ELF CIRCUIT DESIGN

ELF CIRCUIT DESIGN
Clifford E Carnicom
Jan 26 2003
Edited Feb 15 2003 – Edited Feb 24 2003
Edited Mar 08 2003 – Edited Mar 18 2003
Edited Mar 21 2003 – Edited Mar 29 2003
This page subject to revision

CIRCUIT
ELF Circuit Design
as of Feb 24 2003

Additional Notes 02/24/2003:
A common-emitter amplifier circuit has been added to the previous circuit.  This is based upon the use of a 2N3904 PNP transistor.  This is designed to boost the output of the original signal from a magnitude of a few millivolts RMS AC to approximately 15 to 30mV RMS AC. This design appears to be successful in this regard.

 Additional Notes 03/08/2003:
Work is currently underway to develop and integrate into the circuit a loop antenna to serve direction finding research goals. 

Additional Notes 03/18/2003 and 03/21/2003:
Essential information regarding the directional loop antenna is as follows:
The antenna frame consists of two 1″ by 4″ x 4 ft. pieces of lumber bolted at right angles to one another in the center of each piece. This forms a square frame for the wire.  2 1/2″ bolts are attached near the end of each wooden piece with fender washers at the outside edge of each bolt to contain the wire as it is looped around the wooden frame.  500 ft. of No. 14 insulated solid copper wire is neatly wrapped around the frame using the end bolts for support and containment of the wire.  The wire starts and stops at any one end of the wooden frame.  Two holes are drilled at the end of this same wooden frame piece to contain the leads of the antenna.  The wooden frame is mounted onto an aluminum or steel mast of 10 feet height, and will have the appearance of a diamond by mounting one of the boards to the mast. The antenna leads feed out from the bottom of the frame structure and are connected to RG58 coax cable and fed into the ELF circuit. The thickness of the wire will be approximately 1 inch by the time it is all wound.

Parallel resonance is achieved by placing a capacitor across the output leads of the antenna prior to the coax connection. Different values of capacitance will vary the resonant frequency according to the relation : fr = 1 / (2 * pi * (LC) 1/2)  where L is the inductance of the coil in henries, C is the capacitance in farads, and fr is the resonant frequency in Hz.  Different values of capacitance are being experimented with, currently ranging from 4nF (resonant frequency :~ 32.5kHz) to 3.3uF (resonant frequency : ~1132Hz) to 11300 uF (resonant frequency : ~20Hz).  The inductance of the coil above is calculated and independently measured as approximately 6mH. This antenna is to be considered as a small loop antenna with the primary electrical field strength occurring in the direction of the plane of the antenna.  Primary magnetic field sensitivity is perpendicular to the plane of the antenna. Additional information on loop antennas can be found within the Practical Antenna Handbook, by Joseph Carr, Fourth Edition, 2001.

The loop antenna as described here replaces the Hammond 15H inductor which is shown in the circuit diagram above.  The advantage of the loop antenna over the 15H inductor (filter choke) is that the loop antenna can be used for direction finding purposes to help identify the origin and location of the signals received.

Additional Notes 03/21/03:
It will be advantage to perform data logging with the use of a non-cathode ray based computer, such as a laptop. It has been learned that the influence of a cathode ray tube which is placed in proximity to the loop antenna will produce a mixed signal which is more difficult to interpret. The orientation of the CRT with respect to the directional antenna will also have an effect (this appears to be creating an interaction between local electric and larger scale geomagnetic fields.   The use of a mixed or heterodyned signal is recommended for a later analysis. Efforts have been taken to reduce all 60Hz and powered equipment as much as is possible, and significant changes in the received signals does occur as a result.  It appears that modulation, mixing and or heterodyning may still be a factor in the signals that are being received, even when the cathode ray tube influence is removed.  Spectral analysis indicates that a fundamental frequency of 10Hz is present with the ELF range being monitored.  Sums and differences of 4Hz and/or 6 Hz are under increased scrutiny.  Maximum signal strength continues to be in the direction of the magnetic field lines of the earth.  Additional information will be provided as additional tests are run under these quieted conditions.

CIRCUIT
View of Loop Antenna from the ground.
Each board measures 1″ x 4″ x 4ft. Antenna leads are fed through two holes drilled through board at lowest point of antenna. 2 1/2″ bolts with fender washers mounted on end of bolts contain wire.  Wire is 500 ft. long, 14 gauge copper solid. Capacitor is mounted across leads (parallel resonance) of antenna prior to lead connections to RG558 coax cable.  See additional text description.

The audio amplifier added to the output of the ELF circuit as it is shown above can be purchased from Radio Shack for approximately $12.  Input sensitivity of the amplifier is 1mV and the part number is 277-1008.

The digital oscilloscope-spectrum analyzer is model ADC-40 from PicoTech (www.picotech.com).  This logging oscilloscope-spectrum analyzer circuit plugs into the parallel port of a computer and can be used to analyze frequencies to 10kHz.

Notes for Mar 29 2003:
A 18mH filter choke has been added in series to the coil of the directional antenna.  This brings the total inductance to approximately 24mH. The capacitors being used in parallel resonance now vary from 2pF to 56pF. Credit is given to an independent researcher for direct measurement and verification of the original loop inductance as approximately 6mH.

