A Point of Reckoning: Part III

A Point of Reckoning – Part III

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 06 2017

 

Schematic_05.jpg

 

A common set of organic components has been identified within a wide variety of environmental and biological samples. These components are comprised of organic functional groups and structures that are found in each of the following sample types:

 

  1. The “Environmental Filament” material that has been under investigation by Carnicom Institute for a period that now approaches two decades. This is the same material type that was originally sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in January of the year 2000 with a request for identification on behalf of the public welfare. The Agency refused to perform that investigation or examination.

 

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Unusual airborne “Environmental Filament” material of identical nature sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2000. A request for identification was made at that time. The request was not fulfilled.

 

 

2. An isolated and specific protein that is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria (CDB) as described more extensively on this site. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017).

 

3. An extraction from a HEPA air filter that has run continuously for approximately one year. Filters that have been subjected to both indoor and outdoor air show similar sample materials to be collected.

indoor_hepa.jpg outdoor_hepa.jpg

Typical HEPA air filter (indoor and outdoor) sample material used for extraction and subsequent infrared analysis of organic composition. These samples are described in more detail in the paper entitled “A Point of Reckoning: Part I”, Aug 2017.

 

4. Organic extractions from concentrated and multiple rainfall samples.

rain_idaho_04.jpg

Concentrated rainfall samples in comparison to distilled water. Contamination of the water is visually apparent. Additional information regarding rainfall analyses is available on this site.

 

5. A set of biological samples, including that of human hair, saliva and blood have been examined via infrared analysis as a portion of this report. Hair samples require chemical digestion and all samples require the complete removal of water from the sample.

 

6. Skin exfoliation samples from an individual that exhibits symptoms characteristic of the Morgellons condition have also been examined via digestion, digestion and infrared techniques.

 

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Observed skin that exhibits symptoms
characteristic of the Morgellons condition.

Filament sample recorded (one of several)
within a portion of the skin condition shown
to the left. Magnification approx. 150x.

 

ir_spectrum.jpg

Infrared spectra of a variety of environmental and biological samples that share a common set of organic components. The sample types include the “Environmental Filament”, a specific and isolated microorganism protein, a HEPA air filter extract, a concentrated rainfall sample, hair, saliva and blood samples, and a skin exfoliate sample. Although all sample types have been collected and prepared by vastly different methods and are of varying concentrations, a set of organic functional groups is common to each sample.  These occur within the ‘functional group window’ of the infrared spectra shown.

 

The laboratory methods of analysis include, in part, that of:

Organic extraction methods
Liquid column (low pressure) chromatography
Ultraviolet spectroscopy
Visible light spectroscopy (colorimetric test)
Bradford test for protein
Evaporative techniques
Near Infrared Analysis
Infrared Analysis.

A database of more than 6500 infrared spectra (National Institutes of Technology –NIST and collected) has been used to prepare this research paper.

The functional groups within the analyses that are of heightened interest and that appear to share commonality include those of the phenols, organic acids, isothiocyanates, and the amides. There are numerous implications within this set of functional groups and their combined properties that provide a basis for extended research, investigations trials,and the aggregation of resources and funding for the same in the future .

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 06 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Bean Growth Report

Bean Growth Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 03 2017

The growth of beans (Vigna unguiculata) that have been subjected to a specific and isolated protein for two weeks is now complete This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The protein concentration solution applied to the seeds is 2% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment is that germination and growth from the beans is essentially terminated by the presence of this protein at this concentration level. The control seeds have germinated and flourished normally. Additional trials with a lower concentration of the protein in solution are planned.

Photographs that demonstrate the condition of growth in both cases are shown below:

 

bean_control.jpg

The growth of beans (Black eyed pea) under control conditions of water nutrient solution alone is recorded above.  Growth appears to be entirely normal and healthy over the two week period. A bean that remained under the water level in the control solution is trapped by the root of the plant to the right.

 

bean_protein.jpg

The halted and damaged growth of the same bean species after being subjected to the isolated and specific protein under study. The origin and nature of this protein have been described within the research on this site. The concentration of the protein solution is 2% by weight. The time period for growth is two weeks.  The growth process has been terminated and it shows significant harm to the plant; in addition, the solution has fostered a fungal attack upon the seeds. A highly stunted from of germination occurs at the lower right of the seed shown to the left; there is no germination of the seed shown to the right. The vast majority of the beans subjected to the protein show no visible germination.

 

This report demonstrates that the agricultural, biological and health impacts from this particular protein are likely to be significant and detrimental. Additional tests reported and underway support this finding.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 03 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Protozoa Motility and Mortality

Protozoa Motility and Mortality

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 29 2017

 

A protozoa culture has been subjected to a specific and isolated protein. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The concentration of the protein concentration that is applied to the protozoa is approximately 0.1% by weight to volume of water; this is a rather weak solution in comparison to other biological trials that are underway. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison. The protozoa culture is dominated by common species, such as paramecium, euglena, stentor, volvox, and amoeba.

