Carpinteria Crystal

Carpinteria Crystal

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 25 2016

An environmental crystal sample sent to Carnicom Institute from a concerned citizen has been analyzed as to its nature.  The ground sample was received three years ago and it has been held in custody since that time.  Circumstances are now more favorable toward establishing the identity or nature of inorganic compounds, and thus the opportunity to do so in this case has been exercised.  The sample originates from the Santa Barbara – Carpinteria region of the country.  The sample is well documented, clean, and has been collected and transported in a careful fashion.

One of the reasons for the interest in the sample is a repetition of events.  The citizen reports that similar appearing materials  have occurred within the same coastal housing district on multiple occasions over a period of many years.  In addition, the findings of this study may have relevance to a paper presented earlier on this site.  The interest in devoting time to sample analysis is directly related to the the frequency and pattern of appearance.

There are also several occasions of crystal samples collected or received over the years that have not received proper attention due to insufficient resources and means for investigation.  The majority of these cases, to my recollection, resulted from air filtration systems.  These deficiencies have likely delayed our understanding of various forms of pollution that likely surround us, and this will remain the case until full and sufficient resources are devoted to these types of problems.  It is the opinion of this researcher that the regulating environmental protections agencies have an obligation to this end and that it has not been well served.

This particular sample has the following appearance:

sb_crystal_2013-01

Environmental Crystal Sample Material Received in 2013

 

The purpose of this paper is not to debate the origin or delivery method of the sample; the information available is insufficient to fully detail those answers.  It can be stated in fairness that the observer witnessed heavy aerosol  operations over the region in the early hours of the day of collection of the sample.  The density and activity level of the operations was stated to be high.

The purpose of this paper IS to call attention to what may be a repeating type of material that has potentially important environmental consequences, particularly if they are found to exist in aerosol or particulate form within the general atmosphere.  The sample type is also fully consistent with many of the analyses and postulates that have developed within the research over the years.  The specifics of that discussion will follow within this paper.

The sample has been evaluated using multiple approaches.  These include, but are not limited to:

  1. Electrochemistry techniques, specifically differential normal pulse voltammetry.
  2. Solubility analyses
  3. Melting point determination
  4. Density estimates
  5. Microscopic crystal analysis
  6. Qualitative reagent tests
  7. Conductivity measurements
  8. Index of refraction measurements

The results of these analyses indicate that the dominant component of the material is that of potassium chloride, a metallic salt form.  There are indications that the sample does contain more than one component, but any further investigation will have to take place at a later time.   Every physical and chemical form has implications, applications and consequences, especially if they occur in a manner foreign or unexplained to the environment.  The material shown above is of no exception to those concerns.  It may be the case that the appearance of this material in an unexplained manner and location is of no consequence; prudence, however, would suggest that we are obligated to seek out that which has no accountable explanation.  This premise is at the very heart of any forensic investigation, and environmental science and pollution control are also subject to that very same demand.

 


 

A brief bit of historical perspective on this topic could be helpful.  A search on this site on the subject of crystals will bring up a minimum of eight additional papers that are relevant; there are likely to be more.  These papers range in date from 2001 to the current date, so from this standpoint alone there is a repeating issue involved here.

A search on this site for historical presentation on potassium issues produces at least three papers on the subject.  There is reason to consider, therefore, that potassium (and related) chemical compounds may be worthy of examination with respect to geoengineering as well as biological issues.

Within this combined set of close to a dozen or more papers on the subjects, two will be mentioned further at this time.

The first will be that of another sample, also of a crystalline nature, received in 2003 from the same specific region of the country.  The title of that short report is “Additional Crystal Under Examination” (Jun 2003).  There are three points of interest in comparison between that and the current report:

1. Two generally similar and unaccountable sample forms appear in similar locations over a 10 year period, and a public interest in identification of the nature of the material remains over this same prolonged period.

2. The report in 2003 is reasonably brief with a limited microscopic examination offered.  The topic is mentioned more in the sense of an anomaly and a curiosity as there is no basis at the time for an in depth study of the materials; in addition, resources to do so at the time are non-existent.

3. The third will be the comment regarding the lack of water solubility of the first sample.  The importance of this observation will be the fact that the samples, although visually similar, have important differing chemical properties.  The conclusion is that multiple material types are expected to be subject to investigation over the course of time.

The second will be that of a laboratory report received in the year of  2005.  The title of that paper is “Calcium and Potassium” (Mar. 2005).  The importance and relevance of this paper can be understood from the opening paragraph:

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It will also be noticed that several health and environmental concerns with respect to aerosolized potassium salts are enumerated in that latter paper.  Attention should also be paid to the intriguing discussion of electromagnetic effects and impacts that must be considered with the chemistry of potassium and related ions.

Potassium chloride has common uses as well, such as a fertilizer or as a water treatment compound; there is, however, no cause given to think that it is being used in such fashions at this location and setting at this time.

 


 

Let us now bring ourselves back to the current moment.  The relevance and direction of those papers have borne themselves out over time, and the urgency of responsibility upon us is as imposing as ever.  We do not have the luxury of another 20 years to conclude on such an obvious state of affairs.

There are at least three immediate applications or consequences of the existence of aerosolized potassium chloride upon the atmosphere that should be mentioned.