The schematic above shows the ELF circuit as it is being used in the most recent testing and experimentation reported on this site.  The circuit is reasonably simple; it is the result of considerable design, simulation, experimental, trial and error work.  It is expected that the circuit can be improved and suggestions are welcome to that effect.  Any detailed analysis of the circuit and its performance are welcome. The circuit has been considerably simplified since the original incarnation that uses a TL082 operational amplifier. The circuit is being presented in the most basic form only; obvious refinements such as power switches will be included at a later time.  Those with electrical engineering knowledge are welcome to comment on the circuit and any inherent weaknesses or suggested improvements.

There is a marked difference in performance between the original investigated circuit and the recent modifications that are shown.  Both sensitivity and bandwidth performance appear to be noticeably improved.

The external antenna appears to improve the signal strength.  A wire of several feet in length has been used, as well as the human body, and the combination of both.  All variations have an effect upon the signal strength, and the gain setting is regulated for each.  The first potentiometer can be regulated to vary the gain of the circuit.  Voltage minimums in combination with various antenna configurations appear to be important under certain test conditions.

All wire junctions shown without a dot at the node are crossovers. Crossing wires are NOT connected unless a dot occurs at the junction of the wires.

The initial success of the circuit should be able to be tested with the ambient 60Hz power line signals; from that point experimentation with the gain control and various antenna configurations can be investigated.  Considerable patience and experimentation may be required to fully exploit the range of sensitivity of the circuit.  Users are welcome to report any problems or questions and all will be evaluated; responses will occur as time permits. The circuit now exists only in breadboard form, as revisions have been frequent and common.

It will be beneficial if citizens in other locations of the nation or globe will construct this circuit (or any improved version) and report their results. Please also refer to additional requests for assistance that have previously been made.  Serious inquires may be directed to cec102@usa.com, however, responses can only be provided as time and circumstances permit.  All inquiries will be considered and evaluated.

This circuit is subject to continuous revision and additional reports will presented as time and circumstances permit.


Additional Notes:

The Hammond 15H inductor (filter choke) can be acquired from:

Parts Express
www.parts-express.com
937.743.3000
Part No. 122-330

The Hammond 15H inductor is not needed if the directional loop antenna is constructed. 

The operational amplifier is a LM741CN and is available from:

Radio Shack, Part No. 276-007.

Knowledgeable designers are invited to recommend changes to this circuit for improved performance.

The frequency meter being used is:

Radio Shack 46-Range Digital Multimeter with PC Interface. (No model no. specified.)
Input sensitivity at the lower frequency range is stated as 50mV rms.
Data logging software is Meter View 1.0 included with the multimeter, along with the serial interface cable.

ELF DISRUPTION & COUNTERMEASURES

ELF DISRUPTION
&
COUNTERMEASURES

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 26 2002

The development of methods to counter the effects of continuous ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) radiation that remains under detection appears to be of immediate and critical need.  My time available for document preparation remains limited, and the findings will continue to be presented in an abbreviated form to attempt to communicate the essential findings.  The interpretation of an association between the aerosol operations and the presence of geometric ELF radiation forms is difficult to avoid at this point.  Immediate additional research, investigation and activism by other citizens is required to accomplish the rapid progress that is required.  A recent significant observation that may affect this progress in the future will be described on this page; this observation results from recent ELF detection experiments.

The presence of geometric patterns of ELF radiation continues to be detected.  The ELF circuit that has been described previously now behaves in a predictable and steady fashion, and the sensitivity can be adjusted such that the unusual multiples of 4Hz are regularly detected and logged to the computer.  The previous statement of concern with regard to biological and mental effects is again asserted, and readers are requested to rapidly educate themselves upon the expected effects of ELF radiation.  These ELF influence topics include, but are not limited to:

1. Mental functioning
2. Suppression of the immune system
3. Effect upon free radical reactions
4. DNA and genetic influences
5. The role of cyclotronic resonance in ELF-biological interactions 

References for these topics will be described later if time permits, but it can be said that information on these topics is relatively easy to acquire.  Please consider such examples as the books which have been written by Robert Becker, M.D. entitled, The Body Electric as well as Cross Currents.  Another useful reference is the chapter entitled, Biophysics of Interactions of ELF EMF with Biological Systems, published by the National Institutes of Health1.  Other references are available.

The primary purpose of this page, however, is to describe an observation that has been made.  A portion of this observation is subjective in nature, and will need to be treated accordingly.  The remaining, as well as more important, portion of the observation is subject to replication by those with sufficient interest to begin similar ELF experimentation.

On a subjective note, it has been noticed on several occasions during the past 4 years that mental vitality has been negatively impacted for periods of several hours at a time.  The effect is also manifested on a physical level, and with my particular physiology results in a level of fatigue.  I have probably encountered a dozen or more of these episodes during the last four years, and they are distinct enough to warrant my usual analysis of symptoms vs. cause and effect relationships.  It is also true that from an anecdotal perspective, these sessions have been closely allied with heavy aerosol operations.  This case is not necessary to justify at this level of discussion, since it is offered merely as a subjective experience for consideration.

It is now important to introduce the topic of electromedicine, which has been a concomitant topic of research with respect to the aerosol operations.

During the periods of observed mental disruption, I have also conducted experiments with the circuit introduced by Hulda Clark, in the book entitled, The Cure for  All Diseases.  The circuit is essentially a frequency generator connected to the body with an extremely low level of current designed into the circuit (referred to as the Zapper by Dr. Clark).  Many readers may also be aware of the works of Dr. Royal Raymond Rife in the field of electromedicine as well, and the importance of frequencies to biological systems. The particular circuit being used has a measured output of approximately 30kHz.

It has been observed that mental clarity during the specific events referenced is significantly improved and essentially returns to a normal state after the use of the frequency generator for a period of approximately 1/2 to 1 hour.  Prior to the recent ELF research, no documented reason for the noticeable improvement in mental acuity could be offered, and consequently I have never presented these observations to the public.