The result of this experiment is that the motility of the protozoa is diminished significantly after a specific time period in comparison to that of the control culture. The mortality rate of the protozoa is also increased in a corresponding fashion in comparison to that of the control and the rate of the mortality appears to be in direct proportion to the size and mass of the species. The control protozoa have not demonstrated any harm or degradation during an extended observation period.

Time lapse images which demonstrate some of the observed changes in the viability of the culture are shown below.

 

control_02x400.gif control_01x400.gif

Time lapse images of protozoa cultured in control water infusion nutrient solution. These images were captured after the extended time interval of approximately 3 hours. Behavior and motion appear normal in all respects. The species on the left are euglena; the species on the right side is a paramecium. The rate and direction of motion for the paramecia often makes it difficult to capture the organism at this level of magnification. Magnification approx. 600x.

 

protein_05x400.gif protein_04x400.gif

Time lapse images of protozoa that have been subjected to a 0.1% protein solution by weight. These images were captured after a period of exposure to the weak protein solution for approximately 45 – 90 minutes. Euglena are visible in the left photograph (~45 min.) and both paramecium and euglena are visible in the right photograph (~90 min.).The origin and general nature of this particular protein has been described within additional research papers on this site. Behavior and motion do not appear normal. Both species types are significantly impaired in their motion. The vast majority of the euglena appear to be expired at the end of the 90 minute period. The paramecia show a gradual deterioration with very erratic, confused and generally confined motion. Some of the individual paramecium roll into a ball or spherical structure and spin repeatedly until expiring. Magnification approx. 600x.

 

 

This report suggests that the biological and health impacts from this particular protein may be highly significant and detrimental. Additional tests underway support this concern.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 29 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Mustard Seed Report: Growth Termination

Mustard Seed Report: Growth Terminated

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 24 2017

The growth of mustard seeds that have been subjected to a specific and isolated protein for one week is now complete This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The concentration of the protein solution that was applied to the seeds is 2% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment is that germination and growth from the seeds is essentially terminated by the presence of this protein at this concentration level. The control seeds have germinated and flourished normally. Additional trials with a lower concentration of the protein in solution are planned.

Photographs that demonstrate the condition of growth in both cases are shown below:

 

Control_01.jpg Control_02.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in control water nutrient solution (alone). One week growth period.
Healthy and flourishing growth is evident. Centimeter rule on left photograph; magnification on right photograph approx. 10x.

 

Protein_01.jpg Protein_02.jpg

Mustard seeds subjected to 2% (by weight) protein and water solution. One week growth period.
The termination of the growth process is evident. The early stages of germination can be observed in isolated cases. The vast majority of mustard seeds subjected to the protein solution show no visible germination at the end of the one week period. Centimeter rule on left photograph; magnification on right photograph approx. 10x.

 

This report suggests that the agricultural, biological and health impacts from this particular protein may be highly significant and detrimental. Additional tests underway support this concern.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 24 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Yeast Deformation: Initial Report

Yeast Deformation: Initial Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 22 2017

 

A yeast culture that has been subjected to an isolated protein is under study. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The purpose of the project is to explore the impact of the protein upon more rudimentary life forms; in this case, a fungus. The protein concentration solution applied to the yeast culture is 0.5% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water and sucrose alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment, at this early stage, is that a cellular deformation or alteration of significant proportion has taken place. This suggests that the early growth of this particular fungus is modified in a significant fashion with the inclusion of this protein in the nutrient medium. The act of mutation must be considered as a distinct possibility in this case.

The change occurs primarily upon a surface layer that forms within the culture; this same layer does not develop within the control culture of water and sucrose alone. The act of change is a division process that appears to frequently “join” cells into doublets or triplets, as opposed to a full bud spherical division as expected.

 

control_01.jpg control_02.jpg

Control growth yeast cells in sucrose and water solution. 72 hour growth period. Cells are generally circular in shape and symmetric. Normal budding and division reproduction process. The appearance of the culture is normal and stable. Magnification approx. 5000x.

 

protein_01.jpg protein_02.jpg
Yeast culture subjected to water, sucrose, and specific protein solution. The isolation of the protein is described further within the research of this site. Concentration of the protein is 0.5% by weight. 72 hour growth period. Unusual growth alterations are evident. Doublet and triplet cell formation appears to be common within the population. Magnification approx. 5000x.

 

The growth process of the yeast culture will continue to be monitored.

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 22 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

A Point of Reckoning : Part I

A Point of Reckoning:
Part I

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 19 2017
Edited Aug 21 2017
Edited Aug 25 2017

Note: Carnicom Institute is not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. CI is acting solely as an independent research entity that is providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes.

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A general equivalency between the organic nature of materials collected with the use of HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance) air filters (indoor and outdoor) and a series of concentrated rain samples has been established. This conclusion is based upon the use of infrared analysis, microscopic examination, and visual examination of the materials. The inherent similarity between the historically designated “environmental filament” and the filaments known to be clearly associated with the so-called “Morgellons” condition must also be accepted as a part of this analysis.

