A Point of Reckoning: Part III

A Point of Reckoning – Part III

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 06 2017

 

Schematic_05.jpg

 

A common set of organic components has been identified within a wide variety of environmental and biological samples. These components are comprised of organic functional groups and structures that are found in each of the following sample types:

 

  1. The “Environmental Filament” material that has been under investigation by Carnicom Institute for a period that now approaches two decades. This is the same material type that was originally sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in January of the year 2000 with a request for identification on behalf of the public welfare. The Agency refused to perform that investigation or examination.

 

sample_aug_2017_02-jpg-550x413.jpeg

Unusual airborne “Environmental Filament” material of identical nature sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2000. A request for identification was made at that time. The request was not fulfilled.

 

 

2. An isolated and specific protein that is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria (CDB) as described more extensively on this site. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017).

 

3. An extraction from a HEPA air filter that has run continuously for approximately one year. Filters that have been subjected to both indoor and outdoor air show similar sample materials to be collected.

indoor_hepa.jpg outdoor_hepa.jpg

Typical HEPA air filter (indoor and outdoor) sample material used for extraction and subsequent infrared analysis of organic composition. These samples are described in more detail in the paper entitled “A Point of Reckoning: Part I”, Aug 2017.

 

4. Organic extractions from concentrated and multiple rainfall samples.

rain_idaho_04.jpg

Concentrated rainfall samples in comparison to distilled water. Contamination of the water is visually apparent. Additional information regarding rainfall analyses is available on this site.

 

5. A set of biological samples, including that of human hair, saliva and blood have been examined via infrared analysis as a portion of this report. Hair samples require chemical digestion and all samples require the complete removal of water from the sample.

 

6. Skin exfoliation samples from an individual that exhibits symptoms characteristic of the Morgellons condition have also been examined via digestion, digestion and infrared techniques.

 

100_3451-300x225.jpg 0028-300x225.jpg

Observed skin that exhibits symptoms
characteristic of the Morgellons condition.

Filament sample recorded (one of several)
within a portion of the skin condition shown
to the left. Magnification approx. 150x.

 

ir_spectrum.jpg

Infrared spectra of a variety of environmental and biological samples that share a common set of organic components. The sample types include the “Environmental Filament”, a specific and isolated microorganism protein, a HEPA air filter extract, a concentrated rainfall sample, hair, saliva and blood samples, and a skin exfoliate sample. Although all sample types have been collected and prepared by vastly different methods and are of varying concentrations, a set of organic functional groups is common to each sample.  These occur within the ‘functional group window’ of the infrared spectra shown.

 

The laboratory methods of analysis include, in part, that of:

Organic extraction methods
Liquid column (low pressure) chromatography
Ultraviolet spectroscopy
Visible light spectroscopy (colorimetric test)
Bradford test for protein
Evaporative techniques
Near Infrared Analysis
Infrared Analysis.

A database of more than 6500 infrared spectra (National Institutes of Technology –NIST and collected) has been used to prepare this research paper.

The functional groups within the analyses that are of heightened interest and that appear to share commonality include those of the phenols, organic acids, isothiocyanates, and the amides. There are numerous implications within this set of functional groups and their combined properties that provide a basis for extended research, investigations trials,and the aggregation of resources and funding for the same in the future .

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 06 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Bean Growth Report

Bean Growth Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 03 2017

The growth of beans (Vigna unguiculata) that have been subjected to a specific and isolated protein for two weeks is now complete This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The protein concentration solution applied to the seeds is 2% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment is that germination and growth from the beans is essentially terminated by the presence of this protein at this concentration level. The control seeds have germinated and flourished normally. Additional trials with a lower concentration of the protein in solution are planned.

Photographs that demonstrate the condition of growth in both cases are shown below:

 

bean_control.jpg

The growth of beans (Black eyed pea) under control conditions of water nutrient solution alone is recorded above.  Growth appears to be entirely normal and healthy over the two week period. A bean that remained under the water level in the control solution is trapped by the root of the plant to the right.