An additional observation has now been made that combines the effects of the frequency generator, the human body and the ELF frequencies that remain under detection.

It is now easily demonstrated that the frequency generator as it has been constructed, and as it is connected to the human body, significantly interrupts, alters, interferes with and disrupts the ambient geometric ELF frequencies that remain under detection.  In addition, this method appears (on a subjective level) to have a beneficial effect during periods of sensed mental interference or fatigue.  This also suggests that the detected ambient ELF radiation may have an observable and measurable bio-electric effect upon human mental functioning.  The effect of the weak frequency generator acting upon the human body is quite measurable with respect to an ambient ELF field.

Direct observation indicates, therefore, that this weak frequency generator alters the electromagnetic field surrounding the human body, and that it may equally interfere with any ambient ELF field that may be imposed upon that same body.  The effect upon the frequencies logged by the ELF detector can be observed from several feet distant, and they are strongly tied in to motions of the body when the frequency generator is connected.  It may be recalled that extremely low level electromagnetic field strengths are under examination here, as the ELF circuit can also be set to detect the mere presence of a human body from several feet away as well.   With the frequency generator in place, the ELF detector will commonly detect frequencies on the order of scores to several hundred kilohertz, and distinguishes itself markedly from the ambient observations of 4Hz, 8Hz, 12Hz, etc..

The health effects from all sides of examination, from the standpoint of a subject or a countermeasure, must now be openly discussed.  The role of passive circuit design, if possible, should also be explored, as there is limited practical daily application with the electrode extensions of the Clark circuit.  The impact of natural ELF frequencies, such as the Schumann resonant frequency of the earth, is not to be dismissed.  The validation or refutation of the detected geometric ELF radiation remains a requirement.  Any countermeasure strategy offered (passive or active) by any party requires full technical disclosure of the principles of operation to be considered as a viable topic of discussion.  Demonstration of effectiveness is required.  Public welfare and health is paramount to any private or profit interests on this matter.

This work is offered on a experimental basis.  It is understood  that this work originates, in part, from subjective evaluations. The work is offered as a conceptual model as to how ambient geometric ELF frequencies, if proven to exist, can at least be intervened with on a temporary basis.   It is requested that participation from all necessary levels of research and discipline be commenced on this subject.

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 26 2002 


1. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/html/WGReport/Chapter48.html
Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program

ELF RADIATION IS CONFIRMED

ELF RADIATION IS CONFIRMED
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 12 2002
Edited Nov 17 2002

The presence of frequent or continuous Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiation at discrete frequencies appears to have been confirmed through two separate methods. Research results during the past several weeks have been accumulating at a rate that I am unable to keep pace with; complete presentations will be sacrificed on a temporary basis due to the significance of the findings. This page will be added to or modified as time and circumstances permit in the near future.

The frequencies appear to have intelligent design behind them, and they occur within the range that is well established to affect both biological and mental functions. Detected frequencies are occurring primarily on multiples of 4Hz, including, but not necessarily restricted to 2Hz, 4Hz, 8Hz, 12Hz, 16Hz, 20Hz, 24Hz and 28Hz. The combination of timing and frequency represents a plausible avenue to investigate the conveyance of informational content.

Spectral analysis techniques also indicate the presence of a discernible periodic component within the data of approximately 3.5 minutes duration.

Two completely different and separate methods of ELF detection that have been developed are producing identical results. The first involves an electronic ELF amplifier circuit that incorporates data logging to provide a record of the frequencies for further evaluation. The second involves the combination of an inductive-capacitive resonant circuit in conjunction with a gaussmeter and a signal generator. These methods have recently been described on separate pages within this site. The detection of these frequencies or subsets of them has occurred upon all occasions when measurement has been conducted.

The role of a modified atmosphere that results from the aerosol operations that continue to be conducted without informed consent must be considered in any analysis of these findings.

This information is being provided at this time due to the significant implications upon both the biological and mental well-being of the populace that is now known to be a subject of this radiation.

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 12 2002

ELF EVIDENCE SURFACES

ELF EVIDENCE SURFACES
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 09 2002

Current research indicates the apparent or possible presence of ambient Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) signals that require identification as to their origin, purpose, informational content, intended target and effect upon the population. The current findings require the involvement of independent citizens and researchers for the purpose of validating or refuting the methods and measurements that are described on this page. The implications of such findings, if confirmed, would appear to be of a serious nature due to the direct linkage of ELF propagation and human mental functioning.

This page will serve primarily to describe the the method and technique that has been developed to investigate ELF detection; further research on this subject is now required. I am not a professional in the field of electromagnetic theory and application; my research is provided in good faith to address the serious consideration of ELF propagation in connection with the aerosol operations. This page also serves as repeated call to professionals in the fields of electrical engineering and electromagnetic propagation to critique, design and participate in methods of detection of ELF propagation. Considerable speculative discussion has emerged over the years between the potential linkage of the aerosol operations and the HAARP project and relevant technologies; such discussion is now deserving of more rigorous examination by the citizens of this nation. Many other professional disciplines share in their responsibility to address the concerns raised on this page, with a special emphasis upon the health profession. Those wishing to contribute to this effort at this level or to offer constructive advice are invited to contact me at cec101@usa.com

The heart and basis of this discussion involves the development of a resonant circuit operating at ELF frequencies. This project was begun in an exploratory fashion only, to learn about the nature of resonant circuits and their behavior. As an admitted accidental consequence of the investigation, the apparent detection of unexplained ELF propagation now requires further examination.

