the body are being most seriously impacted.  It may then be  considered from that point on as a matter of degree as to how much the body may be impacted by excess acidity and to what extent.

We can start with the definition of acidosis itself.  Acidosis is an “increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue.  If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma”97.  Note here that there is no requirement from the onset to restrict our discussion to the issue of blood only, as it is not required by definition.  The measurement of blood acidity (pH) is not a common affair for the majority of us, and we prefer to not restrict our methods of measurement to that method alone.  Another very important statement within this same article to recognize is that “the rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by pH of the body fluids”98.  We will keep this statement close at hand, as we shall see that the issue of cellular metabolism will be at the heart of excess acidity within the body.

We can once again see that we are in no way restricted to the consideration of blood alone when we are dealing with the determination of acidity within the body.  Measurement of additional body fluids, such as saliva and urine, already appear to be reasonable to consider in our scope of acidity assessment, especially in a relative sense.  It is also a fact that the pH of urine is regularly used as a diagnostic aid in the medical professions.  Low pH values (i.e., high acid) of urine are indeed indicative of acidic conditions within the body, especially for those at risk of producing urinary stones99.  The measurement of the pH of urine does indeed appear to be a viable point of measurement for acidic conditions within the body.  One might also presume that such measurements could also be useful in a relative sense, i.e.,  to indicate changes of acidity within the body over a period of time.  

Before seeking out the root causes of acidosis, it is worthwhile to mention that acidosis comes in two primary forms, metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.  Metabolic acidosis can result from the increased production of metabolic acids (please recall the discussion of organic acids earlier in this paper and the relationship to the carboxylic acid functional group) and kidney disturbances that excrete excess acids.  Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis and it is characterized by low pH in the body tissues and blood.  Respiratory acidosis results from a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood.  

An investigation into the research literature reveals two strong recurring themes as the basis and cause for acidosis.  The first of these will center on the issue of incomplete metabolism under conditions of reduced  oxygen and the second will involve the depletion of minerals.  We will now begin to document these important threads which immediately tie in with the leading statement that we called attention to:

the rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by pH of the body fluids

We refer to Dr. Michael Lam, once again, for a more lay interpretation of the importance of pH to body chemistry and for important sources of acid increase within the body.  Dr. Lam will also reveal to us the primary mechanisms by which the body compensates for this change.  Furthermore, Dr. Lam will make the case in his article100 that diet, in addition to other measures, is indeed a significant factor in affecting a change in acidity within the body.  This will come as no surprise as we investigate further the root causes of acidosis.

“One of the key determinants of the speed of aging and onset of degenerative diseases is the internal biochemistry and terrain of the body.  Internal biochemistry is best measured and discussed in terms of the pH.”

“The term acidosis is relative and only meant to convey a shift in total body chemistry towards the acidic direction.”

The principal sources of acid buildup are:

1.) The metabolism and/or incomplete breakdown (oxidation) of foodstuffs or metabolic “waste” produced as a by-product of cellular activity. During normal cellular respiration and energy production , acids as produced as part or “waste” products. These acid must be “balanced”, neutralized, or removed by the body’s buffering and detoxification systems through the kidneys, lungs, liver, and blood.

2.) The consumption of acid present in the food, air, and water supply. Nitrogen emissions from automobiles and industrial plants, food dyes, sprays, waxes, preservatives, additives, artificial sweeteners, fertilizers, water pollutants, and even chloride and fluoride in tap water are just some of the highly acidic chemicals are ingested by millions everyday.

How does the body overcome the acidity?

The body undergoes an natural and ongoing balancing act constantly. Underlying regulatory forces work continually to balance an acidic body chemistry to remove excess acid and return the body to a more neutral state.

These internal buffering mechanisms include:

a. The production of bicarbonate from the organs and cells of the body.

b. The removal of minerals such as calcium from bones to be used as buffering agent to neutralize the acid. This is one of the leading causes of osteoporosis.

c. The blowing off CO2 or carbon dioxide from the lungs. Carbon dioxide is an acid. It leads to symptoms of shallow breathing and hyperventilation.

d. The release of alkaline bile from the liver and alkaline digestive secretions from the pancreas and the retention of sodium from the kidneys in response to the secretion of the hormone Aldosterone.   Aldosterone is produced from adrenal gland, and stimulation of this gland leads to the feeling of internal “stress”.

For those seeking a somewhat more detailed explanation of how the body compensates for an imbalance in pH, it is instructive to examine the medical model approach.  In the paper entitled “Acid Base Balance in Critical Care Medicine101“, we find a modeling process that is applied to this problem that further confirms the statements in lay language by Dr. Lam above.  This model introduces the balance that occurs in the body extracellular fluid between positive and negative ions, primarily that of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium on the positive side and the chloride ion on the negative side (i.e., Strong Ion Difference).  Furthermore, it will be stated that a decrease in these positive ions will increase the hydrogen ion concentration (the very definition of an acid) through the buffering system in the body, resulting in acidosis.  

This modeling process is essentially equivalent to what has been stated by Dr. Lam, i.e., demineralization will accompany acidity within the body.  

Acid-base chemistry in the body can become a complex affair, and a detailed examination of the situation, factors and chemistry can be found at Dr. Grogono’s site entitled “Acid-Base Tutorial102“. A good introduction to acid-base chemistry is provided at the onset, where the two essential factors are described as follows:

“The Bird’s Eye-View, Two Components:

Respiratory: When breathing is inadequate carbon dioxide (respiratory acid) accumulates. The extra CO2 molecules combine with water to form carbonic acid which contributes to an acid pH. The treatment, if all else fails, is to lower the PCO2 by breathing for the patient using a ventilator.

Metabolic: When normal metabolism is impaired – acid forms, e.g., poor blood supply stops oxidative metabolism and lactic acid forms. This acid is not respiratory so, by definition, it is “metabolic acid.” If severe, the patient may be in shock and require treatment, possibly by neutralizing this excess acid with bicarbonate, possibly by allowing time for excretion/metabolism.”

As we continue to strike toward the heart of acidosis, at least from the more critical medical emergency perspective, one cannot help but notice that efficient aerobic respiration, complete metabolism and the lack of oxidative stress are at the absolute core of the issue.  These issues have emerged time and time again within this current research, and it would be foolhardy to ignore this deep-seated theme at this point.  In addition, we have learned that demineralization of the body (e.g., degradation of bone and teeth as examples) are expected to occur as a result of an acidic condition because of the body’s natural buffering systems that attempt to maintain ionic balance within the blood and body fluids.

The topic of excess acidity was first posited several years ago, in the paper (2010) entitled, Morgellons : A Discovery and a Proposal103, where attention was called to the following:

“In the culture environment, it has been established that the organism(s) flourish within an acidic environment.  In addition, it has also been stated in earlier reports that many biochemical reactions only take place within a narrow pH [acid or alkaline] range.  Therefore, one of the first strategies to consider is to change the acidity or alkalinity of the growth environment and see if progress results.  What has been observed in the cultures thus far is that an increase to the alkaline side does indeed appear to inhibit the growth of the culture.”

In a succeeding paper (2010) we find the following conclusions that were presented104:


“The growth of the bacterial-like organisms that appear to be at the foundation of the so-called Morgellons condition has been positively inhibited…The basic strategy that has been adopted is a transformation of the growth environment to a more alkaline condition along with adding specific antioxidants that are directed toward the scavenging of the hydroxyl radical.