 

bean_protein.jpg

The halted and damaged growth of the same bean species after being subjected to the isolated and specific protein under study. The origin and nature of this protein have been described within the research on this site. The concentration of the protein solution is 2% by weight. The time period for growth is two weeks.  The growth process has been terminated and it shows significant harm to the plant; in addition, the solution has fostered a fungal attack upon the seeds. A highly stunted from of germination occurs at the lower right of the seed shown to the left; there is no germination of the seed shown to the right. The vast majority of the beans subjected to the protein show no visible germination.

 

This report demonstrates that the agricultural, biological and health impacts from this particular protein are likely to be significant and detrimental. Additional tests reported and underway support this finding.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 03 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Mustard Seed Report: Growth Termination

Mustard Seed Report: Growth Terminated

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 24 2017

The growth of mustard seeds that have been subjected to a specific and isolated protein for one week is now complete This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The concentration of the protein solution that was applied to the seeds is 2% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment is that germination and growth from the seeds is essentially terminated by the presence of this protein at this concentration level. The control seeds have germinated and flourished normally. Additional trials with a lower concentration of the protein in solution are planned.

Photographs that demonstrate the condition of growth in both cases are shown below:

 

Control_01.jpg Control_02.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in control water nutrient solution (alone). One week growth period.
Healthy and flourishing growth is evident. Centimeter rule on left photograph; magnification on right photograph approx. 10x.

 

Protein_01.jpg Protein_02.jpg

Mustard seeds subjected to 2% (by weight) protein and water solution. One week growth period.
The termination of the growth process is evident. The early stages of germination can be observed in isolated cases. The vast majority of mustard seeds subjected to the protein solution show no visible germination at the end of the one week period. Centimeter rule on left photograph; magnification on right photograph approx. 10x.

 

This report suggests that the agricultural, biological and health impacts from this particular protein may be highly significant and detrimental. Additional tests underway support this concern.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 24 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Yeast Deformation: Initial Report

Yeast Deformation: Initial Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 22 2017

 

A yeast culture that has been subjected to an isolated protein is under study. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The purpose of the project is to explore the impact of the protein upon more rudimentary life forms; in this case, a fungus. The protein concentration solution applied to the yeast culture is 0.5% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water and sucrose alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment, at this early stage, is that a cellular deformation or alteration of significant proportion has taken place. This suggests that the early growth of this particular fungus is modified in a significant fashion with the inclusion of this protein in the nutrient medium. The act of mutation must be considered as a distinct possibility in this case.

The change occurs primarily upon a surface layer that forms within the culture; this same layer does not develop within the control culture of water and sucrose alone. The act of change is a division process that appears to frequently “join” cells into doublets or triplets, as opposed to a full bud spherical division as expected.

 

control_01.jpg control_02.jpg

Control growth yeast cells in sucrose and water solution. 72 hour growth period. Cells are generally circular in shape and symmetric. Normal budding and division reproduction process. The appearance of the culture is normal and stable. Magnification approx. 5000x.

 

protein_01.jpg protein_02.jpg
Yeast culture subjected to water, sucrose, and specific protein solution. The isolation of the protein is described further within the research of this site. Concentration of the protein is 0.5% by weight. 72 hour growth period. Unusual growth alterations are evident. Doublet and triplet cell formation appears to be common within the population. Magnification approx. 5000x.

 

The growth process of the yeast culture will continue to be monitored.

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 22 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Mustard Seed Germination: Initial Report

Mustard Seed Germination: Initial Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 20 2017

 

A series of biological experiments and trials that involve the application of an isolated protein to various growth processes has commenced. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The purpose of the current trial is to explore the impact of the protein upon various plant germinations. A series of germinations is underway; the current report is limited to the advanced germination of mustard seeds within a 48 hour period. The protein solution applied to the seeds is 2% concentration by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment, at this early stage, is that germination of the seeds is delayed or impeded by the application of the protein solution. This suggests that the early growth of this particular plant is negatively impacted with the inclusion of this protein as a (potential) nutrient source.