Readings have apparently been detected consistently over a several day period at approximately 2.5Hz, 16Hz, 21Hz and 30Hz. Power grid readings of 60Hz and the second harmonic at 120Hz have also been detected as a control mechanism for the process.

This section ends the summary findings of this work. The next section of this page will now relate the more technical aspects of this endeavor.

EVIDENCE
Detected ELF reading from developed resonant circuit : .003KHz (3Hz)

 


The basis of detection for this work is a resonant LC (inductive-capacitive) circuit. A resonant circuit for ELF frequencies has been constructed on the following premise:

In a LC circuit, resonance is achieved at a frequency of:

fr = 1 / (2 * pi * (L*C)1/2)

where fr is the resonant circuit frequency in Hz, L is the inductance of the circuit in Henries (H) and C is the capacitance in farads (F). The basis for development of the resonant frequency involves a condition of equality between inductive and capacitive reactance.

There are therefore numerous combinations of values of both L and C that can produce a resonant circuit. Certain restrictions exist on materials available on hand, however, and the following combination of components has been used in this effort:

C = 1 Farad ( approx.)

L = 3 * (4.03mH) = 12.09mH (approximate) (series of 3 inductors of approx. 4.03mH each)

A one farad capacitor is a rather unusual capacitor, and one of these high level capacitors had been acquired for earlier research on a separate topic. These capacitors are inexpensive (rated for 5V), and are apparently used in battery backup situations involving computers.

Several choices for unmarked coils were available, and the value of inductance was determined by the following method described by Donald L. Burdette (Reference : http://www.sxlist.com/techref/inductor/measure.htm)

“Someone recently asked how to measure inductance. Obviously, the best way is to have an inductance bridge or meter. But since I have neither, here’s my favorite way:

Get a sine wave oscillator, and put the inductor and a resistor in series across the output. I generally start with about 100 ohms. Adjust the oscillator frequency until the voltage across the inductor and the resistor is equal. Since they are 90 degrees out of phase, each will be 0.707 times the oscillator voltage. At this frequency, the inductor has an impedance of 100 ohms, and the inductance can be calculated from Z = 2 * pi * f * L.”

This method was applied to several available inductors until a suitable combination was developed. A series combination (additive for inductance) of three 4.0mH (approx.) coils was used. This combination leads to a resonant frequency estimate of:

fr = 1 / (2 * pi * (3 * 4.0E-3H * 1F)1/2)

fr = 1.5Hz (approx.) which is certainly in a desirable range of frequencies for this project.

In practice, it is found that the circuit is sensitive to resonance across a spectrum of approximately 1-150Hz, which is a function of the Q of the circuit. Traditional antenna structures for the reception of such frequencies are extraordinarily large (on the order of hundreds of feet), so at this point the circuit development was considered simply to be an exploratory venture. Early submarine communication projects in the northeast US involving ELF propagation involve antenna arrays of vast size, so expectations for any detection system were minimal at this stage of the research. It is certain that those knowledgeable in these affairs will be able to greatly improve upon the current research; the findings are presented simply as they have occurred.

breadbord
Photograph of ELF resonant LC circuit developed.
The object at right center is a magnetic sensor from a
Gauss EMF(Electromagnetic Field) meter.

This circuit was then investigated and evaluated with respect to an introduced sine wave at various frequencies. At this point, a serendipitous event appears to have occurred involving the use of a gauss EMF (electromagnetic field) meter that was also available from earlier research. The purpose of this meter is to detect small variations in the the magnetic field of the local environment. The meter is quite sensitive, and will show detectable variations down to a level of approximately 0.1 milligauss To give an example of a field strength that is detectable by a meter of this caliber, the median field strength of a group of digital electronic clocks measured at a distance of 46 inches is approximately 0.2milligauss(mG). For further examples of field strength values, please refer to the table presented at International Control Systems. Such meters for consumer use are available commercially at modest cost (approx. $40); the particular meter used is the Cell Sensor, designed also to measure power radiation from mobile telephones.


sine generator

Sine wave generator used to introduce a signal into the circuit.

It was then noticed that whenever a sine wave of 60Hz was introduced into the circuit and the magnetic sensor of the gaussmeter was held in the vicinity of the inductors, that an oscillation of the needle of the gaussmeter became clearly visible. This oscillation was pronounced and the intensity was directly reactive to the injected frequency and the distance from the coils. To give an idea of the field strength from the 60Hz signal, the sensor held several inches away (8-12″) produced an oscillation of approximately 1.5mG on the meter. A distance less than this would overwhelm the sensitive scale on the meter, and control of readings is direct in relation to distance from the inductors. The oscillation was narrowly defined in terms of frequency input to the circuit; maximum variation occurred sharply within then range of 59 to 61Hz. It was by this time apparent that the power grid ELF waves were readily and easily detectable with the LC and gaussmeter circuit combination that had now developed. Oscillation of the gaussmeter needle would immediately cease upon departure from this specified frequency of 60Hz and the gaussmeter needle would become still. In essence, a sensitive ELF detector was now available, and the resonance of the original circuit designed was a critical factor in amplifying the ambient ELF signal (in this case from the power grid system).


gaussmeter

Photos which show stages of oscillation of the needle in response to a resonant frequency.
(1 of 2)


gaussmeter

Photos which show stages of oscillation of the needle in response to a resonant frequency.
(2 of 2)

Explorations were then conducted across a much wider range of ELF frequencies. The next discovery was the detection of the second harmonic of the power grid system at 120Hz. Oscillation occurred at this frequency also, was easily detected, and could be increased in magnitude by placing the magnetic sensor closer to the set of inductor coils. Again the oscillation was restricted to a very narrow range of frequency (120Hz, +/- 1Hz) and it immediately decreased and ceased upon a departure from this frequency.