We turn now to an additional important means to alkalize the body, that of bile production by the liver.

Attention was called  in 2011 to the role of bile as one of several mitigation strategies listed in the paper,  Morgellons : A Thesis105(2011):

…”Improving the flow of bile in the system to further alkalize the body and aid the digestive system. The liver, the gall bladder and the bile duct play an extremely important role in alkalizing the digestive tract.  For those that demonstrate a persistent acidic condition within the body it may be beneficial to learn of the importance of bile production and its alkalizing function.  

An acidic condition can easily be created with a blockage of the bile duct, as the bile is the alkalizing agent within the intestine.  Gall bladder removal and gall stones appear to be a frequent occurrence; this would suggest that overloads of toxicity to the liver could well be at the root of this problem.  Non-invasive methods of breaking down gall stones (conglomeration of bile) are available to consider, such as Chanca Piedra (breakstone).  If the bile flow is restricted, an acidic condition within the body is expected to exist.  Knowledge of the physiology of the liver, gall bladder, bile duct and its relationship to digestion may be beneficial in mitigating the consequences of acidity within the body and digestive system.”

Furthermore, the reader was introduced at that same time to an educational video on the relationships between the liver, bile production, acidity, alkalinity and immunity was made available at the following site:

Video Series: Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct Physiology

(No endorsements of products or services to be implied or stated herein)


There are recent observations of liver tissue that are important to be briefly introduced at this time; the subject will be discussed in more detail at a later date.  If the body is unable to process the toxic load placed upon the digestive system, there will be an accumulation of these toxins within the body.  The function of the liver is manifold, and detoxification and waste removal is foremost on that list.  The liver is also responsible for protein synthesis, the breakdown of fats with the production of bile, glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, iron regulation, and many others.  We only have one liver and we cannot afford to have a serious problem with it.

One of the major problems with the liver (of increasing incidence) is the accumulation of fatty tissue within the liver.  It is estimated that more than 1/3 of the population now suffers from fatty liver disease that is unrelated to excess alcohol use.  The net impact from the accumulation of these toxins  is an enlarged and fatty liver.  If the liver is unable to process the toxic overload, fat cells with the toxins will accumulate and be stored within the liver.  It is potentially a serious situation and one that is difficult to reverse quickly; weight gain is often associated with the condition.  What follows is a photographic comparison of a healthy and a fatty liver:

source :

From visual impressions alone, it is clear that this condition is not a healthy one.  It is reasonable to conclude that the functioning of the liver is seriously impaired with this condition.  We can also find examples of what the fatty liver looks like under the microscope, also in comparison to healthy liver tissue:

Comparison of normal liver tissue(left) and fatty liver tissue (right)
source :

Recent observations of calf liver under the microscope show this condition of fatty issue existing.  There are two concerns present from this initial observation:

Appearance of significant fatty liver tissue within a calf liver recently analyzed.
Sub-micron bacterial-like structures (identical in size and shape to those studied extensively on this site)
are abundant within the fatty cells.  Magnification approx. 8000x.

1. The animal is young, and therefore excess fatty tissue would not be anticipated at this stage of growth.

2.  The fat cells are enclosing large numbers of what appear to match (identical in size and geometry) the sub-micron, bacterial-like structures that are the subject of much scrutiny within the research of this site and this current paper.  

It is reasonable to surmise that the abundant presence of the encapsulating fat cells represents a toxic-overload response by the liver in the young animal.  Other issues of equal and concern arise from this recent observation; this research is to be presented at a later date.

For numerous reasons, there is a legitimate case for concern about the impact of the Morgellons condition upon the functioning of the liver; this includes potential toxic overload, fatty tissue development and the prospect for an enlarged liver that results.  If such proves to be the case, there is an obvious need for consideration of liver detoxification strategies to be incorporated within this report.

Although he have now forged through some of the controversies regarding acid-base imbalances, it is certain that some shall remain after this paper is complete.  The issue of drinking water that has been “alkalized” must be given mention, however unappealing the circumstances may be to certain parties along with their particular knowledge base.  There are those that advocate that certain alterations of water, either chemically or with certain devices and technologies, will be sufficient to address the acid-base imbalances under study here.  I do not find such arguments, thus far, generally sufficient to justify such conclusions at this point.  It is evident from the work at hand that sufficient oxygen available at the cellular level, thorough aerobic metabolism, reduction of excess carbon dioxide, mineral balance, diet (especially as it relates to mineral intake) and the alkalizing processes of the body (e.g., bile production and flow) are at helm of acid-base balances within body and health.  The argument for a modification of the “water molecule” (under question in its own right) to account for and compensate for the complex systems mentioned above appears that it may be lacking in the necessary substance of this problem.  Whether one “agrees” or not with the following information from Dr. Lawrence Wilson on the topic of “alkaline” water, it behooves us to become familiar with the arguments put forth106:

“The pH balance of the body is very important, and most people’s bodies are too acidic at the cellular level.  It does not matter if the saliva, urine or other fluids test alkaline.  In almost all cases, the body cells, which is the site of metabolism, are too acidic.  This predisposes one to many metabolic imbalances and diseases including cancer.  The rationale for drinking alkaline water is that it will correct this important physiological imbalance.

Problems with this rationale for alkaline water.  The main problems with this theory are

1. The real cause of excess acidity at the cellular level is a deficiency of what are called the alkalinizing or alkaline reserve minerals.  These come from what one was born with, and from the diet.  If one lives a stressful life, one also depletes these quickly.  They include calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and a few others.

Unfortunately, drinking artificially alkalinized water does little or nothing to replace these vital minerals.  In fact, it may deplete them for unusual reasons.  It may make the body think it is alkaline, so the body does not need to hold on to its alkaline reserve minerals as much, and it eliminates some of them, making the person even more deficient.  

2. Water from alkaline water machines replaces the vital minerals with a little cadmium, lead, arsenic and other toxic metals found in tap water and not filtered by any carbon filters that I am aware of.  Some filtering systems claim to filter out toxic metals, but I have not observed this in practice.  Those filters that I have seen that are said to remove a lot of toxic metals tend to damage the water even worse.  Reverse osmosis is an example of this type, along with KDF and other types of “advanced” filtration media.

3. In addition, the alkaline water machines also replace the good minerals with a little platinum and titanium found in the plates that the water passes over to make it alkaline.  These are both supremely toxic metals, especially platinum.  In addition, I have observed slightly higher levels of nickel in those who use alkaline water machines for several years.  

The nickel is probably leached from the stainless steel in the machine, or perhaps from a nickel-plated machine part.  Nickel is a deadly toxic metal.  The alkalinity of the water may cause a little to be leached out of the machine parts.

4. Carbon filtration also does not remove enough of the toxic chemicals in the water, so one is also getting a dose of chlorine, fluorides, aluminum, copper, residues of medical drugs in many areas, pesticides and more.

5. As a result, alkaline water machines do not really balance the body’s pH, although they will change it a little, giving some people the impression they are getting well when, in fact, they are becoming more ill. The only way to truly balance the body is to replenish the alkaline reserve minerals.  To do this, one must eat a lot of cooked vegetables.  The cooked vegetables, and perhaps some mineral supplements, when carefully chosen such as kelp, can and do supply the alkaline reserve minerals.  Good quality, natural spring water also supplies some alkaline minerals, as does good quality sea salt.  Using these on a daily basis, the body can be slowly remineralized.  This is the way to do it, not drinking artificially alkalinized water.”