1. Heat Impacts

2. Moisture Impacts

3. Electromagnetic Impacts

With respect to heat impact, potassium chloride is highly soluble within water.  When it does dissolve, it absorbs heat from the water, and the magnitude is significant.  Potassium chloride has actually been used as a cold pack commercially for this same reason; it is also readily available and relatively inexpensive.  It therefore can potentially be used to influence atmospheric thermodynamics, and this is one of many leads of investigation to pursue.

On the flip side of the equation, potassium chloride in a solid state has a rather low specific heat, especially relative to that of both air and water.  This means that, depending upon the state of the surrounding atmosphere, that it can also possess the capability to heat the atmosphere, rather than to cool it.

Furthermore, potassium as a metal in its elemental form also has a lower specific heat than air and once again this may allow for a net heating impact upon the atmosphere, depending on states of being, location and interaction with other elements or compounds.

The point of this discussion is that metallic salts of any kind DO have an impact upon the heating dynamics of the atmosphere, and that this process can be both complicated and variable.  You cannot place anything into the atmosphere without having an effect in some fashion, and it is a mistake to oversimplify and overgeneralize as to what those changes will be.  The location of placement of aerosols is another matter also, as has been discussed extensively on this site.

We are, therefore, not permitted to remain ignorant of the impacts that foreign and contaminating materials have upon the environment; heat dynamics are only one of many aspects of that we are forced to confront when the atmosphere is altered in ANY significant fashion.

There are, of course, many other environmental consequences from the addition of ionizable metallic salts into the environment.  These include plant life and agriculture, for example.  Readers may also wish to become familiar with a discussion regarding soil impacts as presented within the paper “The Salts of Our Soils” (May 2005).

As far as moisture is concerned, heat and moisture are obviously very closely related subjects.  One of the trademarks of the salt genre is that of absorbing moisture.  Some salts attract moisture so strongly that they are hygroscopic, meaning that they can draw moisture from the ambient atmosphere.  The observation of this phenomenon is quite remarkable; one can start with a solid and watch it change to an eventual liquid form.  Calcium chloride and strontium chloride are both good examples of this class of materials.

Locking moisture up in this fashion will most certainly increase the heat in the atmosphere; water is one of the greatest cooling compounds that exists on the planet.  It is impossible to separate heat and moisture impacts when dealing with aerosolized metallic salts; it is certain that there will be an impact upon the atmosphere,  environment and health.  It is difficult to predict a favorable outcome here.

Lastly, there may still be some that will ridicule the notion of electromagnetic impacts of ionized metallic salts upon the atmosphere and the environment.  I think such an approach might ultimately be foolhardy.  This tenet was brought forth early in the research of this organization, and the premise remains as strong as when it is originated.  For those that care to repeat the enterprise, there are measurements to support the hypothesis, and they only continue to accumulate.

For those that seek conventional sources, one need look no further than a document that traces back to the 1990’s, entitled “Modeling of Positively Charged Aerosols in the Polar Summer Mesopause Region” (Rapp, Earth Planets Space 1999).  A very specific reference of the ability of potassium in combination with ultraviolet light to increase the electron density of the atmosphere will be found there.  There are other elements that share in this remarkable physical property, and they have been discussed within this site for many years now.  Reading the patents by Bernard Eastlund may also be insightful.  The ability of moisture to ionize many metallic salts is also to be included within the examinations that are required to take place.

It is difficult to ignore and discount the fundamental heat, moisture, and electromagnetic impacts upon the planet when metallic salts are artificially introduced into the atmosphere.  It would not be wise to do so.  The case for investigation, accountability and redress is now strong, and each of us can make the choice as to how to best proceed.  It seems to be a simple matter to want to protect and ensure the welfare of our gifted home, as our existence depends upon it.  Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

Regardless of the origin of this particular sample (which is unlikely to ever be known exactly), this report points to the requirement of identifying repetitive and unknown contaminants in the environment.  The responsibility for this process does not fall either primarily or exclusively upon the citizens; this population has neither the resources or means to perform or satisfy the requirements of identification, evaluation and assessment.  Entrusted agencies that exist specifically for protection of the welfare of the common environment (e.g., air, water, soil) and that are funded by these same citizens ARE required to do so.  In this vein, I will once again repeat the closing statement from above:

Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

 

Clifford E Carnicom

Sep 25 2016


 

Supplemental Discussion:

Approximately a dozen methods of investigation have been used to reach the conclusions of this report.  These will now be described to a modest level of detail to assist in portraying the complexities of analyzing unknown environmental samples.  This description will further the argument that the citizenry is not realistically expected to assume this burden and cost; contamination and pollution are at the heart of existence for publicly funded environmental protection agencies and entities.  It is recommended that the public seek the level of accountability that is required to reduce and eliminate persistent and harmful pollution and the contamination of our common environment.

1. Voltammetry:

The methods of differential pulse voltammetry have been applied to the sample.  The methods are quite useful in the detection of inorganics, especially metals and trace metal concentrations.  The results of the analysis are shown below:

carpinteria-crystal-sep-04-2016-03

Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry Analysis of Crystal Sample

The analysis indicates a minimum of two chemical species to consider.  The first of these is a suspected Group I or Group II element (-2.87V).  The most probable candidates to consider will be that of calcium, strontium, barium and potassium.  The other will be the consideration of  the chloride ion ( +0.63V and +1.23V).