The particular function generator (sine wave) used permits frequencies to be introduced into the circuit of 0.2Hz to 200K Hz. Exploration was then extended to cover the broader range of frequencies permitted by this generator.

It was found that magnification of the needle movement was especially helpful in the detection of additional frequencies. Oscillation magnitudes of the the gaussmeter needle are on the order of 0.1 to 0.4mG for the lower ELF frequencies detected; careful observation under lighted magnification is required. Also it is found that the lower the frequency sought, the closer the magnetic sensor is to be placed near the inductor coils. This ranges from a fraction of an inch to approximately 1 foot distance over the range of frequencies examined. The power grid system creates an especially strong oscillation which is useful for control and calibration procedures.

Surprisingly, several additional lower ELF frequencies were subsequently determined through careful observation over a period of several days. Identical results have been found on each occasion of measurement, and the frequencies appear to remain constant. At this point I do not have an adequate explanation for the existence of these frequencies in the ambient environment, and it is to this purpose that I address this paper.

The ELF frequencies being detected within the limits of instrumentation currently available are:

2.5 to 2.6 Hz (best estimate)
15 -16 Hz
20- 21Hz
30 -31Hz

What appears to be a fundamental ELF signal at 2.5Hz is estimated to be accurate within +/- 0.5Hz. The remaining ELF signals are estimated to be accurate within +/- 1Hz. It is reasonable, within the limits of instrumentation available, to consider the higher signals as potential harmonics (6, 8,12?) of the detected fundamental of 2.5 – 2.6 Hz. The 15-16Hz signal is observed to be weaker within the group.


true rms

Detected ELF reading from developed resonant circuit : .003KHz (3Hz)

It is reaffirmed that there now exists a need to explore, investigate and explain the ELF frequencies that appear to be under detection. The first stage of this process is to seek corroboration from independent citizens and researchers as to the validity or failings of the findings reported here. Depending upon the results of those efforts, and if such findings are verified, the accountability of these signals as to origin, purpose, information content, target and effect becomes an absolute necessity.

This paper will be revised, edited or corrected as is appropriate.

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 09 2002

LF FREQUENCY MONITORING BEGINS

LF FREQUENCY MONITORING BEGINS
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 05 2002

A method has been developed to continuously monitor and analyze variations in the local electromagnetic field with the use of a circuit that was originally developed for the detection of ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) radiation. These variations are also an expression of the fluctuations in the magnetic field of the earth and the ionization characteristics of the atmosphere. This page will describe the methods, techniques and tools used in the process; any assessment of collected data will be reserved for separate presentation.


LF

Photograph of prototype circuit being used in LF (Low Frequency) monitoring.

LF
Circuit Diagram for the LF monitor
Please refer to
ELF Sensor by Steve Rouch for additional details and parts list.

The circuit consists essentially of a large coil of relatively high inductance, which senses small variations in the surrounding electromagnetic environment. These signals are then highly amplified and the output signal can then be read in terms of volts. More useful data can be acquired if the output can be sent to a frequency meter or counter. It is of interest that the circuit shown was originally developed for paranormal research, and consequently any expectation of high level sensitivity to electromagnetic appears to have been met. Appreciation is extended to Mr. Steve Rouch for making information on this ELF sensor available to the public. The focus of the current research is to analyze the changes and variations of the output signal in correlation with the onset of the aerosol operations as well as their absence. In addition, control patterns of the ambient environment are to be established. The effects of geomagnetic and solar activity are also to be considered in the process.

The circuit has been constructed according to the diagram, and no errors are known to exist. Due to some unanticipated findings and readings from the circuit, it will be valuable and helpful if other citizens or researchers will independently construct the circuit for testing in their local area. These abnormalities will be briefly described within this page and subsequently in greater detail in a separate paper. Unfortunately, little to no information on the actual use of the meter or experiences from testing has been provided within the original description. As a consequence, most findings presented here are a result of experimentation and trial and error.

The output from the circuit has now been forwarded to a multimeter with frequency reading and data logging capability. Significant improvements in multimeters appear to have been made over the past few years, and a meter with the ability to log large amounts of data over extended periods of time is a valuable advantage in the current work. Such meters are now available for a very reasonable cost with respect to their performance, and can be acquired for less than $100. The cost of the parts for the LF (ELF) monitor is approximately $50. An older computer of modest specification is being used for data logging, and the full time use of that machine is required for this project. The data logging is set to an interval of one minute, i.e, one frequency data reading is taken every minute and logged to the file on the computer. Users will note vertical discontinuities on the graphs of data which are to be further presented on this website; these represent a manual recalibration of the circuit and are to be dismissed in any interpretation of magnitude. The focus of this data collection and analysis is upon VARIATIONS within the signal, not the magnitude of the signal. The magnitude of the signal being received is a secondary issue which will be discussed on a separate date. It is observed that some drift in the signal will occur over time and hence the need for occasional recalibration; drifting appears to be related to either voltage variations from the battery or from more unusual electromagnetic – geomagnetic – geophysical events and or various combinations of each.