This more recent work has been conducted over a period of roughly two years with careful repetitions and redundancies. Fundamentally, the conclusion is logical but nevertheless sweeping in impact; what is in the air is in the water. Furthermore, what is in the air and the water has an important relationship to marked changes in health that affect the general public. What is in the air and in the water is in our bodies.  This state has developed in a global and ubiquitous sense for more than two decades, and we must now all share some responsibility to acknowledge and proclaim our condition on the planet.

The details of the methods will only be briefly summarized here; they involve long term sample collection and a variety of laboratory analyses over extended time. The photographs below will demonstrate the essence of comparison.

The similarity of the infrared plots reveals to us that the basic organic structure of the extracted materials from the air filters and the rain samples are the same. The details of molecular structure inherent within the plot will be reserved for future discussion; the signature aspect of infrared spectroscopy is sufficient at this point to advance the argument.

In addition, microscopic examination reinforces that the air and rainfall biological filament samples are identical. There is little doubt that this biological equivalency is also at the root of the infrared analysis of organics mentioned above.

Additional notes on some of the details of sample types and preparation follow at the end of this report.

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\HEPA-0006.jpg C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\HEPA-0023.jpg

Representative “environmental” filaments collected on indoor HEPA Air filter
(blue to left, red to right).
Analysis of the filaments demonstrates properties that are common with filaments
that have been collected from the concentrated rain sample. These filaments are
also representative of those that are associated with the “Morgellons” condition.
The background mesh network (white filaments) is the HEPA air filter itself.
Magnification Approx 150x.

Indoor – Outdoor HEPA Air Filter Comparisons:
Representative “environmental” filaments also collected on an outdoor air HEPA filter
under forced air.  These filaments were collected within a 24 hour exposure  to a new
filter element.  Results are identical between indoor and outdoor exposures.
Magnification Approx 150x.

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\Rainfall Concentrate Analysis 1500x Aug 15 2017_4.jpg

Magnification Approx. 1500x

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\Rainfall Concentrate Analysis 5000x Aug 15 2017_2.jpg

Magnification Approx. 5000x.

Filaments collected from rainwater concentrate sample.
Analysis demonstrates properties that are common with filaments collected in the HEPA air filter.
The filaments also demonstrate these same properties that are
associated with the “Morgellons” condition.

 

Observed skin that exhibits symptoms
characteristic of the Morgellons condition.
Filament sample recorded (one of several)
within a portion of the skin condition shown
to the left. Magnification approx. 150x.

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\hepa_ir_02.jpg

Infrared Plot of HEPA Air Filter Extract

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Infrared Plot of Rainwater Concentrate Sample

Infrared plots to compare the organic nature of the
HEPA air filter extract against the organic nature of the rainfall concentrate.
The samples contain organic materials that are fundamentally of the same nature.

Additional notes:

HEPA Filter(s):

HEPA filters are air filters that are quite effective at trapping materials to the micron size level. They have an interesting history and origin, as they were developed as a part of the Manhattan Project in the 1940’s to trap radioactive materials. This filter type is now in common use and affordable. There is a fair amount of usage of HEPA filters in the history of Carnicom Institute (CI) research, as they are a very effective means of collecting air particulates.

They are also used in commercial aircraft. One of the ironies of the aerosol investigations over the last two decades is that a ready source of sample collection material has always existed; the difficulty is that of access to the samples. CI has long advocated that designing any single aircraft test for sampling the atmosphere is an inefficient, deficient, unnecessary and expensive approach to acquire information about the state of pollution in the atmosphere. This singular test approach has been advocated fruitlessly by several parties over the course of time. The situation is that a massive collection of particulate samples already exists for examination and analysis, but that access to it is not forthcoming. On a hearsay basis, there is information to indicate that the disposal of the filters is carefully controlled (potentially designated as radioactive?).

It is also of interest to mention that, at a very early point of the research, I was given anonymous access in confidence to such a filter from a commercial airliner, along with a laboratory test of the filter for certain metallic elements. That individual remains unknown but he remains deserving of thanks from all of us. To my knowledge, there is no similar test by a member of the public since that time, apparently due to the access issues mentioned above.

That particular filter did show unusual levels of barium in the test results (and calcium to my recollection), and it was one of the harbingers of testing for atmospheric metals that was to follow. At the time of receipt, no laboratory facilities of any kind were available to CI and the physics of the aerosol operations were unknown to the level acquired during subsequent research over the years. Credit is also overdue to AC Griffith, now deceased, for his early role in stimulating interest in the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol issue. The interplay between ionizable materials and electromagnetics subsequently became a dominant theme of CI research, and the contributions of both of these individuals are to be recognized in that history.

In the case of the current research, two indoor and one outdoor HEPA filters have been examined.  The indoor filters were exposed to long term collection (6-12 months) and the outdoor filter is exposed under short term forced air conditions. Laboratory testing depends upon the sensitivity of the instruments employed and with that sensitivity comes cost. One of the methods of compensating for decreased sensitivity is to allow for an increased time of collection. This is the preference here. As such, one indoor filter was allowed to run its course for approximately 6 months, and the second indoor filter ran close to one full year. All filters are operated approximately 20 feet above ground level. The history of work includes the use of additional outdoor HEPA filters.