At this point of the investigation, our strongest prospect will therefore be an ionic metallic salt crystalline form, most likely involving a subset of Group I or II of the periodic table.  The most likely candidate will, furthermore, be a chloride form of the salt.

2. We can then proceed to solubility tests.  Four candidates from above will now be considered, along with two additional candidates resulting from the chloride prospects:

calcium chloride
strontium chloride
barium chloride
potassium chloride

lithium chloride
cesium chloride

With respect to the first set of four, the solubility tests applied (i.e., water, methanol, acetone, sodium bicarbonate, acid, base) eliminate all but potassium chloride for further examination.

This reduces the primary set of consideration to that of:

potassium chloride
lithium chloride
cesium chloride

We now attempt to confirm the existence of the chloride ion in a redundant fashion.  A qualitative chemical test (HCl, AgNO3) is then applied to the sample in aqueous solution.  The existence of the chloride ion is confirmed.  The set of three candidates remains in place.

The next method applied to the sample is the determination of the melting point of the presumed ionic crystal form.  Ionic metallic salts have generally high melting points and this does present some difficulties with the use of conventional equipment and means.

The methods of calorimetry were adapted to solve this particular problem.  The methods were also applied to a control sample of potassium chloride, as well as two additional control compounds.  The results of the control and calibration trials produced results within the range of expected error (~ < 5%).

The melting point of the crystal form was determined experimentally by the above methods as approximately 780 deg. C.  The melting point of potassium chloride is 770 deg. C.  This result is well within the range of expected experimental error (1.4%).  During the process, it was noticed that an additional minority compound does exist within the sample, as a small portion of the sample does melt at a much lower point (est. 300-400 deg. C.) The minority compound would require separation and identification in a further analysis.

The melting points of lithium chloride and cesium chloride are 605 deg. C. and 645 deg. C., respectively, and they are thus eliminated from further consideration.

These results narrow the list of candidates specifically to that of potassium chloride.

An additional controlled test of conductivity of the salt in solution was applied.   The result of that test indicates agreement in conductivity with a known concentration solution of potassium chloride.  The error in that case was also well within the expected range of experimental error (0.6%).

In addition, further tests involving density determination, index of refraction, visual and microscopic crystal analysis further substantiate the identification of the crystal as being primarily that of potassium chloride.

IONS AND HUMIDITY

IONS AND HUMIDITY
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, NM
May 26 2005

 

It is thought that the graph shown on this page may well be at the core of the aerosol operations. This graph shows direct ion measurements in combination with historical humidity data during the past month. The graph shows what appear to be highly favored conditions for the conduct of the aerosol operations or the transport of aerosol banks within a region. Aerosol operations are being staged at specific times of low humidity and low negative ion count. These two tenets, that of humidity association and ionic manipulation, have been at the foundation of the aerosol research since the early days of investigation. The current research has refined itself until the specific conditions that are favorable to operation may have been largely identified.

 

There is information available to indicate that the ionic constitution of the lower atmosphere may be considered as a security issue.No direct legal infringements are known. This researcher makes the claim that environmental monitoring and environmental reporting of all types is a basic right of the citizen; this right is asserted with the presentation of this report to the public.

 

It is recommended that this page be widely copied, circulated and distributed as rapidly as possible through all means available. It is further advised that the general public openly and overtly participate in this process of disclosure and confrontation of environmental modification. There are significant health aspects, amongst many other profound geophysical considerations, implicit in this data that is presented. Multiple and broader studies of ionic magnitudes and variations in the lower atmosphere are of immediate value. If the current lower atmosphere ionic research is interfered with in any way, it is requested that others dedicate themselves to the task immediately behind.

 

ions and humidity

 

 

The interpretation of this data will lead to additional questions.There is also additional data that can and will be presented if circumstances of time permit. This data will portray extreme variations in ionic counts, both positive and negative, as well as extreme variations with positive to negative ion ratios.  As has been suspected, it appears that nature is being tampered with in very serious ways.

 

Caution is advised in advancing to hasty conclusions or misstatements with regard to ion concentrations, or in changes with respect to ion concentrations. Ion concentration is tied in directly to the electrical nature of the atmosphere and the earth, and this is a complex subject. It is far too simplistic to characterize certain ions as “good” or “bad”; it is the balance of nature that is to be understood. It seems quite fair to state at this stage that the balances of nature are being upset with artificial methods that threaten the viability of life on this planet.

 

A very general interpretation of the current data can be made as follows: Low humidity is a period of relatively low moisture in the atmosphere. A low negative ion count is also generally indicative of lower moisture levels in the atmosphere. The research indicates that both of these variables, taken together, serve to indicate likely periods of aircraft aerosol or aerosol bank operations. This finding may appear to be in contradiction to the humidity conditions that have been associated with the operations, but in reality they are not contradictory in any fashion. Certainly what is in direct contradiction is the infamous claim by the EPA, FAA, and NASA in the so-called “fact sheet” that purports to explain the “persistence” of trails during periods of “high relative humidity”. It is a point of fact that the exact environmental conditions of the “fact sheet”  are never specified in detail; the wording has always remained ambiguous, albeit intentional or not.