An example of data logging is shown below. The current frequency reading on the meter example being logged is at 84.5KHz. This would be considered as the LF (Low Frequency) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is a natural question to ask as to why this frequency range is being detected. It is an interesting question for which I currently have two suppositions which will be discussed in more detail later. For the time being, I will only stress that it will be beneficial if other researchers will construct the circuit for a means of comparison, and to help eliminate any possibility of circuit construction error on my end. It can be stated that the original purpose of the circuit was for ELF detection, but it can also be stated that the primary frequency now received is in the LF range. With respect to findings currently underway, this difference in the end may become irrelevant, but it will be helpful to address it with additional circuit constructions from other readers. It is know that the circuit can detect actual ambient LF – MF frequencies, as it has detected several local radio stations in the 500 – 1600 KHz range in the surrounding area when coupled to a frequency counter that features selective frequency ranges. The data logging frequency meter will latch onto only a single frequency, presumably the strongest (internally or externally generated, as will be discussed further later). Testing has also been conducted to operate the circuit in local areas that are electromagnetically pollution free as is possible, for control purposes. The influence of local radio stations in this and surrounding towns has also been evaluated, as well as the potential influence of navigational beacons. Research indicates that these factors can be adequately separated from the current investigations and findings.


LF

A sample of short term data logging and PC interface for the ELF-LF circuit.

It has been found that the circuit performance is extremely sensitive to small changes in the variable resistor (potentiometer) of the circuit within a narrow segment of the range of that same potentiometer. This apparently is related to the changes in gain of the circuit and or resonance considerations. The actual use of the circuit is now being conducted within that narrow segment of the potentiometer’s range, which is best identified if pulse width information is available with the frequency meter being used. Additional technical details of this finding can be discussed with interested parties.

If any errors in circuit construction on my end are ever identified with the aid of other participants, this will be helpful. If such errors exist, they may in the end represent a benefit to the project, as there does appear to be useful data under collection with the circuit as it has been built.

The results of any data analysis will be discussed further as has been mentioned. Any questions, constructive comments or questions may be sent to me at cec101@usa.com.

It is helpful, for the time being, to dismiss the origin of the 80-100KHz signal and to simply acknowledge it’s presence with the incarnation of the circuit that has been built. At the current point of discussion, it is most helpful to consider the LF frequency that is being received as a REFERENCE oscillating signal, which is then subject to detectable variations depending on the electromagnetic characteristics of the surrounding medium (atmosphere, earth’s magnetic field, local variations, etc.). It is these VARIATIONS in correlation with the aerosol operations that are the primary target of research here.

My time and resources available for research are limited; it will be beneficial if numerous competent parties will begin to assist in the complexities of electromagnetic research (and other projects) that are now underway. There remains a continuous call for conscientious professionals across most scientific, legal and medical disciplines to openly and publicly participate in disclosing the consequences of the aerosol operations to the people of this nation and world. The political, media and journalistic vocations share equally in this responsibility. The progress of disclosure and the halt of the operations will remain hindered until this duty is fulfilled. We do not have the luxury of infinite time to ponder the extent and gravity of these operations; the results of four years of grassroots research and activism are available to you. Current and past findings underscore the sense of urgency on this matter. There is a need for your courage and for your service.


Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 05 2002

MEASURING ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY

MEASURING ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY
Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 21 2002

A method has been developed to measure atmospheric electrical currents and the variation of those currents within the atmosphere. Relationships between the aerosol operations and these atmospheric electrical measurements are being investigated as well. Meters that are able to measure absolute levels of current in the atmosphere appear to be difficult to acquire as well as relatively expensive. The methods described here are based upon a relatively simple electronic circuit that enjoins the use of certain mathematical procedures that hopefully compensate in part for the lack of equipment that is now available. If additional sophisticated equipment ever becomes available to meet the public needs, it will advance the process and may save considerable time and effort; approximately one a half years have been invested in the progress to date. This page will describe only the development of the method that is being used; any results from the current research will be described in a separate section. I am not an electrical technician or engineer by profession, but I have devoted considerable time and effort to the understanding of this particular circuit and JFET transistor properties. An invitation is again offered for any improvements that can be made and to review any flaws that may exist in the methods. If any errors in the method developed are identified, they hopefully can be remedied and progress can continue beyond that which has been accomplished thus far. Only fellow researchers that act in good faith on this serious topic will be engaged by this author.

This work has its origins approximately one year or more ago, when the following circuit was constructed and subsequently analyzed to begin the investigations:

BUILD THIS SIMPLE FET ELECTROMETER :
A RIDICULOUSLY SENSITIVE CHARGE DETECTOR
http://www.amasci.com/emotor/chargdet.html

This circuit was subsequently modified to the following generalized form (approximate R1 resistance value only):

FET ELECTROMETER

where a 50 microamp ammeter (DC A) is substituted for the earlier LED to provide some form of metric output. A variable resistor can (and has) been added into the above circuit to provided for final calibration of the meter for full scale deflection. Q1 remains as a MPF102 NJFET transistor. The application of this meter has been quite instructive and informative as to the ionic nature of our atmosphere and and the alterations that have occurred as a result of the aerosol operations. The role of positive and negative ions has also been explored in some detail, as well as the associated health effects, benefits and degradations that are ubiquitous in the literature. The initial use of this meter and certain questions that arose with its use were opened up for discussion during a previous interview with Mr. Jeff Rense (www.rense.com) on the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol operations. At the close of that interview it was stated that the meter appeared to be recently exceeding its range of operation from unknown causes or reasons, and the exploration of the topic of atmospheric electricity was subsequently retired until my most recent re-activation of this issue a couple of months ago.