The overwhelming majority of the mustard seeds subjected to the protein have not germinated during this brief time period. An optimistic selection of seeds that have been subjected to the protein are shown below; they demonstrate that sprouting to some degree is possible during this same 48 hour period.

The vast majority of the control seeds (i.e., water alone) have germinated normally and they appear to be healthy at this point.

 

Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0002.jpg Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0001.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in control water nutrient solution (alone). 48 hour germination period.
Germination appears to be normal at this stage.
Magnification approx. 20x

.

Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0003.jpg Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0004.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in 2% (by weight) protein solution. 48 hour germination period.
The delay and stunting of the germination process is evident. The vast majority of mustard seeds subjected to the protein solution show no visible germination at the end of the 48 hour period. Variation in the surface texture of the seeds in comparison to that of the controls is also apparent.  Magnification approx. 20x.

 

The growth process of this seed trial, along with that of other seed types, will continue to be monitored.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 20 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

A Point of Reckoning : Part II

A Point of Reckoning:
Part II

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 13 2017

Lead_Diagram.jpg

 

The organic signature of various proteins that have been isolated from differing sample types and environments has been established to a high level of similarity. The various protein samples have been isolated from:

  1. An identified microorganism (tentatively designated as a cross-domain bacteria, CDB) that has been studied extensively and that is associated with the “Morgellons” condition.
  2. A High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) air filter.
  3. A concentrated rainfall sample.

 

The laboratory methods of analysis include that of:

  1. Organic extraction methods
  2. Liquid column (low pressure) chromatography
  3. Ultraviolet spectroscopy
  4. Visible light spectroscopy (colorimetric test)
  5. Bradford test for protein
  6. Infrared Analysis

 

Additional relevant papers on these and related samples also appear on this site within the research library.

 

Protein Comparison CDB HEPA Rain Aug 16 2017 - 01.JPEG

Infrared analysis and comparison of proteins isolated from a microorganism (CDB) culture, HEPA air filter and rainfall concentrate sample. The concentrations of the samples and the methods and complexity of preparation and protein isolation are vastly different in all cases; nevertheless, a high degree of similarity is apparent with specific functional group signature features. This is especially the case within the ‘functional group’ window within the spectra. The presence of the thiocyanate/isothiocyanate functional group in all samples is an additional highly significant and distinctive feature posing important health considerations.

 

Rainfall Condensed Sample Protein against Control Aug 21 2017.jpg LC HEPA Separation Bradford Verfication Aug 20 2017.jpg
An example of visible light spectral analysis of the Bradford colorimetric test for proteins applied to the rainfall concentrate sample. The Bradford reagent test and VIS-IR spectral analyses have been applied to all sample types identified within this report. Bradford colorimetric test for protein within rainfall concentrate sample.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 13 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Environmental Filament Project : Metals Testing Laboratory Report

Environmental Filament, Project:
Metals Testing Laboratory Report

by

Clifford E Carnicorn
Aug 21 2017

A unique form of “environmental filament” material has long been under study at Carnicom Institute. Those familiar with the work here know that the early history of study involves a refusal by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to examine that material, and those events are well documented on this site. Many readers are also familiar with the biological components that have accompanied this sample type and the similar refusal by any authoritative agencies to acknowledge the realities of these environmental and health dangers to the public.