We can once again see the emphasis upon the alkaline reserve minerals as a major pathway toward the restoration of the acid-base imbalance, with an emphasis upon diet to accomplish this.  The verdict on exotic or expensive technologies to alter the “state” of water is left to the reader to investigate further;  I would only encourage that the study be rooted in chemistry, biochemistry and physics as opposed to promotional claims.   At this point of study the causes of and factors affecting increased acidity, from numerous and varied sources, parallel the summary given by Dr. Lam to us at the onset (please review) remarkably well.  These include incomplete metabolic breakdown of foods and nutrients, the lack of availability of sufficient alkaline reserves, the ingestion of acidic toxins or foodstuffs into the body, carbon dioxide imbalances and the failure of the bile system to adequately alkalize the intestinal tract.  The road to recovery from the impact of such damage is to reverse the courses above, i.e., increase the efficiency of the oxidation of fuel, assure adequate oxygen in a form that the body can actually use, intake sufficient alkalizing minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, etc.) and improve the flow of bile and improve the digestive processes in general.  It is obviously a tall order, but courses of action are readily available to all of us.  Consultations with health practitioners about the sensibility or validity of the information being relayed here is a good start in the process.  Supporting this process with your own studies and research on the matter can only be of further benefit.

For those that continue to profess that what you consume does not materially affect your body chemistry, or for that matter, the acid-alkaline imbalance in general, let us cite a more traditional example from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on the subject of diet, pH and oral health.  It states clearly that what we eat is not a neutral affair107:

“..Diet affects the integrity of the teeth; quantity, pH, and composition of the saliva, and plaque pH.  Sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates..provide substrate for the actions of oral bacteria, which in turn lower plaque and salivary pH.  The resultant action is the beginning of tooth demineralization.”

Readers may once again be struck by the association between acidity and demineralization; the relationships between diet, body chemistry, acidity and alkalinity are all too apparent in the literature.

The preceding section serves as a welcome segue into the realm of what may be rather unsung heroes; those that have devoted themselves to health, nutrition and “functional medicine”.  Many of us look to a particular type of “doctor” to “heal” an ailment or disease, but those that study the role of nutrition in promoting health and those that study health in a more holistic sense are likely our true and best allies.  There are many individuals that have studied extensively the relationships between oxidative stress and acidity, for example, with nutrition and the body systems in an integrative sense.  It is wise for us to avail ourselves of their talent and knowledge, as opposed to only seeking a particular “cure” to a “particular ailment”, including that of “Morgellons”.

If we now open our discussion to include the counsel of those that study nutrition as a lifelong passion and its role in our health, the association between health and the acid-alkaline balance is prominent within the literature.  For those that continue to advocate that saliva and urine pH have no real value in the assessment process, it may be prudent to become familiar with a portion of the following discussion.  For those that seek out the credentialing process, Dr. Biamonte is no lightweight in the profession of clinical nutrition.  One article worth studying in detail is entitled, “Urine and Saliva pH Testing”108 from the Biamonte Center for Clinical Nutrition.  A few excerpts are in order here, but it is advised to study the article in detail.  The acid-base balance discussion, the role of minerals (once again) in the process, and various simple testing procedures for both saliva and urine are worthy of your consideration.  Please conduct your own research with the critics as well and reach your own conclusions as to motives and intentions of various parties.  You may also wish to examine the documented effects of demineralization and destruction of teeth and bone documented earlier in this paper, as well as to study those that have suffered from these effects.  The mineral loss in these cases is clear and evident, and it is difficult to deny that the acid-base balance is an important part of the process.

In the meantime, let us proceed with some representative sections from the article:

“Simple tests of your saliva and urine that you can perform yourself can give you a good idea of the pH levels of your body…”

“Testing urine and saliva after sleeping at least five hours gives you an idea of how your body is operating. Urine pH tells of how your body is responding to the food your ate the day before. Saliva pH tells your how your body has accepted the past few weeks and months. If you have not been eating foods that contain alkalizing minerals, your body has adapted its function to keep pH of your blood and other vital fluids as correct as possible. It is often these long term adaptations that are necessary for survival- that eventually lead to symptoms of chronic degenerative diseases such as arthritis, osteoporosis, emphysema, or even cancer.”

“Alkalizing minerals are stored in many organs and tissues of the body. The liver is the greatest storehouse of sodium; the bones are the greatest storehouse of calcium. Yet these storehouses can be emptied if the minerals that are used can’t be replaced. The food you eat determines how well your reserves are replenished. Fresh fruits and vegetables contribute the usable alkalizing minerals you need to restock your alkaline reserve. When there are enough reserves to buffer the acid produced naturally by cellular activity saliva pH will register around 7.0. Readings of considerably lower or higher than 7.0 usually indicate that your buffering reserves have been depleted and your body is being forced to accommodate by other means.”

“The urine represents what we are eliminating, the saliva represents what we are keeping. The urine does not accurately represent the state of the body, but does represent what it is eliminating – ideally acidic wastes. The first morning saliva pH is the indicator of the state of the body: tissue, lymph, interstitial fluids and blood.”



This urine/saliva tests shows basically how many minerals are left in our bodies, i.e. what the MINERAL RESERVES of the body are and what we must do to remineralize it. This lays the foundation for any and all healing therapies.
* The test is simple:

All of the following pH tests should be done on same day.

1. Saliva test upon waking. First thing in the morning right when you get out of bed, lick and wet the MIDDLE BOX OF THE PH TEST STRIP. Note the color change and write down that pH number. Do this before brushing your teeth, drinking, smoking, or even thinking of eating any food. This pH should be 6.8.

2. Then test your second urine of the morning. The urine stored in your bladder during the night, that is ready to be eliminated when you get up, should be acid so you don’t want to test that. Drain your bladder in the morning, the last time you get up if you get up during the night and then see what that urine pH is. Again, record this number. This number should be the pH of your urine after you got rid of your acid load from the day before. The acids should be gone the second time you go to the bathroom so your urine pH should be around 6.8 also.

3. Eat breakfast, an apple will do, anything, and five minutes after breakfast check your saliva again. Write this number down also. This number should go up from what it was before you ate, the more the better.

4. Then check your urine pH between breakfast and lunch. . The pH should always be 7.0 to 8.5, a couple of hours after meals.

5. Then check your urine pH between lunch and dinner. The pH should always be 7.0 to 8.5, a couple of hours after meals.

These five tests show the following:

1. How well your digestive system dealt with what you ate the night before, i.e. the AM urine pH. These numbers may change from day to day depending on what you did eat the night before.

2. How well we treat ourselves in general, i.e. how “strong” the liver is. This is the AM saliva pH. This number shows the overall state of our health, the condition of the alkaline reserve of our bodies which reflects the diet we have eaten over the last months to years. This number stays rather constant and will only change after some work has been done in re-mineralizing the body. Pleomorphism and its changes can be viewed under the darkfield microscope, but the saliva pH shows what you will see.

Since the saliva pH is an indicator of intracellular pH, saliva pH readings should never be below the pH of the phosphate buffer system, 6.8. (see below). The most accurate reading of saliva pH is recorded immediately upon awakening–after sleeping at least five hours and before brushing the teeth. It is during sleep that the body removes waste and is in an anabolic state restoring and replenishing the body. If the patient has a saliva pH of 5.5 at this time and only 5.6 after eating, you know that this person has no alkaline reserve and that his body is devoid of the minerals necessary to process food properly–his body cannot adequately respond to the physiological crisis of handling food.