 

The data is showing exactly the opposite occurrence, and that is that the operations themselves appear to be conducted at strategic and specific environmental conditions of lower humidity and lower negative ion count – at least in this region of the country. It is important to emphasize this statement relates to the actual occurrence of the operations; not the time before the operation, and not the time after the operation. In fact, it is expected that moisture levels in the atmosphere are likely, if not expected, to increase before and after the operations.Previous predictive models by this researcher have borne out this conclusion, and that is that the operations are known to commonly occur IN ADVANCE of approaching moisture. That conclusion also remains valid to this day and is not changed by the presence of the current data. This researcher is aware of potential differences in ground observations and higher altitude observations; both have been investigated, and the use of ground data in this project can not be used to nullify any claims or observations that are being made here.

 

At this point it appears reasonable to conclude that high moisture content in the atmosphere and a high negative ion count (often associated with increased moisture) are not particularly favorable for the actual conduct of the operations.  Pre and post operative environmental conditions are an entirely different matter that deserve separate and independent study.

 

Another observation that can be made is that the enterprise appears to be extremely successful in identifying local minimums of lower humidity-negative ion combinations.  This indicates advanced capabilities in differential and predictive meteorological and conductivity modeling techniques.  

 

The value of the current report is that very specific environmental conditions favorable to the actual conduct of an aerosol operation appear to be identified. The two variables of humidity and negative ion count appear to go a long way in assessing the likelihood of such operations taking place. Both variables are given equal weight in their importance at this time, and neither of the two variables can be disregarded or ignored. Considerable pattern analysis and model development has taken place to reach this assessment. It is reasonable to suspect that the agendas of the operations, as they have been and as they continue to be determined, are enhanced if the operations are conducted under the specific environmental conditions that are now under identification. Thoughtful analysis will continue to direct that future research.  Confrontation to the point of initiating a global moratorium on the operations is required in the interim.

 

There remains much more to be stated on the measurements that have been taken with respect to positive ion counts, total ion counts and positive to negative ion ratios.  The ionic effects of the full moon are also worthy of discussion. This will have to take place at a later time. The mathematical specifics of the model that has been developed to isolate the current pattern can also be discussed at a later time. The current work is offered such that the process of analysis and interpretation can begin without hesitation.

Clifford E Carnicom
May 26, 2005

CONDUCTIVITY: The Air, The Water, and The Land

CONDUCTIVITY:
The Air, The Water, and The Land
Clifford E Carnicom
April 15, 2005

A  rainfall laboratory test recently received from a rural location in the Midwestern United States has refocused attention on the electrolytic, ionic and conductive properties of environmental samples in connection with the aerosol operations.  These “interesting characteristics” of solids in our atmosphere have a more direct and down to earth impact as their nature is better understood.  This is nothing less than the changing of the air, the water and the soil of this planet.  All life is eventually to be affected as it continues.

A laboratory report has been received that documents unusually high levels of calcium and potassium within a rain sample.1   Previous work has demonstrated unexpected levels of barium and magnesium.   The continuous presence of easily ionizable salts at higher concentrations within atmospheric samples has many ramifications upon the environment.  A brief introduction to the severe health impact of this category of particulates has also been made on this site. Current work is now dedicated to the impact that these materials are having upon not only upon the atmosphere, but upon the water and soil as well.  All inhabitants of this planet will eventually confront, voluntarily or not, the consequences of the actions that are being allowed to degrade the viability and habitability of our home.

The burden of testing for the problems underway does not fall upon any private citizen, as the resources are not available to support it.  Nevertheless, testing and analysis does continue in whatever way is  possible.  Accountability must eventually fall to those public servants and agencies entrusted with protection of the general welfare and environment.  It should not be assumed that there is infinite time available to ponder the strategies of improvement and the solutions for remedy.  We shall all bear the final price for any condonement of what has been allowed to pass.

Now, for the more immediate particulars:

A series of conductivity tests have been conducted with recent heavy snowfall samples collected in New Mexico and Arizona. Conductivity is a means to measure the ionic concentration within a solution. These tests have been performed with the use of a calibrated conductivity meter in conjunction with calibrated seawater solutions. A series of electrolysis tests have also been completed with these same samples and calibrated solutions.

These tests demonstrate conclusively the presence of reactive metal hydroxides (salts) in concentrations sufficient to induce visible electrolysis in all recent snowfall samples encountered2.  

Precipitates result if reactive electrodes are used; air filtration tests have produced these same results in even more dramatic fashion from the solids that have been collected.  Highly significant electrolytic reactions occur in the case when the solid materials from the atmosphere are concentrated and then placed into solution.  Rainfall is expected to be one of the purest forms of water available, especially in the rural and high mountain sites that have been visited.  Rainfall from such “clean” environments is not expected to support electrolysis is any significant fashion3, and conductivity is expected to be on the order of 4-10uS4. Current conductivity readings are in the range of approximately 15 to 25uS. These values may not appear to be extraordinarily large, however any increase in salt content, especially with the use of remote samples, will need to be considered with respect to the cumulative effect upon the land.  These results do indicate an increase in conductivity on the order of 2-3 times, and the effects of increased salinity on plant life will merit further discussion.