Some of the larger pollutants, e.g., the filament samples, can appear quite readily subject to the microscope. The longer term goal in this project was to collect the micron size material that is invisible to the eye until sufficient mass has been collected. This is the source for chemical and spectroscopic testing in this case.

Sample preparation for instrument use is one of the greatest demands in the laboratory environment. It consumes far more effort and time than most people recognize, other than by those involved in the field. In the case of infrared (IR) spectrometry, water is the bane of the testing process and is generally to be avoided in all respects. The HEPA particulates in this case have been dissolved into ethanol, which is a suitable solvent for the preliminary overview that is covered here. The evaporation of the solvent on a suitable substrate will allow the formation of a film which is well suited to infrared spectroscopy. The IR spectra acquired serves two primary purposes:

  1. It serves as a unique fingerprint of the compound(s) in solution
  2. It serves as a useful tool for introductory examination of the molecular structure of the compound(s) in solution

In the case of this paper, the emphasis is only upon the signature aspect of the spectra, as the purpose here is to compare to sampling from a different environment, namely, that of rainfall. This comparison is what is shown above and the point of equality or high similarity is made in the process.

Rainfall Sample:

Rainfall presents even greater difficulties in the sample prep arena. The sensitivity issue discussed above is front and center, and the solution to the problem in this case is to acquire a greater volume of rainfall. Adequate sample volume is definitely an issue, and fortuitous periods of rain will be required.  Non-detrimental evaporation and condensing of the sample will require a fair amount of patience, but it can be accomplished. The samples of this paper were collected in 2016 and were condensed to roughly 5% of their original volume.The organic materials were then removed from the water using a non-polar solvent extraction method for subsequent infrared analysis.  Additional extensive studies were completed on these samples in the previous year, and they have been recorded in a series of papers on this site.

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 19 2017
Edited Aug 21 2017
Edited Aug 25 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Morgellons : Unique Protein Isolated & Characterized

Morgellons:

Unique Protein Isolated & Characterized

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 13 2017
Edited Oct 01 2017

 

Note: Carnicom Institute is not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. CI is acting solely as an independent research entity that is providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes.

 

A protein generated by the microorganism associated with the Morgellons condition (tentatively classified in past research as a “cross-domain bacteria”, i.e., CDB) has been isolated and characterized in several ways.  There is little doubt that this protein is at the heart of the physiological and biochemical changes that occur within the body by those affected.  Related research has been conducted with success for some time, however, the recent work represents a different and separate approach from previous accomplishments.  Proteins are at the crux of biochemistry and biological research, and they have great importance in relation to biological structure.  There are usually numerous applications (beyond health aspects alone) that develop with the advent of a new or isolated protein, and it is expected that the current work can eventually follow this suit.

Only the general nature of the protein will be described at this point.  The protein is organometallic in nature, highly water soluble, and strongly acidic.  Additional resources of significance and support from the health communities will be required to develop the series of discoveries into tangible benefits.

Some of the methods that been employed to define the unique nature and characteristics of the protein include:

  1. The molecular weight of the protein has been estimated with laboratory methods.
  2. The solubility and polarity of the protein has been assessed.
  3. Pyrolysis with gas chromatography (GC) has been applied to the protein to examine its thermal decomposition into various subcomponents.
  4. Headspace methods have been used to examine the nature and volatility of gaseous metabolism of the microorganism.
  5. Infrared (IR) analysis has been used to identify the primary functional groups of the protein, along with the analysis of various GC trapped components.
  6. Ultraviolet (UV) analysis of the protein has been conducted.
  7. Candidate amino acid composition, at least to a partial extent, has been established.
  8. The pH of the protein has been measured.
  9. The isolectric point of the protein has been determined via titration.
  10. Precipitation methods for the protein have been developed.
  11. A metallic nature of the protein has been verified.
  12. The index of refraction for the protein has been determined by measurement.
  13. A concentration-dilution model for the protein has been developed based upon the index of refraction.
  14. The polarimetric nature of the protein has been examined.
  15. The electrical conductivity of the protein as a function of concentration and dilution has been determined.
  16. The Oxidation Reduction Potential (OPR) of the dilute protein has been measured.
  17. A colorimetric test for the existence of the protein has been established.
  18. Initial molecular models proposals have been established for some of the simpler components of the headspace-pyrolysis components with GC – IR coupling.
  19. Initial anticipated impacts upon physiology, i.e., absorption levels, are under investigation.
  20. The Bradford reagent identification test for protein identification has been applied via visible light spectroscopy.