3. The pH of your saliva after you eat gives an indication of what the mineral reserves of your body are (the pH number should increase after you eat). The ideal saliva pH pattern is 6.8 on awakening, 7.0 before eating and 8.5 following breakfast.

4. The pH’s of the urine between meals should be kept in the basic range, pH 7.0 to 8.5. After one eats, the stomach generates the necessary acid to digest the food. While doing this, it also performs the opposite action, i.e. it makes an equivalent amount of base or baking soda, sodium bicarbonate, that is picked up by the blood stream and delivered to the alkaline glands of the body, the saliva, the pancreas and the liver. The maximum amount of base in the blood and therefore in the urine occurs one to two hours after you eat. The body fluids and therefore the urine is most acid at 2:00 A.M. (pH 5.0 to 6.8) in the morning (the base tide) and most alkaline at 2:00 P.M. (pH 7.0 to 8.5) in the afternoon (base flood).

Along the course of the article, Dr. Biamonte also introduces us to the “lemon-test”, a relatively simple test that can be used to give an indication of the available mineral reserves in the body.  The history of the test and its use extends well beyond any single practitioner, and it is also described in some detail by Dr. Dicken Weatherby in his book on functional medicine, “In Office Lab Testing : Functional Terrain Analysis109“.  Various examples of test results are described within this same book.  The origin of the test appears to reside with a Dr. Henry G. Bieler, MD.110, the well known author of “Food is Your Best Medicine”.

The introduction to the pH Saliva test, from
“In Office Lab Testing : Functional Terrain Analysis” by Dr. Dicken Weatherby

I have witnessed the administration of the test locally, and I find the results to be of much interest and expressive of variation between individuals.  The test is simple enough in principle and practice to monitor individually if desired, as in the following example with two separate individuals.  

The Acid-Lemon Test conducted by two separate individuals.  The individual on the right demonstrates a stronger decrease in pH over the time interval measured.  The reasoning behind this test concludes that the individual on the right is likely to have reduced mineral reserves available, and consequently a higher acid level may be anticipated within the body tissues.   The sharp rise in pH on the individual’s test to the left may apparently also reflect ammonia imbalances and is also worthy of further study.  Important nuances in the test do exist and they are worthy of further research;  Dr. Weatherby’s book may be helpful in this regard.

Additional simple tests for an acid-alkaline imbalance (i.e., breath holding test and respiratory rate test) are described in one of several of Dr. Dicken Weatherby’s books110b on the subject of functional medicine. 

Any readers with a further interest in these topics may wish to consult those that practice in the field of functional medicine, or as stated repeatedly, the health practitioners of choice.

A general introduction to the fundamental principles and philosophy of functional medicine is available courtesy of Dr. Mark Hyman:

Mark Hyman, M.D., Introduces Functional Medicine

Listen to a more extended discussion by Dr. Hyman on the state of health and Functional Medicine.

We can speak of such issues of oxygen, energy, oxidation, acidity and pH at length, but me must move on to make further progress.  For those that continue to profess that there are no relationships of consequence between these factors, or little that can be done about them, let us make a more blunt parting observation as to what happens in the body when we die.  On the topic of acidosis (i.e., excessive acidity within the tissues), under the subtopic of associations,  we learn starkly that111:

Lactic acidosis is an underlying process of rigor mortis. Tissue in the muscles of the deceased carry out anaerobic metabolism in the absence of oxygen, using muscle glycogen as the energy source, and significant amounts of lactic acid are released into the muscle tissue. With depletion of muscle glycogen, the loss of ATP [i.e., energy production]causes the muscles to grow stiff, as the actin-myosin bonds cannot be released. (Rigor is later resolved by enzymatic breakdown of the myofibers.) In meat-producing animals, the post-mortem pH drop in muscle tissue contributes to meat quality (by influencing water retention, cutting color and texture of meat) and also contributes to food safety by inhibiting several acid-intolerant spoilage organisms that otherwise might proliferate, even at refrigerator temperature.”

It would seem as though there are obvious relationships that exist between acidity, oxygen, and energy production when we are dead. There is every reason to think that such relationhips exist while we live as well.  

One famous line from mutated history and the cinema is that, “Today is a good day to die…”  

Our alternative line for today (not quite so famous) is that, “It is a good time to talk about the thyroid.”  And so on we go…

We can now recall the importance of the thyroxine, the primary hormone of the thyroid:

“Thyroxine stimulates the production of oxygen in the body.  Thyroxine is directly related to carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and breakdown.  Thyroxine stimulates the utilization of energy.  Thyroxine directly affects the basal metabolic rate.  Thyroxine stimulates the cells of the nervous system.  Thyroxine is used to maintain the state of the cardiovascular system.  Thyroxine stimulates the breakdown of fats.  Thyroxine stimulates normal growth and development.  Thyroxine stimulates the muscles to break down proteins.  The thyroid is, therefore, a master regulator of metabolism for the body and any interference in that functioning is inevitably and seriously detrimental to human health.”

We can see that the thyroid is the metabolic master of our system, and it is harder to get much closer to home than that.  We also have good reason to suspect that thryroid processes are being interfered with in conjunction with the Morgellons condition.  Our most fundamental indicator of this disturbance is that of body temperature.  There is good reason as well as evidence to show that the body temperature of the general population is operating frequently at a temperature less than normal.  The mantra of “98.6” that many of us grew up with may not exactly be quite so vocal these days, and the mystery of that silence is deserving of intensive study. 

We also have reason to consider interference from the standpoint of aromatic chemistry; this has been discussed at length earlier in this paper.  Essentially, the existence of aromatics along with amines is a perfect setup to initiate the halogenation of the aromatic structure.  Halogenation of an aromatic structure by the halogens foreign to the body, e.g., fluorine, chlorine and bromine, is also the perfect setup to interfere with thyroxine, or the thyroid itself.  

Third, we have a relationship of interference to consider between tyrosine (an amino acid), the thyroid (with thryoxine production) and dopamine (a neurotransmitter), as it has been discussed previously.  We will also revisit this topic when the subject of neural disruption is discussed later.  No matter which way go about it, we obviously have important issues at hand here, and metabolism and body temperature indicators are the heart of it. We will focus on this issue of body temperature, as it is direct and apparent, and it is easy to measure, and monitor for change.  It is a macro indicator that affects the entire body system.  Our Biochemistry is essentially non-functional without the proper conditions of temperature and pH in place (for ALL reactions), and we must never lose sight of this fundamental fact as we wade through this maze of complexity and interaction.

What does low body temperature mean, at the most fundamental level?  It means the body is not working up to speed; the engine is not running at the proper temperature.  If the engine does not run at the proper temperature we have incomplete combustion and less energy is produced.  In essence, the body is not working as it should, and it is definitely not firing on all cylinders.  In more conventional terms, an underactive thyroid is called hypothyroidism and the overactive thyroid is called hyperthyroidism.  The signs of research in place point quite strongly to the former in association with the Morgellons condition.

Let’s look at the connection between temperature, metabolism and the thryroid from several sources and in more detail: First, a direct statement of the relationship from a detailed source on medical testing112:

“There is a direct link between low body temperature and low thyroid function. In fact, one of the symptoms of hypothyroidism is the reduction in body temperature.”