Beyond the indicated increase in conductivity levels of sampled precipitation, there are two additional important results from the current study. The first is the ability to make an analytic estimate of the concentration of ionic salts within the regional atmosphere.  The results do appear to be potentially significant from an air quality perspective and with respect to the enforcement (or lack thereof) of existing standards.   The second is the introduction of the principle of “ohmic heating”, which in this case allows for increased conductivity of the atmosphere as a result of an introduced current.

First, with respect to estimated concentrations of ionic salt forms in the atmosphere, the principle is as follows.  The methods demonstrate that our focus is upon reactive metal hydroxide forms (barium hydroxide, for example).  Conductivity is proportional to ionic concentration.  Although a conductivity meter is especially useful over a wide range of concentrations, special care is required when dealing with the weak saline forms of precipitation as they now exist.  It has been found that current flow as measured by a sensitive ammeter (µamps) appears to be useful in assessing the conductivity of the weak saline solution.  The results have been confirmed and duplicated with the use of the calibrated conductivity meter. The use of on ohm meter to measure resistance is found from both experience and from the literature to not be reliable without much caution, due to complications of heating and/or polarization.  Weak saline solutions appear to have their own interesting characteristics with respect to introduced currents, and this topic will come to the forefront when ohmic heating is discussed.

A series of weak sea saltwater solutions have been carefully prepared for use in calibrating both the conductivity meter and the ammeter.  These solutions are in strengths of 0.56%, 1.51% and 3.01% respectively.  Many tests have also been completed with refined water samples as well as seawater equivalents.  Conductivity is proportional to concentration levels, especially as it has been bracketed with a variety of solutions in the range of expected measurements.  Measurements currently estimate the saline concentration of the precipitation samples at approximately 0.041%.  Salt concentrations in any amount are extremely influential to conductivity.  

Assuming an equivalency in density of the precipitation salts to sea salts, this results in an expected concentration level of approximately 15 milligrams per liter.  For comparison purposes, rainwater in Poker Flats, Alaska is reported as approximately 1mg/liter for all dissolved ions; the contribution from reactive metal compounds is a small fraction of that total.  Highly polluted rain over Los Angeles CA is reported at approximately 4mg/liter, with approximately 1mg/liter composed of the reactive metals.5  Simulated rainfall samples report concentration levels of approximately 4 and 21 mg/liter respectively, presumed to reflect reasonably clean and polluted samples respectively6.  In all cases cited, the contribution from reactive metal ions is quite small relative to the whole, and sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions are the largest contributors to the pollutants.    Testing here indicates the composition of the precipitate pollutants may be biased toward the reactive metal ion concentrations.

The next objective is to translate the measured and estimated concentration level to an equivalent density, or particulate count, within the atmosphere.  This method is based upon saturation levels for moisture within the atmosphere.  Air at a given temperature can only hold so much water.

From the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, the saturation density is given as:7

saturation density = 216.68 * (ew / (Cv * T) )

where ew is the saturation vapor pressure in millibars, T is temperature in Kelvin, and Cv is the compressibility factor.  Cv is 1.0000 to the level of precision required.

From Saucier8, the saturation vapor pressure in millibars with respect to water is estimated as:

 es = 6.11 * 10(a*t)/(t+b)

where a = 7.5
b = 237.3

and t is degrees Centigrade.

Therefore, the saturation density can be stated as:

density (gms /m3) = [ 216.68 * es / K

and the density in gms / m3 of salt particulate in the air can be estimated as:

gms / m3 = Conductivity Estimate of Solids (in gms per liter) * (RH% / 100) * Saturation Density * 1E-3

and in µgms:

µgms = gms / m3 * 1E6

and as an example, if the solid density is .015 gms / liter and the temperature is 15 deg centigrade and humidity is 50%, the estimate of particulate concentration from the salts is 96µgms / m3.  This concentration will vary directly with altitude (temperature) and humidity levels.

The estimates show that at ground levels and temperatures it is quite possible that the EPA air quality standards for particulate matter are no longer being met.  This determination will also depend on the size of the particles in question, as EPA standards vary according to size (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively).  All analyses indicate that the size of the aerosols under examination are sub-micron, and if so, this makes the problem more acute.  Air quality standards for comparison to various scenarios are available9 to examine the relationship that has been developed. Unfortunately, the failures of United States government agencies now require the independent audit of EPA data and presentation.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is especially culpable in this regard, and the enforcement of existing standards is a serious topic of controversy.

Finally, let us introduce the subject of ohmic heating.  The behavior of electric currents within weak saline solutions has many points of interest.  During the testing for this report, it was observed that the conductivity of weak saline solutions noticeably increased over time when these solutions were subjected to a weak electric current. It appears that the most likely source of this conductivity is a phenomenon known as ohmic heating.  In plasma physics, ohmic heating is the energy imparted to charged particles as they respond to an electric field and make collisions with other particles.  A classic definition would be the heating that results from the flow of current through a medium with electrical resistance.  Please recall the difficulty of using an ohmmeter to measure conductivity in a solution; this difficulty was realized in the trials of this report.