GC Pyrolysis Chromatogram of Numerous Components of CDB Isolated Protein
(significant hydrocarbon structure is identified within)

The isolation and characterization of this particular protein and its properties are of importance and uniqueness in the research related to the Morgellons condition. The attributes identified are numerous and specific to the microorganism that has been extensively identified, examined and researched.  The uniqueness of the protein is essentially guaranteed.  The method of development of the protein also represents a distinct and recent advance in the history of CI research, and it is hoped at some point that the work will be placed to the advantage and benefit of the public.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 11 2017
Edited Oct 01 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

The Demise of Rainwater

The Demise of Rainwater

by
Clifford E Carnicom

A Paper to be Developed During
the Summer of 2016
(Last Edit Jun 20 2016)

The single most important chemical species in clouds and precipitation is the .. pH value.

Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry, 1995

Atmosphere, Climate and Change, Thomas Graedel & Paul J. Crutzen

Scientific American Library, 1997

rain_idaho_04

Photo : Carnicom Institute

An analysis of five rainfall samples collected over a period of six months and spanning three states in the western United States has been completed.  There are five conclusions that are forthcoming:

1. The rainfall samples studied portray a smorgasbord of contamination. The contaminants appear to be both complex and numerous in nature.

2. There does not appear to be effective or comprehensive monitoring or regulation of the state of air quality, and consequently, rainfall quality in the United States at this time.

3. The results of the current analysis, utilizing more capable equipment and methods, are highly consistent with those that originated from this researcher close to two decades ago.

4. All reasonable requests or demands by the citizenry for the investigation and addressing of this state of affairs over this same time period have been refused or denied.

5. The level of contamination that exists poses both a risk and a threat to health, agriculture, biology, and the welfare of the planet.

 

Let us now proceed with some of the details.

We can begin with the pH, i.e., the acid or alkaline nature of rainfall.  Biochemical reactions take place (or, for that matter, do not take place..) at a specific temperature and pH.  If the system or environment for that reaction is disturbed with respect to the acidity and temperature, then the reaction itself is interfered with.  If the conditions depart far enough from what is required, the reaction may simply not even take place at all.  Such is the risk of interference to the acid-base nature of rainfall, upon which all life on this planet depends.

 

To be continued.

 

PART I: SUMMARY VIEW

summary_graph

summary_lab

UV Detector & Lab Equipment Used for Summary View Data

PART II: TRACE METAL ANALYSIS

Rainfall Analysis_16

Electrochemical Signature of Rainwater Tests for Trace Metals
as Determined by Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry

The following metallic elements have been determined to exist, or to be strong candidates to exist, within a series of five rainwater samples that have been tested for trace metals.  The samples span three states across the country and six months of time.  The method applied is that of Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry.  The level of detection for the method is on the order of parts per million (PPM).  This list considerably extends the scope of consideration for the future investigation and detection of metallic elements within rainwater.  The findings in the upper portion of the table are highly consistent with those under reporting by various laboratories across the country; those in the lower half serve to prompt further investigations into additional elements that are highly related in their properties within the periodic table.  An examination of the physical properties of these elements, in detail, will likely provide additional insight into the applications of use for these same elements.  It can be noticed that the majority of elements within the list act as reducing agents.
 

Element Measured Mean Redox Voltage
(Absolute Value)
Actual Redox Voltage
(Absolute Value)
Titanium (Ti) 1.63, 1.32, 1.24 1.63, 1.31, 1.23
Aluminum (Al) 1.67 1.66
Barium (Ba) 2.90 2.90
Strontium (Sr) 2.90 2.89
Magnesium (Mg) 2.66, 2.35 2.68, 2.37
Gallium (Ga) .52, .65 .56, .65
Scandium (Sc) 2.56, 2.09 2.60, 2.08
Zirconium (Zr) 1.45 1.43
Standard Error of Measurement 0.013 V; n = 15
(No information regarding concentration or concentration ranking is provided here)

 

Additional Inorganic Analyses:
qualitative_tests

Qualitative (Color Reagents) Test Results for Combined Rainfall Sample
A Value of 1 Indicates a Positive Test Result
Concentration of RainwaterSample ~15x
(No information regarding concentration or concentration ranking is provided here.)
(Chromium, Cyanide & Iron appear to be at minimal trace levels)

phosphatenitrate
nh3silica

Qualitative Positive Test Examples:
Phosphates, Nitrates, Ammonia, Silica

 

PART III: BOILING POINT TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS:

bp_01

Tests to Determine the Boiling Point
for the Concentrate Rainfall Sample Using an Oil Bath
(Contamination is Evident)

 

PART IV: INFRARED ANALYSIS:
(ORGANIC)

 

organics_separation_03

An Organic Extraction Process

(Results subsequently to be examined by Infrared Spectroscopy)

organics_separation_05

Infrared Spectrum of Rainfall Organic Extraction :

Water Soluble & Insoluble Components

(see previous photo)

(solvent influences removed)

gc_01

Gas Chromatography (TCD) Applied to Organic Extracts

(tailing from varying polarities)

PART V: BIOLOGICALS

 

rain_biolgicals_01

Biologicals Extracted from Rainfall Concentrate Samples

~2000x

Additional Note:

I wish to thank Mr. John Whyte for his dedication and effort to organize and produce an environmental conference in Los Angeles, California during the summer of 2012. Mr. Whyte, in support of the speakers at the conference, provided the means for some of the environmental test equipment used in this report. I also wish to thank the general public for their assistance during this last year in the acquisition of important scientific instrumentation by Carnicom Institute. This report is made possible only by that generosity.