In equal plainspeak, Dr. Rind introduces us to the importance of the relationship, as well as the role the adrenals have with respect to temperature variations113:

“If you’re not feeling quite up to par, take your temperature. Not to determine if you’ve got a fever – rather, temperatures reflect an individual’s metabolic energy state. The average daytime temperature of a healthy individual is 98.6 thus making 98.6 the optimal (as opposed to normal*) temperature. Lower than optimal temperatures reflect a lower than optimal metabolic state which is usually controlled by the thyroid mechanism. Wide variability of temperature reflects an unstable or fatigued adrenal system [please note this addition to our considerations -CEC]. Thus, on the road to health, one wants to go from low and/or unstable temperatures to 98.6 and stable if possible.”

Detailed information about a method to monitor your temperature and its variability is available on Dr. Rind’s site as well.  The awareness of the state of temperature in the body, its importance to efficient metabolism, and a system to track and monitor temperature on a regular basis may be a beneficial first step in becoming aware of the importance of thyroid functioning to good health.

Lastly, to cement the importance of the relationship of body temperature to thyroid functioning, Dr. Weatherby also describes a Body Basal Temperature Test114 and reiterates the primary point made:

“A reduced core body temperature is one of the hallmarks of thyroid hormone deficiency and hypothyroidism.”

The widespread reporting and observation of reduced body temperature amongst the general population , in addition those those more visibly suffering from the Morgellons’s condition, should make it apparent that hypothyroidism is a central topic of research here.  This paper can only hope to introduce the importance of this issue in this and future studies..

If we postulate that a state of hypothyroidism exists, i.e, a state of lowered metabolic rate associated with the lower body temperature cited above, what then are some of strategies offered by the health community to alter this situation?  It would certainly seem, then, that the cause of such a problem would need to be identified first.  We have certainly called attention in this paper to the possible role that the halogens might assume in such a case, and the interference that the toxic halogens can create.  An obvious first approach might be to reduce or eliminate the presence of toxic halogens within the body, and to avoid contact or ingestion of them.  Let us seek out how the health communities might react this to this potential problem.

If we begin by asking the question of how one would detoxify from an excess of halogens, especially that of fluoride and bromide, we are immediately led to an abundance of discussion related to iodine therapy.  The reasons for this have already been discussed, and these relate to the relative reactivity of the halogens and their competition of iodine within the thyroid.  We can repeat that relationship with the words, to start, from Dr. Mark Sircus :115

“It is well known that the toxic halides, fluoride and bromide, having structure similar to iodine, can competitively inhibit iodine absorption and binding in the body.”

We are also immediately led, therefore, to a strategy of great importance and interest, i.e., iodine therapy, or the intake of additional iodine into the body.  Expressed as follows by Dr. Sircus in conjunction with Dr. Gyula:

“Iodine intake immediately increases the excretion of bromide, fluoride, and some heavy metals including mercury and lead. Bromide and fluoride are not removed by any other chelator or detoxifying technique. Dr. Kenezy Gyula Korhaz states that iodine chelates heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminum and halogens such as fluoride and bromide, thus decreasing their iodine inhibiting effects especially of the halogens.“I

It is more than explicit at this point that no medical advice is ever given or implied within these papers, however, information and education IS to be freely available to all.  It is clear from the literature and research that iodine supplementation in connection with thyroid performance is extensively discussed and employed.  The chemical and molecular rationale for that strategy has already been made clear within this paper; the details of consideration and application will be left to the reader.  The responsibility for education and professional consultation in any such matters is also equally obvious.

Examples of the need for education and consultation on the matter is apparent from the following two complicating factors:

1.  Another strategy, commonly employed, is that of prescribing an increase in the thyroid hormone (T4) itself to remedy hypothyroid (decreased thyroid function) imbalances.    In the book, Thyroid Balance, by Dr. Glenn Rothfeld, we read that:116

“Doctors typically prescribe a thyroid supplement -a drug that boosts the thyroid hormones in your system -to treat most thyroid imbalance.  This is a tried-and-true therapy that has been the standard for more than a century.  The earliest documented use of this therapy dates to 1891, when doctors started using ground thyroid gland tissue from sheep to treat severe hypothyroidism”

2.  Allergic reactions to iodine supplementation are known to exist.  The extent and reaction of an allergic reaction is certainly outside the scope of this article, but attention will at least be drawn to the matter.

3. Another question that can be asked, similar to those issues that were raised earlier with respect to deficiencies in iron, is whether or not we take care of a deficiency by simply adding more of  the same thing back into the system?  If we do not understand what is causing the deficiency of a particular substance to begin with, supplementing it with the same substance may be a completely futile exercise.  Hence the interest of “Thyroid Inhibition” increases, and consequently the interplay with iodine remains a focal point of the strategies discussed here.

4.  The relationship between adrenal performance (and cortisol levels) and thyroid function is also important to be aware of.  There is some information from the research of this Institute that the undue stresses on the adrenal glands may well be another point of serious research as it relates to the Morgellons condition.  There is an additional caution provided to us for the simplistic response of simply increasing the thyroid hormones with supplements:117

“Thus, it can be important for you and your doctor to rule out insufficient adrenal function before raising too high on natural dessicated thyroid or T3…”

Self-tests for adrenal function are subsequently described in this article, but the point is again made that thyroid hormone supplementation may be a diversionary exercise.

Education and research are the goals here, not therapy.  Education and research are obviously on the path toward therapy, and these are our pursuits.

While we are on the subject of self-tests, let us include another test, this time related to iodine deficiency.  There is an additional test entitled the Iodine Patch Test within Dr. Weatheryby’s book mentioned earlier118.    It is a simple test that monitors the fading of an iodine patch (2%) painted onto the skin over a 24 hour period.   As Dr. Weatherby describes,

“The Iodine Patch Test is an excellent test for assessing for iodine deficiency…Unfortunately, iodine deficiency is widespread because of the prevalence of chemicals such as chlorine, bromine and fluoride [note halogen emphasis – CEC] in our environment and water supply.  These chemicals will quickly deplete iodine from the body and interfere with iodine metabolism leading to a number of problems including hypothyroidism, lowered vitality, cognitive dysfunction, lowered immunity, and obesity.  The iodine patch test is an easy method of assessing your iodine levels.

Once again, we may ask, does this sound familiar, relevant and germane to the findings of this report?

Readers are referred to Dr. Weatherby and other sources for more particular details on the interpretation of the test results.  There are those who think that the iodine patch test is not reliable and therefore not useful; as such it exists in controversy amongst some practitioners.119  It would appear that the lower body temperature test is less so and it is simple in principle to comprehend.  Recall from earlier discussions that all biochemical reactions take place at a specific temperature and pH; alteration of either of these parameters will inevitably lead to impairment of some sort or fashion.

We start this by mentioning forms that are not advisable and that have varying levels of toxicity – conventional antiseptic iodines.  The first clue that such forms are not of benefit is the warning label, which will clearly state that this form is not to be used for internal purposes.  There are two forms described that are in common use:120, 121

1. Tincture of iodine – a mixture of elemental iodine and either potassium or sodium iodide, dissolved in ethanol and water  Denaturing of the alcohol is also know to be used in commercial tinctures.  A 2% free iodine solution contains about 1 mg of free iodine per drop.  Ethanol is poisonous in sufficient amounts and denatured ethanol is deliberately poisoned to prevent consumption.  Tincture solutions can vary between 2% – 7% in strength.