It has been surmised that the later failure of the circuit was likely due to additional experimentations involving a Van de Graaf generator, and it is suspected that the JFET transistor was damaged in the process and led to the final erroneous readings on the scale. The circuit was recently (Sept 2002) reconstructed entirely from scratch, and investigations from that point have continued from the reference levels established from earlier research.

The projected goal with the use of such a meter is to extract metric data, i.e, measurable data that can be used to to quantify both the magnitude and variation of atmospheric electrical current. Any investigations of correlation with the aerosol operations is also of value and desire. As the circuit is originally designed with the LED(light) indicator it is completely inadequate for this purpose. The meter in a light form will serve to detect the presence of positive and negative ions, but beyond that little can be accomplished. This insight into the positive and negative nature of the earth and its atmosphere is insightful and helpful to the initiate, but provides little benefit in assessing the impact of the aerosol operations.

To give the reader a sense of some of the difficulty in creating a method to measure atmospheric electrical current, the following section will be stated:

If a needle is fastened to an insulated wire at the top of a 10 meter pole, electricity will flow from the earth to the atmosphere or vice versa. Under fair-weather skies, little if any current flow can be detected with this device since several thousand volts are required before an ordinary needle can “go into corona.“”1

Obviously it is not so simple as one might desire, and some additional methods of amplification of the signal will be needed. Hence the circuit above will at least aid in this goal, as the transistor can serve to amplify the input signal.

To give a further example of the magnitude of the problem, the fair weather current density is stated from several sources to be approximately 3E-12 amps / meter2. This means that if a square meter of conducting material was placed horizontally in the air, approximately .000000000003 amps would flow through that surface. To illustrate the problem further, if a wire (1/32inch diam., for example) was used instead of a square meter of material, the current flow would be approximately (4.95E-7meters2) *( 3E-12amps / meter2 ) = 1.5E-18 amps, or .0000000000000000015 amps. Measuring this is an impossible task at any practical level, and again the need for tremendous amplification of the signal of fair weather electricity is demonstrated. The circuit above is at least a partial step in the right direction but considerable more work is required to get any kind of measurable result.

My approach to this difficulty has been to investigate the nature of the modified circuit as it is shown and to set two conditions on the problem. They are proposed as follows:

1. The charge imparted to the electrometer (circuit) within a period of time is opposite and equal to, or opposite and proportional to the charge that is transferred from the atmosphere to the electrometer (circuit) in that same unit of time.

Notes: I have no reference for this assumption at this time; it is developed from analysis only. If we investigate the use of early electrometers by James Maxwell, however, the following descriptions of measurement of the electrical potential of the atmosphere may be relevant:

“To Measure the Potential at any Point in the Air,

Place a sphere, whose radius is small compared with the distance of electrified conductors, with its centre at the given point. Connect it by means of a fine wire with the earth, then insulate it, and carry it to an electrometer and ascertain the total charge on the sphere. ..the potential of the air at the point where the center of the sphere was placed is equal but of opposite sign to the potential of the sphere after being connected to earth, then insulated, and brought into a room.”2

The proposed assumption is in need of further examination by all researchers if an absolute magnitude is to assigned to the current measurements that result from the current research. For the sake of example to illustrate the method developed, equality of current but opposite in sign will be assumed at this time. A additional proportionality constant will remain as an unknown if this assumption is not valid. Relative current measurements and their respective variations appear to be of value at this time regardless of the outcome of this theoretical requirement that requires further validation or refutation.

For considerations on this topic as well as others in the future, the following relationships between current and voltage(potential) are provided3:

I = surface integral [ J (dot) dS ] and E = J / sigma

where I is current, J is the current density, S is a differential surface element, E is the potential and sigma is the conductivity of the material (medium).

In the case considered, J for the atmosphere can be considered as essentially constant4. This leads to I = c1 * area of conductor. Also this leads to E = c1 / sigma. Dividing both equations, we are led to ratio of I to E as: I / E = area of conductor / sigma. Since the area of the wire electrode is also a constant, we are led to I / E = c2 / sigma. The conductivity of the atmosphere does vary with altitude (increases with altitude). For the purposes and application of this research, however, it seems reasonable to regard the conductivity at ground level to remain as a relative constant also. This would lead to I / E = c2 / c3 (approx.)

or that the relationship of I to E differs only by a constant for the purposes and application of this research. This is one argument provided as to why Maxwell’s method of equality of potential is relevant to the current measurements being considered. Any comments to this subject are welcome.

2. The voltage at the gate lead of the MPF102 JFET transistor is proportional to the charge of the atmosphere. 5

Let us now formulate these premises in a mathematical form:

Qc / (t2 – t1) = – Qair / (t2 – t1)

Vg = k Qair

where Qc is the charge imparted to the circuit from the air, Qair is the charge that is transferred from the air, (t2 – t1) is the interval of time over which the measurements are taken, Vg is the gate voltage of the NJFET transistor and k is a proportionality constant.

Now the definition of current is given as6:

I = dQ /dt

where I is current, and dQ / dt is the differential change in charge with respect to a differential change in time.

Therefore,

dQ = I dt

and integrating with respect to time,

Q = integral [ I dt ]

Therefore:

Qc = integral [ Ic dt ]

where Ic is the current flowing within the electrometer circuit, integrated with respect to time.

Therefore, after multiplying each side of the equation (first assumption) by the interval (t2 – t1) and by (-1), we have:

Qair = – integral [ Ic dt ]

but from the second assumption being made, we also have:

Qair = Vg / k

Therefore:

Vg / k = – integral [ Ic dt]

or

Vg = -k * integral [ Ic dt ]

Now a model for the gate – source voltage of the MPF 102 NJFET transistor is given as7:

Id = .00063 ( Vg + 4)2 (approximation)

where Vg represents the gate – source voltage, and Id is the drain current.