Metals are known to increase their resistance with the introduction of an electric current.  As the metal becomes hotter, resistance increases and conductivity decreases.  Salt water and plasmas are quite interesting in that the opposite effect occurs.  The conductivity of salt water increases when temperature increases.  The same effect occurs within a plasma; an increase in temperature will result in a decrease of the resistance.10, i.e, the conductivity increases.  Introduction of an electric current into the plasma, or salt water for that matter, will increase the temperature and therefore the conductivity will also increase.  This is in opposition to our normal experience with metals and conductors.

In the past, conductivity studies have focused on the ability of the reactive metals to lose ions through the photoionization process.  This remains a highly significant aspect of the aerosol research.

The importance of this study is that a second factor has now been introduced into the conductivity equation, and that is the introduction of electric current itself into the plasma state. This research, through direct observation and analysis,  has inadvertently turned attention once again to the HAARP facility, where ohmic heating is stated within the Eastlund patent to be a direct contributor to atmospheric conductivity increase.  All evidence indicates that this plasma is saline based, which further propagates the hypothesis of increased conductivity in the atmosphere with the introduction of electric current, in addition to that provided by photoionization.

A future presentation will examine the changes in the conductivity of our soil, in addition to that of our air and water.

1. CE Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/calcium-and-potassium/, March 2005.
2. Andrew Hunt, A-Z Chemistry, (McGraw Hill, 2003), 125.
3. Dr. Rana Munns, The Impact of Salinity Stress, http://www.plantstress.com/Articles/salinity_i/salinity_i.htm.
4. Steven Lower, Ion Bunk, http://www.chem1.com/CQ/ionbunk.html.
5. Hobbs, Peter, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p137.
6. Water Standards, Simulated Rainwater, http://www.hps.net/simrain.html
7. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, Table 108, (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984), 381.
8. Walter J. Saucier, Principles of Meterological Analysis, (Dover, 1989), 9.
9. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/compliance/monitoring/air/monops/naaqs.html
10. S. Eliezer and Y. Eliezer, The Fourth State of Matter, An Introduction to Plasma Science, (Institute of Physics Publishing 2001), 124-125.

CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM

CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM
Mar 15 2005

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It may be supposed that higher levels of such minerals in our atmosphere pose no immediate threat or concern; an examination of the physical processes likely to take place, however, shows exactly the opposite to be the case.  A search of the literature commonly reveals that an excess of positive ions in the atmosphere is detrimental to human health. 2,3,4,5

Examination of the aerosol issue has, almost from the beginning, focused on the important properties of the metallic elements of Groups I and II of the periodic table.  The attention has arisen because of the ease by which such elements are ionized.  This ionization will take place in the majority of cases quite readily with the energy available from ultra-violet light and, in some cases, from visible light alone.  It will be found6 that calcium and potassium, with a special emphasis upon potassium, are easily ionized with the energy available from either visible or ultra-violet sunlight.

A partial list of the effects of ion disturbances upon human health include, as a minimum, the following:

1. Impairment of the body’s ability to absorb oxygen, leading to headaches, asthma attacks, reduced circulation in the brain and emotional irritability.

2. The development of allergies.  Ionized air is associated with the following conditions : allergic bronchitis, allergic sinusitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic respiratory tract allergies.  It may also be recalled7 that “chronic lower respiratory disease” now ranks as the third leading cause of death in this country, and that it continues to climb in this ranking.

3. High levels of serotonin in the bloodstream, triggered by excessive numbers of positive ions in the environment.

4. A reduction in the body’s ability to filter airborne contaminants from lung tissue.

Direct research from this site alone now documents unexpected levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium and barium.  A common thread between all of these elements is the ease of ionization that characterizes Group I and Group II elements of the periodic table.  Magnesium  oxide is also of value as a dispersal agent8 in aerosol operations. The existence of barium levels is of special concern because of the high toxicity of water soluble forms. Candidates for further and future testing,  include strontium, aluminum and titanium. The acquisition of an ion counter will be a valuable instrument to further this research; if anyone is in a position to provide or loan this device please feel free to contact me.

The importance of ionization with respect to the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol operations has been extensively discussed and documented on this site.

The laboratory report received establishes an even deeper basis for further atmospheric and rainwater testing.  More importantly, the burden and obligation of governmental and public agencies to meet citizen demand for reestablishing the health of our atmosphere and planet remain as strong as ever.  The chronic failure of adequate response by these same public agencies requires that this accountability be accompanied by independent, non-vested verification.  It is hoped that the citizens will continue to exert this pressure for the public welfare.

References:
1.  Hobbs, Peter, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p137.
2. Ionized Air, http://www.kroger.com/hn/Therapy/Ionized_Air.htm
3. The Effects of Air Quality on the Serotonin Irritation Syndrome, http://www.berriman-usa.com/iaqsis.htm
4. Air Ion Effects on Human Performance, http://www.static-sol.com/library/articles/air%20ion%20effects.htm
5. Static Voltage and Environmental Ion Depletion, http://www.zenion.com/static.html
6. Carnicom, Ionization Apparent, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/ionization-apparent/
7. Carnicom, Leading Cause of Death, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/a-leading-cause-of-death/
8. Fuchs, N.A., The Mechanics of Aerosols, Dover, 1989, p.375

MORTALITY VS. VISIBILITY

MORTALITY VS. VISIBILITY
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Jun 03 2004

MORTALITY VS. VISIBILITY

MORTALITY VS. VISIBILITY
Distance to Mountain Range : Approximately 15 miles
3 % of U.S. Population : Approximately 8 million people

A model has been developed to depict the estimated increase in the mortality rate as a function of the decrease in visibility. The results of this model in a graphical form are shown above. It can be observed that mortality increases as visibility decreases, and that the effect is highly significant. This model does not consider the additional negative health effects that occur from the toxic nature of particulate matter1.