2. Povidone iodine is a mixture of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and elemental iodine.  It is soluble in both water and alcohols, and is more stable chemically than tincture of iodine.  The deposition of PVP in human tissues  reported in toxicology tests warrants abstention from use internally.122

We now transition to forms that are more suitable internally to the body (notwithstanding the prior caveats of potential allergic reactions, etc.).   A statement of additional risk factors associated with the ingestion of iodine are included from the following medical bulletin from the National Institutes of Health; all readers are advised to be aware of all information that is contained within this report.123

Medline Plus : Iodine :

Now that we have given due notice to the federal standards for recommended levels of iodine in the body, let us open up the discussion to various professionals that have devoted significant study to iodine as it relates to health.  It will be clear that the federal recommended levels are dramatically at odds with many serious research studies on the subject. For an extended discussion and debate between those at the forefront of iodine therapies (Abraham, Brownstein) and those advocating more restrictive conventional approaches (Gaby), please see the following paper:124

The Great Iodine Debate


The following media presentations are recommended as an introduction to the important role that sufficient iodine and iodide levels plays with in our health.  More extended discussions of the necessary levels of iodine in the body, the manufacture and storage of iodine, differences between iodine and iodine forms,  body capacity and removal of excess iodine, skin issues related to iodine deficiency, the damage and competition for iodine by the halogens, the dangers of the halogens with respect to modern diets, and improved brain functioning with appropriate iodine levels are all important topics that are covered in these presentations.  The reader is advised to become familiar with the material that follows.

(Here is a test for you: find the place in one of the videos where “RDA” is stated to stand for a “really dumb idea (sic?)”.)

Jorge Flechas, MD, on the topic of Iodine Sufficiency

Dr. Brownstein, MD, Iodine, the most misunderstood nutrient

Drs. Mercola & Brownstein, MD,
on the topic of Iodine Deficiency

(note the attention given to the bromine issue)

Dr. Tenpenny, on the topic of Iodine Deficiency
(Advanced Discussion)

We can see from the presentations by numerous doctors and extensive research that there is a strong case for the existence of increased levels of toxic halogens in the body (i.e., fluorine, chlorine and bromine) and for the competition that they exert upon iodine and the thyroid.  This case in in alignment with the spectral and biochemical analyses that are a core result of this paper.The symptoms of impaired thyroid function such as reduced body metabolism and energy production, lowered body temperature, skin complications, brain dysfunction, cancers and many other serious health issues are intimately related to iodine deficiency.  Iodine therapies are also offered as a significant prospect for improvement by these same doctors.  The case for the existence of the aromatic halogens in association with the Morgellons condition has also been made by this researcher through the use of infrared spectral analysis, with a particular interest in bromine substitutions.  It is also important to emphasize the major differences in the amounts of iodine that are necessary and utilized in the body compared to those identified in the federal standards; this difference ignores the prospect of increased competing halogen sources that may now have been introduced into the body.  This difference, even based upon conventional medical research of recent decades as outlined in the presentations above,  is on the order of 100 times.  Impairment of thyroid functioning and iodine supplementation therapies exist, therefore, as compelling and major topics of further research in the investigation of the Morgellons condition.

We now begin to close this chapter of research in the history of Carnicom Institute, and we depart (temporarily, of course) with a brief revisit to, and a discussion of, the neural disruption issue.  It is difficult to ‘rank’ the relative importance of the numerous issues that have evolved within this current research and their combination is devastating and ostracizing to far too many.  This level of harm and suffering is much greater than that which is currently acknowledged,  and many individuals deserve recognition for the battles they are fighting.  These  battles are often fought in solitude and they can be literally a fight for life itself.  We must offer our compassion, our care and our help in haste, as the frog pot continues to warm for most of us.

It is clear that cognitive functioning, concentration ability and mental acuity in general are companions of study here, and that they are closer to home than many of us would like to admit in our pursuit of improved health.

The technical and evidentiary argument for this situation has already been made in this report, and our question here is what can be offered as a prospect for improvement?  Certainly the first fact to recognize is that the broad health impacts that have been discussed here are usually related to one another, and it is simplistic to separate them as islands of trouble.  How can we possibly suspect a simple ‘cure’ to any demise of neural and cognitive functioning; in the majority of cases modern medicine is still in its infancy here.  Nonetheless, there are ALWAYS paths to pursue to improve the lot of us, and there are no exceptions here.

We may start with the glaring theme of oxidative stress, which is pervasive and illustrative of the connections between the topics of this report and those that are at the foundation of pathology.  This foundation (e.g., Robbins125) has already been discussed some time ago in a context that is much broader than the Morgellons issue by itself.  Is it any surprise when we learn, therefore, that:126

“Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.”

and, in the discussion of a professional textbook on the subject, that127:

“The role of free radicals and oxidative stress in neurological disorders has only recently been recognized… Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology sets the record straight, focusing on clinical and research issues regarding the interplay of free radicals and the human nervous system. Crucially, the chapters cover numerous antioxidants and their possible therapeutic role in neurological disorders. Key illnesses such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s are analyzed, and chapters also examine more general issues such as the link between free radicals and inflammation of the central nervous system..”

And again, to eliminate any doubts on relevance128:

“It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases.”

We see the consequences of oxidative stress over and over, and at this point we are not entitled to remain ignorant of what we can and must do to improve the situation.  The details and important role that anti-oxidants play in combating oxidative stress have been repeatedly emphasized in this report.  We must take advantage of that same information here as it relates to neurological functioning.

We have also introduced leading research on the importance of glutathione as it relates to neurological diseases and Parkinson’s disease.  It should be recognized that glutathione is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, and from the above, it should come as no surprise to us that its effectiveness against oxidative stress is important to neural functioning.  The importance of understanding the precursors of glutathione (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and alpha lipoic acid) vs. dietary supplemention or ingestion has also emphasized in this paper.

Through the introduction of iodine therapies that are practiced to improve the functioning of the thyroid, we have also learned that adequate levels of iodine are also strongly related to mental functioning, acuity and intelligence.  This topic is especially prominent in the presentation by Jorge Flechas, MD, above.  We have also learned that the difference between the federal guidelines of minimum daily iodine levels and the levels deemed beneficial by certain medical practitioners is dramatic, to say the least.  This dosage issue is entirely independent from any need to compensate for the potential reduction or removal of iodine stores within the body by competing aromatic halogen compounds (as they have been identified and postulated within this report).

We have also called strong attention to the intriguing and serious implications of oxydopamine and its related compounds within this growth form.    There is a strong case in the data of this report for this type of existence, and the damage that these compounds have upon neurological function is unambiguous.  Recall that such compounds are used in the laboratory to deliberately induce Parkinson’s Disease.  Such compounds reduce dopamine and brain amine levels and this, as a minimum, is known to affect memory loss and cognitive functioning.

With respect to the potential mitigation from this effect, oxidative stress is responsible for dopamine loss129, so this is now a familiar refrain to us.  The role of antioxidants has been discussed at length in this report, and this presents the roles and use of vitamins (e.g, A, B, C, D, E), enzymes,  and the precursors to glutathione for example.