This paper will present the data from a high level analytical chemistry examination of this same sample type for metals content. The method of examination is that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) The testing procedures conform to requirements at the detection level of parts per billion (ppb, or mg/kg). The original observation of the sample is airborne. A low power microscopic image of a second collected sample (identical in nature to that analyzed in the laboratory) follows immediately below:

 

sample_aug_2017_02.jpg

 

The test results show the clear presence of numerous metals, frequently to excess levels:

Aluminum
Barium
Calcium
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Nickel
Potassium
Titanium
Vanadium
Zinc

lab_report_aug_2017_02.jpg

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 21 2017

A Point of Reckoning : Part I

A Point of Reckoning:
Part I

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 19 2017
Edited Aug 21 2017
Edited Aug 25 2017

Note: Carnicom Institute is not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. CI is acting solely as an independent research entity that is providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes.

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A general equivalency between the organic nature of materials collected with the use of HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance) air filters (indoor and outdoor) and a series of concentrated rain samples has been established. This conclusion is based upon the use of infrared analysis, microscopic examination, and visual examination of the materials. The inherent similarity between the historically designated “environmental filament” and the filaments known to be clearly associated with the so-called “Morgellons” condition must also be accepted as a part of this analysis.

This more recent work has been conducted over a period of roughly two years with careful repetitions and redundancies. Fundamentally, the conclusion is logical but nevertheless sweeping in impact; what is in the air is in the water. Furthermore, what is in the air and the water has an important relationship to marked changes in health that affect the general public. What is in the air and in the water is in our bodies.  This state has developed in a global and ubiquitous sense for more than two decades, and we must now all share some responsibility to acknowledge and proclaim our condition on the planet.

The details of the methods will only be briefly summarized here; they involve long term sample collection and a variety of laboratory analyses over extended time. The photographs below will demonstrate the essence of comparison.

The similarity of the infrared plots reveals to us that the basic organic structure of the extracted materials from the air filters and the rain samples are the same. The details of molecular structure inherent within the plot will be reserved for future discussion; the signature aspect of infrared spectroscopy is sufficient at this point to advance the argument.

In addition, microscopic examination reinforces that the air and rainfall biological filament samples are identical. There is little doubt that this biological equivalency is also at the root of the infrared analysis of organics mentioned above.

Additional notes on some of the details of sample types and preparation follow at the end of this report.

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\HEPA-0006.jpg C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\HEPA-0023.jpg

Representative “environmental” filaments collected on indoor HEPA Air filter
(blue to left, red to right).
Analysis of the filaments demonstrates properties that are common with filaments
that have been collected from the concentrated rain sample. These filaments are
also representative of those that are associated with the “Morgellons” condition.
The background mesh network (white filaments) is the HEPA air filter itself.
Magnification Approx 150x.

Indoor – Outdoor HEPA Air Filter Comparisons:
Representative “environmental” filaments also collected on an outdoor air HEPA filter
under forced air.  These filaments were collected within a 24 hour exposure  to a new
filter element.  Results are identical between indoor and outdoor exposures.
Magnification Approx 150x.

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\Rainfall Concentrate Analysis 1500x Aug 15 2017_4.jpg

Magnification Approx. 1500x

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\Rainfall Concentrate Analysis 5000x Aug 15 2017_2.jpg

Magnification Approx. 5000x.

Filaments collected from rainwater concentrate sample.
Analysis demonstrates properties that are common with filaments collected in the HEPA air filter.
The filaments also demonstrate these same properties that are
associated with the “Morgellons” condition.

 

Observed skin that exhibits symptoms
characteristic of the Morgellons condition.
Filament sample recorded (one of several)
within a portion of the skin condition shown
to the left. Magnification approx. 150x.

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\hepa_ir_02.jpg

Infrared Plot of HEPA Air Filter Extract

C:\Users\Clifford\Documents\Carnicom Institute\A Point of Reckoning\Part I\rain_ir_02.jpg

Infrared Plot of Rainwater Concentrate Sample

Infrared plots to compare the organic nature of the
HEPA air filter extract against the organic nature of the rainfall concentrate.
The samples contain organic materials that are fundamentally of the same nature.