Therefore,

Vg = ( Id / .00063).5 – 4

Therefore, letting Ic = Id and a = .00063,

( Ic / a).5 – 4 = -k * integral [ Ic dt ]

or

k = (- ( Ic / a ).5 – 4 ) / ( integral [ Ic dt ] )

and the proportionality constant is therefore a function of Ic, the current through the circuit.

Now from the second assumption we have:

Vg = k Qair

or

Vg = k * integral [ Iair dt ]

where Iair represents the atmospheric current flow,

and differentiating with respect to time, we have:

dVg / dt = k * Iair

or

Iair = ( 1 / k) * (dVg / dt)

To address the needs of solving for dVg /dt, current through the meter is measured over an interval of time, and a model for Vg as a function of current through the circuit has been previously given. Therefore we have:

Vg = f (Ic)

and

Ic = f (t)

Therefore, from the chain rule,

dVg / dt = ( dVg / dIc) * (dIc / dt)

now since

Vg = a-.5 * Ic.5 – b

where a = .00063 and b = 4, we have

dVg / dIc = a-.5 * (1 / 2) * Ic -.5

or

dVg / dIc = 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 )

In addition, Ic is measured with the meter over an interval of time. It has been found experimentally that Ic can be modeled both closely and realistically using a least-squares second order polynomial of the following form:

Ic = c1 * t2 + c2 * t + c3 (approximation)

where c1, c2 and c3 are coefficients of the polynomial and t is time measured in seconds. Given this form, we have:

dIc / dt = 2 * c1 * t + c2

therefore

Iair = ( 1 / k) * ( 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) ) * ( 2 * c1 * t + c2)

or

Iair = [ – ( integral [ Ic dt ] ) / ( ( Ic / a ).5 – 4 )] * ( 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) ) * ( 2 * c1 * t + c2)

and since

Ic = c1 * t2 + c2 * t + c3

we have

integral [ Ic dt ] = c1 * ( t3 / 3 ) + c2 * ( t2 / 2 ) + (c3 * t) + c0, an arbitrary constant which is equal to zero since current measurement at t = 0 is zero.

Therefore Ic in the final form for measurement is:

Iair = [ – ( c1 * ( t3 / 3 ) + c2 * ( t2 / 2 ) + (c3 * t) ) / ( ( Ic / a ).5 – 4 )] * ( 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) ) * ( 2 * c1 * t + c2)

where Iair is in amps.

In practice, the sequence of solving for the atmospheric current value using the electrometer is:

1. Record the times associated with current meter readings of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 microamps respectively. It is found in practice that the total time interval for one sequence of measurements will range anywhere from several seconds to several minutes. It is found that circuit acts primarily like a capacitor in the charging characteristics and as it is expressed through current flow in the meter. It is also found that temperature has a significant effect upon the times of measurement, but does not appear to affect the outcome of the magnitude in any significant fashion. The model form as developed is reasonably complex in any attempts to characterize its behavior. It is also observed that the equation above is a function of time and the current through the meter, and it is found to reach a maximum at a reading of approximately 40 microamps at that same associated time. The interval of integration is whatever time period is required to reach a full scale deflection on the meter to 50 microamps.

2. With time vs. current readings available, solve for the least squares polynomial and coefficients as described above.

3. Evaluate the above equation as it reaches a maximum, found empirically to occur approximately at the time associated with a current reading of approximately 40 microamps.

Data that has been collected is available on the page entitled : Predicting the Operations : Sunspots and Humidity. An example of one data set and solution is available at this linked location. If proportionality is to replace equality in the first assumption being used, it is expected to make an corresponding unknown impact upon any interpretation of absolute magnitudes. The focus of the current research is upon the relative current measurements as well as variation within the process; absolute magnitude does exist as a secondary issue until methods are corroborated further. Relative measurements do appear to be of value at this time, and certain trends and patterns in the data have been identified.

This paper is provided to outline the methods which are being used to investigate this topic. Results, discussion and analysis of any findings from this research will be reported on a separate occasion. For the sake of interest, an entirely alternative method of solution has been developed using capacitance as a basis of mathematical development. The results of that alternative method appear surprisingly similar to the results of the method that has presented here. That method will not be outlined at this time unless it becomes relevant to do so. Limited time is available for my research on this as well as other topics. Professional assistance along with instrumentation is welcomed. Any comments, suggestions and recommendations may be sent to me by email at cec101@usa.com.


Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 21 2002


References:

1. Atmosphere, Vincent Schaefer, Houghton Mifflin, 1981 (inventor of cloud seeding 1941)
2. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, James Clerk Maxwell, Dover, 1891
3. Electromagnetics, Joseph Edminister, McGraw Hill 1993
4. Environmental ESD, Part I : The Atmospheric Electric Circuit, by Niels Jonassen,
www.ce-mag.com/archive/02/07/mrstatic.html
6. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Paul Scherz, McGraw Hill 2000, where it is stated with respect to a similarly constructed JFET electrical field meter, “The repositioning of the electrons sets up a gate voltage that is proportional to the charge placed on the object”.
7. Common Source JFET Amplifier Experiment, Bill Huffine, Dept. of Engineering Technology, University of Southern Colorado, Winter 1998 (see
http://et.nmsu.edu/~etti/winter98/electronics/huffine/csamp.html).