Readers and health practitioners will also want to investigate the role of tyrosine and L-tyrosine as they relate to dopamine levels in the brain.  Tyrosine is an amino acid, and it is the building block for dopamine as it has been discussed.  The prospect of structural interference in the synthesis of dopamine has also been raised within this report, especially with prospect of halogen substitutions on the aromatic ring of tyrosine.

The role of diet and nutrition is also important to dopamine levels.130  I am hoping that it is now understood, from the journey that has been shared, that this researcher advocates nutrition as one of the primary pathways towards better health, and that those who are knowledgeable in such ways deserve our greater recognition and attention.  They have been driven to the heart of the matter, and that is that all life will eventually be a product of the nourishment that it consumes.  The business of “supplementation” is essentially a band-aid to attempt to compensate for a deficiency that never should have existed if we were wiser and more complete in our ways, especially from youth onwards.

While we are on the subject of nutrition, a specific nutritional drink recipe is available on this site.  This recipe is a culmination of health research by Carol Carnicom over a period of several years and it now also combines many of the important research findings from the study of the Morgellons condition.  It is a nutritional approach to some of the needs that have been established, therefore, from a variety of perspectives.   Protein sources, joint issues, iron utilization and the need for iodine are each examples of the ties that have evolved over the years between research and nutrition.  The reader may find this information to be of value in some unexpected ways, and I encourage you to become familiar with both its pleasures and its constitution.  The link to ”Carol’s Smoothie Recipe” follows below:

“Carol’s Smoothie Recipe”
(.pdf download)

Continuing on the subjects of neural, mental and cognitive functioning, some of the food sources that are known to benefit tyrosine and dopamine levels include, therefore131,

“Foods highest in L-tyrosine include:

  Fava beans



  Ricotta cheese


  Mustard greens


  Dark chocolate [Now, there’s an excuse…-CEC]


  Wheat germ ”

The role of diet, nutrition and enzmyes  in improved neural functioning is also discussed at length in the following report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, entitled “Nutrition and Brain Function”.   We learn here again the important role that antioxidants play with the summary statement that:132  

“Perhaps there is no better place in which to gauge the power of antioxidants than between the minute connections of the nerve cells.”

Two additional points of interest are also mentioned in this report.  The first is the recognized benefits of enzymes (specifically, ‘kinase” enzymes) to brain functioning.    Notice also that even though the size of the brain is quite small relative to the body, it ends up using significant amounts of oxygen during mental activity.  The availability of sufficient oxygen and  body’s ability to use this oxygen effectively are obviously of importance here.   We see once again that it is a hopeless exercise to seek out singular causes, effects and ‘cures’ to the complex health problems before us, and the joint appearance of antioxidants and enzymes in the crusade against oxidative stress has again made its mark here.

Another word of importance within this paper concerns the regeneration of brain neuron cells, termed “neurogenesis”.  This work shows that adages die slowly, and that it is only recently accepted in the mainstream scientific community that the brain is not a fixed organ which can only deteriorate with age.  The research shows that brain neurons can be regenerated, albeit at a slower rate, at more advanced ages with proper nutrition.   This means “new” brain functioning and development can continue in the aging process and that “disease” is not a fixed sentence.   One must be careful of old adages, lest we become fixed ourselves in our ways, thinking methods and perceptions.

Additional well known natural approaches to improve mental clarity and function include those of Gingko Biloba and CoQ10.  Whether or not these particular supplements will be of known benefit with the Morgellons situation remains to be seen; they have, however, established reputations with respect to improving mental clarity and memory loss.  The following paper133 discusses a series of natural remedies to enhance memory and mental function, and it is anticipated that they may be of some benefit.

Enhancing Memory and Mental Functioning – NYU Langone Medical Center



It is a primary argument of this researcher that the solution to a problem is not necessarily found by introducing additional complexity into the situation.  The case for “supplementation” of diet to compensate for health problems is a primary example of this dilemma.  If one has known sources for health problems, it is usually wiser to eliminate the source of the problem rather than try to compensate for it with an infinite combination of variables, such as pills, supplements, or drugs, for that matter.  The proper approach for the “Morgellons” condition, as with any health impairment or “disease” is to strike to the source of the matter.  If the cause or source of such a condition can be identified, it is to be removed or stopped in its tracks, if at all possible.  It is not be be accepted as intrinsic to the environment and then compensated for with a  myriad of protocols, drugs, treatments, and supplements  in a state of perpetual uncertainty and ignorance.  A body of information is available to those who wish to seek it out, and this information (along with your participation) can be a pathway towards striking at that source of health and disease.  The general population, the health communities, the professional communites, and the governmental structures are obligated, as has been stated repeatedly, to combine, use and express their knowledge and talents to improve the state of the environment and the health of the people.  We, our children, and our future children deserve no less than this, and the entire world deserves the more of it.

This episode of research now comes to a close; this paper has taken more than a year to complete and additional needs remain before us.  Additional work will be done in the future to summarize and consolidate the essentials of this research.    Work of this nature is a journey in itself, and I do not know where it will lead and end when I start.  The process of identification, correlation and analysis has now taken place, and it is hopeful that it provides a beneficial foundation from which we may accomplish greater things in the future.  I thank you for your patience and endurance to reach these closing comments and I hope that the work has been of value to the general readership.  The future remains to be influenced by the decisions and actions that we now take together.




Clifford E Carnicom
(born Clifford Bruce Stewart, Jan 19 1953)

Additional Note:

Appreciation is extended to Lucretia Smith and Dr. Jimmie McClure for their sustained interest, research and communication to CI over a period of several years about the importance and relevance of thyroid issues to the work presented here.  These individuals, along with others, deserve credit for their prescient assessments of the role that thyroid dysfunction is likely to play in the “Morgellons” condition. Many thanks to both of you.


Clifford E Carnicom



1. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy – Practical, Koji Nakanishi, Holden-Day, Inc., 1962.

2. Reprint of Colthrup Chart of Characteristic Group Absorptions in Modern Methods of Chemical Analysis, Robert L. Pecsok, John Wiley & Sons, 1976.

3. IR Pal Software 2.0, Dr. Wolf van Heeswjik, 2010, Wolf’s Shareware and Freeware,

4. Spectral Database for Organic Compounds (SDBS), National Association of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan.

5. Biochemistry, John T. Moore, Wiley Publishing, 2008.

6. Organic Chemistry, John McMurry, Brooks/Cole, 2004.

7. Ibid., McMurray.

8. Oxford Dictionary of Science, Oxford University Press, 1999.

9. Organic Chemistry, Bruce A. Hathaway, Ph.D., Barron’s, 2006.

10. Biochemistry, John T. Moore, Wiley Publishing, 2008.

11. Chemistry, The Central Science, Theodore L. Brown, Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2006.

12. Ibid., Moore.

13. Ibid., Hathaway.

14. Ibid., Oxford.

15. Ibid., Brown.

16. Ibid., McMurray.

17. Ibid., Oxford.

18. Ibid., McMurray.

19. Principles of Biochemistry, H. Robert Horton, Prentice Hall, 1993.

20. Ibid., Oxford.

21. Ibid., McMurray.

22. Ibid., Hathaway.

23. Ibid., Oxford.

24, 25. Ibid., McMurray.