 


Additional Notes:

The American Heart Associations establishes that an increase in the density of particulate matter will cause an increase in mortality. The expected increase is expressed in a differential form of an increase of 1% mortality of an increase of 10ug (micrograms) per cubic meter.2 Additional sources3 refer to an increase of 3.4% mortality increase per equivalent density change, however the more conservative approach will be adopted within this model.

 

TO BE CONTINUED

References:

1. Clifford E Carnicom, Barium Tests are Positive, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/barium-tests-are-positive/), May 24, 2004.
2. American Heart Association, Air Pollution, Heart Disease and Stroke, (http://www.americanheart.org), Jun 1 2004.1. Clifford E Carnicom, Mortality Requires Examination, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/mortality-requires-examination/), Mar 22, 2004.
3. Laden F, Neas LM, Dockery DW, Schwartz J., Association of Fine Particulate Matter from Different Sources with Daily Mortality in Six U.S. Cities, (Environmental Health Perspective), 2000 Oct; 108 (10), 941-7. Abstract available from U.S. National Institute of Health.
4. Carnicom, Air Quality Data Requires Public Scrutiny, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/air-quality-data-requires-public-scrutiny/), Aug 27, 2001.
5. Carnicom, Microscopic Particle Count Study, New Mexico 1996-1999, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/microscopic-particle-count-study-new-mexico-1996-1999/), Mar 23, 2000.
6. Carnicom, The Theft of Sunlight, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/the-theft-of-sunlight/), Oct 25, 2003.
7. Carnicom, Visibility Standards Changed, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/visibility-standards-changed/), Apr 01, 2001.
8. Carnicom, The Extinction of the Stars, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/the-extinction-of-the-stars/), Jun 23, 2003.
9. American Lung Association, Particulate Matter, (http://www.lungusa.org), Apr 2000.

ORBS REQUIRE CONSIDERATION

ORBS REQUIRE CONSIDERATION
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 14 2004
Santa Fe area of New Mexico
Edited Oct 19 2006

Reports of orbs, or lighted spheres, have occurred frequently during recent years and these reports appear to frequently coincide with the aerosol operations. Isolated but credible photographs of such orbs have been brought to my attention in the past. I have, however, refrained from presenting this information due to the lack of corroboration and redundancy in the imagery evidence that is available.

On March 10, I conducted video taping of heavy aerosol operations to the southwest that were centered over the Albuquerque, NM region during the sunset hour. The camera was on a tripod during the entire session. At the close of filming, the camera was pointed at an airplane in the southeast sky at an angle of approximately 30 degrees in altitude. After the aircraft had passed, a spherical object appeared and remained relatively stationary in the viewfinder. I videotaped this object for approximately 1 1/2 minutes, and the evidence from that taping appears on this page.

ORBS
Video Still of Orb
Santa Fe NM Mar 10 2004
SE Sky, Altitude Approx. 30 deg., Approx. 1830
No Zoom

The size and origin of the object can not be determined at this time. The character of the object is generally that of a ball of light. Higher resolution video remains available for examination, and limits of resolution are inherent in the internet presentation of this information.

Examination of the video reveals several interesting aspects. The physics of motion of the object defy common explanation. There is no obvious propulsion system visible, and the movement of the object is generally non-linear. The boundaries of dark on the right and left sides of the image frames may be an artifact of the camera process; similar exaggeration of light boundaries have been observed during the filming of conventional contrails, for example. The camera was operating in a digital mode, and increased zooming of the lens reveals increasing pixelization as is expected.

In the original video or higher resolution formats of the video, an interaction of the object with the surrounding atmospheric medium can be seen. This interaction occurs in periodic pulses, always on the same side of the object (left side). The interaction is visible as variations in the lighting of the pixels over a fairly broad region of the frame, an area slightly smaller than the area of the orb itself. It would appear that this interaction is of a plasma nature. There also appears to be a pulsation within the light source itself, however it can not yet be determined if this is an artifact of the imaging process. Any variation in the size of the object is due to variations in the video camera focal length (zoom), and it is not due to change in the distance to the object.

ORBS
Video Still of Orb
Santa Fe NM Mar 10 2004
SE Sky, Altitude Approx. 30 deg., Approx. 1830
Zoom Approx 50x

It is not known whether or not there is an association between the existence of this object and the concurrent conduct of heavy aerosol operations in the same general area and at the same general time. The appearance of the object and the subsequent video record of this object are simply made available to the public for consideration in light of previous reports that have been made.

Citizens are encouraged to further this research topic, and to seek out the highest quality imagery if such events reoccur. The circumstances of this videotape were somewhat fortuitous, as the camera was relatively stationary on a tripod at the time and appeared in the viewfinder somewhat serendipitously.