Clifford E Carnicom

Jun 18, 2016

To be continued.

Tertiary Rainwater Analysis : Questions of Toxicity

Tertiary Rainwater Analysis : Questions of Toxicity

 Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 08 2015

ABSTRACT

This paper presents evidence of a chemical signature that exists within an analyzed rain sample that is characteristic of known toxins and pesticides. The method of analysis used is that of mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specifically, certain functional groups involving sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and halogens have been identified in the analysis. It is recommended that the investigation be duplicated by independent researchers to determine if an environmental hazard does exist. If these results are verified to be positive, the source of the contaminants is to be identified and eliminated from the environment.

residual_ir4Infrared Spectrum of Concentrated Rain Water Sample
(Aqueous Influence Removed)

The original rainwater sample volume for this analysis is approximately 3.25 liters.  The sample was evaporated under mild heat to approximately 0.5% of the original volume, or about 15 milliliters.  The sample has previously been shown to contain both aluminum, biological components, and a residue that appears to be an insoluble metallic or organometallic complex.  The target of this particular study is that of soluble organics.

The organic infrared signal within the solution is weak and difficult to detect with the means available; it is further complicated by being present in aqueous solution.  The aqueous influence was minimized by making an evaporated film layer on a KCl cell; the transmission mode was used. The signal is identifiable and repeatable under numerous passes in comparison to the reference background.

The primary conclusion from the infrared analysis is that a core group of elements exists within the solution; these appear to include carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen and a halogen.  The organic footprint appears to be weak but detectable and dominated by the above heteratoms.

As further evidence for the basis of this report, qualitative tests for an amine (nitrogen and hydrogen), sulfates and phosphates (sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus) have each produced a positive test result.  A qualitative test for a halogen in the concentrated rainwater sample has also produced a positive result; the most likely candidate at this point is the chloride ion.  All elements present have therefore been proven to exist at detectable levels by two independent methods.

This grouping of elements is distinctive; they essentially comprise the core elements of many important, powerful and highly toxic pesticides.   For example, three sources directly state the importance of the group above as the very base of most pesticides:

 

“In pesticides, the most common elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine”.

Pesticide Residues in Food and Drinking Water : Human Exposure and Risks, Dennis Hamilton, 2004.

 

“We can further reduce the list by considering those used most frequently in pesticides: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine, and sulfur”.

Fundamentals of Pesticides, A Self-Instruction Guide, George Ware , 1982.

 

“Heteratoms like fluorine, chlorine, bromine, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus, which are important elements in pesticide residue analysis, are of major interest”.

Analysis of Pesticides in Ground and Surface Water II : Latest Developments, Edited by H.J. Stan, 1995.

 

It is also true that phosphate diesters are at the core of DNA structure and that many genetic engineering procedures involve the splitting of the phosphate diester complex.

The information provided above is sufficient to justify and invoke further investigation into the matter.  The sample size, although it was derived from an extensive storm over several days in the northwest U.S., is nevertheless limited and quite finite after reduction of the sample volume.  The residual insoluble components (apparently metallic in nature) are also limited in amount and more materials will be required for further analysis.  The signal is weak and difficult to isolate from the background reference; concentration level estimates for elements or compounds (other than that of aluminum which has been assessed earlier) is another entire endeavor.  Systematic, wide-area, and long term testing will be required to validate or refute the results.  All caveats above aside, it would seem that the duty to address even the prospect of the existence of such toxins in the general rainfall befalls each of us.  It would seem wise that this process begins without delay.

There are a few additional comments on this finding that need be mentioned.

The first of these is the issue of local and regional vs. a national and international scope of consideration.  It is understood that pesticides or compounds similar in nature are a fact of our environment, and that considerable awareness and effort is in place to mitigate their damage over decades of use.  Organic farming and genetically engineered crops are two very divergent approaches to reconciliation with the impact of environmental harm, and they are shaping our society and food supply in the most important ways manageable.  Given that the pesticide industry exists, regardless of our varying opinions of merit or harm, I think that it is fair to say that we generally presume that pesticides are under some form of local control.  Our general understanding is that pesticides are applied at ground or close to ground level and are intended to be applied to a specific location or, at most, a region within a defined time interval.

The prospect, even I daresay, the hint, of pesticide or pesticide-like compounds in rainfall is more than daunting.  It seems immediately necessary to consider what scale of operation would support such toxins finding their way into the expanses of atmosphere and rainfall?  For the sake of the general welfare, I think we should all actively wish and seek to disprove the findings within this report.  I will not hesitate to amend this report if honest, fair and accurate testing bears out negative reports over an adequate time period, and my motive never includes sensationalizing an issue.  This is one test, one time, one place, with limited means and support in the process.  I cannot disprove the results at this time and I have an obligation to report on that which seems to be case, uncomfortable as it might be.  It is not the first time that I have been in this situation, and judging from the changes in the the health of the planet that have taken place, it is unlikely to be the last.  The sooner that the state of truth is reached, the better we shall all be for it in any sense that is real.