26. Ibid., Oxford

27. Ibid., McMurry

28. Ibid., Oxford.

29. Morgellons : A Thesis, Clifford E Carnicom, Oct 2011,

30. Morgellons Research Project : Scientific Study of the Morgellons Condition, Carnicom Institute.

31. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Dr. P.K. Joseph

32. Iron Deficiency, Wikipedia,

33. Amino Acids Verified, Clifford E Carnicom, Nov 2012,

34. Amino Acid Chart, Dr. Guy Wilson,

35. Ibid., McMurray.

36. Principles of Biochemistry, Albert L. Lehninger, Worth Publishers, 1982.

37. ATSDR – Medical Management Guidelines : aniline, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC.


39. Effects of Acidity, Dr. Michael Lam

40. pH Balance and Your Health,

40b. The Acid Alkaline Food Guide, Dr. Susan E. Brown, Square One Publishers, 2006.

41. Are Your Teeth at Risk,

42. Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease, Ramzi S. Cotran, M.D., W.B. Saunders Company, 4th Edition, 1989.

43. Biochemistry Demystified, Sharon Walker, Ph.D., McGraw Hill, 2008.

44. Ibid., McMurray

45. Ibid., Morgellons : A Thesis, Carnicom

46. Aromatic Substitution Reactions Part II,

47. General Discussion of Common Mechanisms for Aromatic Amines, IARC.4

48. Oxidopamine,

49. Hazardous Materials Chemistry for Emergency Responders, Second Edition, Robert Burke, CRC Press, 2003.

50. Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model., BioInfoBank Library, Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Nov 29, 2012.

51. Mechanism of Anesthetic Toxicity: Metabolism, Reactive Oxygen Species, Oxidative Stress, and Electron Transfer, ISRN Anesthesiology Volume 2011.

52. Organometallic Compounds, Michigan State University, Department of Chemistry,

53. Halogens & Their Compounds: Health Hazards, International Labor Union,

54. Spectral Database for Organic Compounds (SDBS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan

55. Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on brain norepinephrine and dopamine: Evidence for selective degeneration of catecholamine neurons, George R. Breese, National Institutes of Health.

56. Desipramine attenuates working memory impairments induced by partial loss of catecholamines in the rat medial prefrontal cortex, SM Clinton, National Institutes of Health.

57. Ibid., Cotran.

58. Ibid., Cotran.

59. Morgellons : In the Laboratory, Clifford E Carnicom, May 2011,

60. Morgellons, The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron, Clifford E Carnicom, Nov 2012,

61. Ibid., Morgellons : A Thesis, Carnicom

62. Risks of Iron Supplements,

63. Ibid., Risk of Iron Supplements

64.The role of vitamin C in iron absorption, L. Hallberg, National Institutes of Health.

65. Ibid, Morgellons, The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron, Carnicom.

66. Ibid., Morgellons : A Thesis, Carnicom

67. Ibid., Amino Acids Verified, Carnicom.

68. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), David Wheldon.

69. A Mechanism of Blood Damage, Clifford E Carnicom, Dec. 2009,

70. Ibid., Morgellons : A Thesis, Carnicom

71. Ibid., Morgellons : A Thesis, Carnicom

72. Ibid., A Discovery and A Proposal, Clifford E Carnicom, Feb. 2010,

73. Ibid., Cotran.

74. Ibid., A Discovery and A Proposal, Carnicom.

75. Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease curiosity, cause, or consequence?, Barry Halliwell, Lancet, Sept 10, 1994 v344 n8924 p721(4), published at

76. Ibid., Cotran.

77. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review of Upstream and Downstream Antioxidant Therapeutic Options, Current Neuropharmacology, Mar. 2009, Bayani Utara, National Institutes of Health.

78. Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress, and Diseases, Enrique Cadenas, MD PhD, Professor of Pharmacology, University of Southern California.

79. Alcohol, Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage, Defeng Wu, PhD, Alcohol Research & Health, National Institues of Health.

80. Ibid., A Discovery and A Proposal, Carnicom

81. Ibid., Cotran.

82. Ibid., Cadenas.

83.Ibid., Cadenas.

84. Structure and reactivity of radical species, University of California at Davis.,

85. Diradical Chemistry, The Chemogenesis.,

86. Magnetic Liquid Oxygen, University of Illionois, Chemistry Department.

87.The Balancing of Oxidants and Antioxidants, Pharmaceutical Field,

88. Ibid., Cadenas.

89. Ibid., Pharmaceutical Field.

90. Ibid., Pharmaceutical Field.

91. Ibid., Pharmaceutical Field.

92. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen, Colorado State University, Biomedical Hypertexts.

93. Ibid., Colorado State University.

94. Ibid., Morgellons, The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron, Carnicom.

95. Morgellon’s : The Role of Atmospheric Aerosolized Biological Nano-Particulates, An Anonymous Physician.

96. Ibid., Morgellons, The Breaking of Bonds and the Reduction of Iron, Carnicom.

96b. Oxidata Test,

96c. Free Radical Urine Test,

96d. How Do Anioxidants Work Anyway?, Kristy Russ,

97. Wikipedia.

98. Ibid., Wikipedia

99. Understanding Urine Tests, National Institutes of Health,

100. Acidic Body, Michael Lam MD,

101. Acid Base Balance in Critical Care Medicine, Patrick J Neligan, Clifford S Deutschman, Patrick Neligan Deparment of Anesthesia, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 2005.

102. Acid-Base Tutorial, Dr. Alan Ggrogono, Tulane University Department of Anesthesiology,

103. Ibid., A Discovery and A Proposal, Carnicom, Feb. 2010.

104. Morgellons : Growth Inhibition Confirmed, Clifford E Carnicom, Mar 2010,

105. Ibid., Morgellons : A Thesis, Carnicom

106. Alkaline Water and Why Avoid It, Lawrence Wilson, MD, Center for Development, Inc.,

107. Sugars and dental caries, Riva Touger, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

108. Urine and Saliva pH Testing, Michael Biamonte, C.C.N,

109. In Office Lab Testing : Functional Terrain Analysis, Dr. Dicken Weatherby,

110. Dr. Henry G. Bieler, Wikipedia.

110b. Complete Practitioner’s Guide to Take-Home Testing : Tools for Gathering More Valuable Patient Data, Dr. Dicken Weatherby,

111. Lactic Acidosis, Wikipedia.

112.Relation Between Low Body Temperature and Thyroid,

113. Metabolic Temperature Graph, Bruce Rind M.D.,

114. Ibid, Weatherby.

115. Iodine and Detoxification, Dr. Mark Sircus.,

116. Thyroid Balance, Dr. Glenn Rothfeld, MD, Amaranth, 2003.

117. How Adrenals Can Wreak Havoc,

118. Ibid., Weatherby.

119. Unconventional Tests and Procedures to Diagnose Thyroid Diseases,

120. Tincture of Iodine, Wikipedia

121. Povidone Iodine, Wikipedia

122. Toxicity Profile, Polyvinylpyrrolidone,

123. Medline Plus : Iodine, National Institutes of Health

124. The Great Iodine Debate,

125. Ibid., Cotran.

126. Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children, M Ahamed, National Institutes of Health.

127. Naton Gadoth, Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology, Springer, 2011.

128. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration, Varsha Shukla, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2011.

129. Katlid Rahman, Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors, National Institutes of Health.

130. Bryce Wylde, The Dopamine Diet,

131. Ibid., Wylde.

132.James A. Joseph, Nutrition and Brain Function, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

133. Enhancing Memory and Mental Functioning , NYU Langone Medical Center,