Video versions of this event suitable for distribution over the internet are available at the bottom of this page through a variety of links.

It is appropriate and proper to consider the existence of such orbs and/or other anomalous objects in the context of the research that has been conducted for more than five years on the nature, origin, applications and purposes of the aerosol operations.

ORBS
Video Still of Orb
Santa Fe NM Mar 10 2004
SE Sky, Altitude Approx. 30 deg., Approx. 1830
Zoom Approx 60x

Additional Note:

Two additional anecdotal reports of anomalous airborne objects have been received, one over the Farmington, New Mexico area and the other over the outskirts of Santa Fe, New Mexico. These reports occurred during the same general time period of this report, however, the specifics of observations are not available at this time.

Additional notes for Oct 19 2006:

It has been brought to my attention that the date of observations recorded under the images has been previously misstated as Mar 10 2002. The actual date of observations was Mar 10 2004.  The original date of the authoring of the report on Mar 14 2004 is correct.  These dates have been corrected.  My appreciation is extended for the identification of this error.  This date has been verified by its association with the documentary production  released in Jan 2005 as well as the date and time stamps of the original media files that were produced.  The report stands as stated.

 


VIDEO STREAMING VERSIONS:
Real Player : Low Resolution Streaming Media Video File (360k)

Windows Media Player : Low Resolution Streaming Media Video File (390k)

Real Player : Broadband Resolution Streaming Media Video File (1.1M)

 


VIDEO DOWNLOAD VERSIONS:

Real Player : Low Resolution Video File (orb.rm download version – 360k)

Windows Media Player : Low Resolution Video File (orb1.wmv download version – 390k)

Real Player : Higher Resolution Video File (Orb128.rm download version – 1.1M)

GLOBAL WARMING & AEROSOLS (II)

GLOBAL WARMING & AEROSOLS
Clifford E Carnicom
Feb 23 2004

FURTHER DISCUSSION

The fundamental equations that address the heating of the atmosphere with the introduction of foreign materials are the following:

cv = sum [mfi * cvi]

which is the specific heat of a mixture (gravimetric analysis)2

where

mfi is the mass fraction of the ith component, and cvi is the specific heat of the ith component in units of joules / (kg * oK)

and cv is the specific heat of the mixture in units of joules / (kg * oK) and oK is degrees Kelvin.

and the heat transfer as given by the first law of thermodynamics3

Q = m * cv * del T

where Q represents the change in energy in joules, m is the total mass of the mixture, and del T is the change in degrees of the mass in degrees Kelvin.

Let us assume the atmosphere as a shell around the earth of variable height, the volume of which is given by:

vair = ( 4 / 3) * pi * [ ( R + upper )3 – ( R + lower)3 ]

where vair is the volume of the atmospheric shell in cubic meters, R is the mean radius of the earth in meters, upper is the upper limit of the atmospheric shell under consideration in meters (above sea level), and lower is the lower limit of the atmospheric shell in meters (above sea level).

Based upon an exponential regression of atmospheric density data in kilograms4, a suitable model for the mass of a column of air 1 meter square in dimension can be developed in the following form:

mair = 1.474 * exp -1.424E-4 * h dh

integrated with respect to the upper and lower limits of the atmospheric shell, and mair is the mass of the atmospheric shell in kilograms, and h is in meters.

The mass of the aerosol in kilograms within an atmospheric column of air 1 meter square in dimension is expressed as:

ma = da * (upper – lower)

where the density of a particular aerosol in units of kilograms is designated as da.

As the density of the aerosol and the atmosphere will be considered to be uniform throughout the shell considered, the mass fractions of the atmosphere and the aerosol contribution, respectively, are:

mfair = mair / (mair + ma)

and

mfa = ma / (mair + ma)

Therefore:

cv = ( mfa * cva ) + (mfair * cvair)

where cva and cvair are the constant volume specific heats of the aerosol and air, respectively.

since Q = m * cv * del T

and since we are interested in the change in Q that results from a change in the specific heat of the mixture, we have:

dQ = matotal* del T * dcv

where dQ represents the change in energy in joules that results from a change of temperature in the atmospheric shell in degrees Kelvin and a change in the specific heat of the atmosphere from the introduction of an aerosol component within this mixture. The total mass of the atmospheric shell is given by matotal.

where matotal = mair * vair

and dcv = cv – cvair

It will be found that all introduced materials with a specific heat of less than 1003 joules / (kg * oK) (the specific heat of air) will lead to a decrease in the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of the mass of the atmospheric shell by 1 degree Kelvin.  Since the energy from the sun can be considered as a relative constant for the problem of concern, this solar energy will result in an increase in the temperature of the atmospheric shell.  The specific heat of barium, for example is approximately 190 joules / (kg * oK).5 This particular element will have highly significant thermodynamic impacts upon the lower atmosphere; the effect of the vast majority of metals and most chemical elements is significant as well.

1. Clifford E Carnicom, Drought Inducement, (https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/drought-inducement/), 04/07/02
2. Merle C. Potter, Thermodynamics for Engineers, (McGraw Hill, 1993), 251.
3. Potter, 251.
4. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001), 14-19 to 14-22. 
5. Carnicom, 04/07/02.