The second comment relates to the decline of the bee population.  Bees are an indicator species, the canary in the mine, as it were.  The bees and the amphibians have both been ringing their alarm for some time now, and we best not remain passive about finding the reasons for decline.  A minimum of 1/3 of our agricultural economy, and that means food, is dependent upon the bee population for its very existence.  This is no trifling matter, and we all need to get up to speed quickly on the importance of this issue, myself included.

Suffice it to say that compounds of this nature, i.e, historical pesticides like organophosphates and the purported safer and more recent alternatives (e.g., the neonicotinoids), have a very close relationship to the ongoing and often ambiguous studies regarding bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD).  From my perspective, it would seem prudent to eliminate the findings of this report as a contributing cause to the problem as promptly as possible.  If that can not be done so readily, then we may have a bigger problem on our hands than is imagined.

One of the interesting side notes is that the elements and groups identified as candidates for investigation actually seem to overlap between the neonicotinioids and the organophosphates.  This includes the nitrogen groups that characterize the neonicotinoids and the phosphate esters that characterize the organophosphates.  If such a combination were at hand, this would seem especially troublesome as both forms remain mired in controversy, let alone any combination thereof.

The third and final comment relates to the toxicity of these compound types in general.  It is not just an issue about bees or salamanders.  These particular compounds have a history and effects that are not difficult for us to research, and we should become aware of their impacts upon the planet quickly enough.  Many of us already are.  The fact is that organophosphates have their origins as nerve gas agents in the pre-World War II era, and in theory their use has been reduced but hardly eliminated.  Residential use is apparently no longer permissible in the United States, but commercial usage still is.  This raises questions on what real effect any such “restrictive” legislation has had.

The neonicotinoids are promoted as a generally safer alternative to the organophosphates, but they are hardly without controversy as well.  They too have strong associations with CCD in the research that is ongoing.  They also are neuro-active insecticides.

It would seem to me that we all have a job to do in getting up to speed on the source, distribution and levels of exposures to insecticide and insecticide related compounds.  A greater awareness of toxins in our environment, in general, also seems in order.  If our general environment has been affected to a degree that has avoided confrontation  thus far, then we need to face the music as quickly as possible.  I trust that we understand the benefits of both rationality and aggressiveness when serious issues face us, and this may be another such time.  I hope that I will be able to dismiss this report in due time; at this time, I cannot.

Sincerely,

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 05, 2015

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19, 1953

 

Additional Notes:

The preliminary functional group assignments being made to the absorption peaks at this time are as follows (cm-1):

~ 3322 : Amine, Alkynes (R2NH considered)
~ 2921 : CH2 (methylene)
~ 2854 : CH2 (methylene)
~1739 : Ester (RCOOR, 6 ring considered)
~1447 : Sulfate (S=O considered)
~1149 : Phosphate (Phosphate ester, organophosphate considered)
~1072 : Phosphine, amine, ester, thiocarbonyl
~677  : Alkenes, aklynes, amine, alkyl halide

The assignments will be revised or refined as circumstances and sample collections permit, however, as a group they appear to provide a distinctive organic signature.  A structural model may be developed at a future date.

Some chemical compounds which may share some similar properties to that under consideration here include, for example, (not all elements included in any listed compound; only for reference comparison purposes):

p-chlorophenyl (3-phenoxypropyl)carbamate
N-(1-naphthylsulfonyl)-L-phenylalanyl chloride
2,2,2-trichloroethyl 2-(2-benzothiazolyl)dithio-alpha-isopropenyl-4-oxo-3-phenylacetamido-1-azetidineacetate
cytidine monophosphate
diiodobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II)

per :
SDBSWeb : http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nov 06 2015)

Secondary Rainwater Analysis : Organics & Inorganics

Secondary Rainwater Analysis :
Organics & Inorganics

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 04 2015

ABSTRACT

A second rainwater sample has been evaluated. On this occasion, both organic and inorganic attributes of the sample have been examined.  Although the sample investigated is of much larger volume, the results demonstrate an essentially equivalent level of aluminum present to that defined within the earlier report, i.e., approximately 2 PPM.  This magnitude exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency recommended standards for aluminum in drinking factor by roughly a factor of 10. 

In addition, various organic attributes of the sample are introduced within this report.

rainwater_still_web

 Concentrated Rain Sample under Study in this Report
Distilled Water Reference on Left, Concentrated Rainfall to Right

concentrate
Residual Solid Materials from the Rainwater Sample of this Study

The volume of the sample collected is approximately 6.5 liters over a three day heavy storm period, collected in clean containers that are were exposed to open sky.  The sample was concentrated by evaporation under modest heat to approximately 6% of the original volume.  It is apparent from visual inspection and by visible light spectrometry that the concentrated rainfall sample is not transparent and that it does contain materials to some degree.

Visible Light Spectrum Rainfall2

Visible light spectrum of the concentrated rainfall sample.  The increase in absorption in the lower ranges of visible light correspond to the yellow and yellow-green colors that are observed with the sample.
The pH of the concentrated sample is recorded at 8.5; this value is surprisingly alkaline and indicates the presence of substantial hydroxide ions in solution.  The pH of the solution prior to concentration measures at 7.5; this also must be registered as highly alkaline under the circumstances.

The pH of  ‘natural’ rain water has been discussed in earlier papers and its relationship to the expected value of 5.7 due to the presence of carbonic acid in the atmosphere (carbon dioxide and water).  The departure of natural rainwater from the theoretical neutrality of 7.0 is one aspect of the pH studies that I conducted in conjunction with numerous citizens across the nation some years ago, and these reports remain available.  The current finding is remarkably alkaline and, by itself, is indicative of fundamental acid-base change in the chemistry of the atmosphere.

From those early reports, it may be wise to recall the words of Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize winner for Chemistry (Atmosphere, Climate and Change, 1995), who stated that the most important chemical attribute of precipitation is indeed the pH value.  It behooves us, as a species, to act rather quickly on any reasonable claim to a significant change in fundamental atmospheric chemistry that may exist.  It must be acknowledged that these same claims now prevail over decades of time, and that any dismissal as an aberration of no consequence is unjustifiably diminutive.

The sample has been examined again for the existence of trace metals using the method of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, as described in the earlier report. The results are essentially identical to that of the earlier report, and once again the signature of a soluble form of aluminum is detected . The sample in this case, however, is of much larger volume, was collected over a longer duration, and was more highly concentrated that that in the preliminary report.

The concentration level was again determined, and the analysis indicates a level of soluble aluminum within the rainwater sample at 2.0 PPM.  This compares quite closely with the earlier sample result of approximately 2.4 PPM . This determination once again takes into account the concentration process that has been applied to the sample for testing sensitivity purposes.

Two facts bear repeating here:

First, this value exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for drinking water by roughly a factor of 10, again using the most conservative approach possible that can be taken.

Second, the previously referenced U.S. Geological Survey statement from the year of 1967 is valuable both in relation to evaluating the EPA standards as well as assessing the expectations of aluminum concentrations in natural waters:

usgs_quote_1967-2

There is now a necessity to include an additional aspect of the rainfall analysis that has made its presence known more clearly.  This is the case of biologicals.  It is a fact, that in addition to the repeated detection of a trace metal at questionable levels, certain organic constituents are coming to the fore.   The test results are repeatable at this point and these organics will eventually require an equal accounting for their existence.  I will not enter into an extended discussion of their potential significance at this time, as the first and necessary step is to place on the table that which must be confronted.  My introductory suggestion at this point is to become aware of a previous paper on this site, entitled “A New Biology” to gain some familiarity with the scope of the issue . It is fair to say that along with changes of chemistry in this planet, we must also confront certain changes in biology that are in place.  The history of this planet, the cosmos, life and our own species is dynamic, and intelligence itself is partially expressed in the ability to adapt to changing circumstances.  We are in the process, whether we like it or not, of learning if and how quickly we can adapt to changes that have and are taking place, induced or otherwise.  We may also choose whether to participate in the process (hopefully for the betterment of the world, as opposed to its detriment), or if we shall remain ignorant in an effort to ensconce ourselves in a purported comfort zone.

The methods of examination to be presented here are twofold: that of microscopy and that of infrared spectroscopy.  Here are some some images that relate to the fact of the matter; they are repeated in both samples that have been examined:

rain1rain2
rain3rain4

Low Power (~200x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples
(The colors of the filaments are a unique characteristic (commonly red and blue) and they exist as an aid to identification with low power microscopy)

rain5rain6
rain7rain8

High Power (~5000x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples

These images will not be elaborated on in detail at this time, as it may require a period of time to examine the information that has come forth here.  They most certainly indicate a biological nature that shares a common origin with many of the research topics that have evolved on this site over the years.  It may be worthwhile to begin by becoming familiar with the ‘environmental filament’ issue that is so thoroughly examined on this site.  Since it seems clear that we are indeed dealing with an ‘environmental contaminant’ of sorts, the history of communication with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may also be worthy of review.

It would also seem to be the case that a significant portion of the residual material is inorganic as well, as in an insoluble metallic form.  It may be that the insoluble residual material may be composed in part as an organometallic complex, based upon historical findings.

Regardless of the source or impact of these materials, it does seem to fair to state that an accounting for their existence in the atmosphere and rainfall is deserved.  Each of us may wish to play a part in seeking the answers to such issues and questions before us all.  I wish for this to happen, as I suspect many of us know that it is the right thing to do.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
November 01, 2015.

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
January 19, 1953.