Additional notes:

HEPA Filter(s):

HEPA filters are air filters that are quite effective at trapping materials to the micron size level. They have an interesting history and origin, as they were developed as a part of the Manhattan Project in the 1940’s to trap radioactive materials. This filter type is now in common use and affordable. There is a fair amount of usage of HEPA filters in the history of Carnicom Institute (CI) research, as they are a very effective means of collecting air particulates.

They are also used in commercial aircraft. One of the ironies of the aerosol investigations over the last two decades is that a ready source of sample collection material has always existed; the difficulty is that of access to the samples. CI has long advocated that designing any single aircraft test for sampling the atmosphere is an inefficient, deficient, unnecessary and expensive approach to acquire information about the state of pollution in the atmosphere. This singular test approach has been advocated fruitlessly by several parties over the course of time. The situation is that a massive collection of particulate samples already exists for examination and analysis, but that access to it is not forthcoming. On a hearsay basis, there is information to indicate that the disposal of the filters is carefully controlled (potentially designated as radioactive?).

It is also of interest to mention that, at a very early point of the research, I was given anonymous access in confidence to such a filter from a commercial airliner, along with a laboratory test of the filter for certain metallic elements. That individual remains unknown but he remains deserving of thanks from all of us. To my knowledge, there is no similar test by a member of the public since that time, apparently due to the access issues mentioned above.

That particular filter did show unusual levels of barium in the test results (and calcium to my recollection), and it was one of the harbingers of testing for atmospheric metals that was to follow. At the time of receipt, no laboratory facilities of any kind were available to CI and the physics of the aerosol operations were unknown to the level acquired during subsequent research over the years. Credit is also overdue to AC Griffith, now deceased, for his early role in stimulating interest in the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol issue. The interplay between ionizable materials and electromagnetics subsequently became a dominant theme of CI research, and the contributions of both of these individuals are to be recognized in that history.

In the case of the current research, two indoor and one outdoor HEPA filters have been examined.  The indoor filters were exposed to long term collection (6-12 months) and the outdoor filter is exposed under short term forced air conditions. Laboratory testing depends upon the sensitivity of the instruments employed and with that sensitivity comes cost. One of the methods of compensating for decreased sensitivity is to allow for an increased time of collection. This is the preference here. As such, one indoor filter was allowed to run its course for approximately 6 months, and the second indoor filter ran close to one full year. All filters are operated approximately 20 feet above ground level. The history of work includes the use of additional outdoor HEPA filters.

Some of the larger pollutants, e.g., the filament samples, can appear quite readily subject to the microscope. The longer term goal in this project was to collect the micron size material that is invisible to the eye until sufficient mass has been collected. This is the source for chemical and spectroscopic testing in this case.

Sample preparation for instrument use is one of the greatest demands in the laboratory environment. It consumes far more effort and time than most people recognize, other than by those involved in the field. In the case of infrared (IR) spectrometry, water is the bane of the testing process and is generally to be avoided in all respects. The HEPA particulates in this case have been dissolved into ethanol, which is a suitable solvent for the preliminary overview that is covered here. The evaporation of the solvent on a suitable substrate will allow the formation of a film which is well suited to infrared spectroscopy. The IR spectra acquired serves two primary purposes:

  1. It serves as a unique fingerprint of the compound(s) in solution
  2. It serves as a useful tool for introductory examination of the molecular structure of the compound(s) in solution

In the case of this paper, the emphasis is only upon the signature aspect of the spectra, as the purpose here is to compare to sampling from a different environment, namely, that of rainfall. This comparison is what is shown above and the point of equality or high similarity is made in the process.

Rainfall Sample:

Rainfall presents even greater difficulties in the sample prep arena. The sensitivity issue discussed above is front and center, and the solution to the problem in this case is to acquire a greater volume of rainfall. Adequate sample volume is definitely an issue, and fortuitous periods of rain will be required.  Non-detrimental evaporation and condensing of the sample will require a fair amount of patience, but it can be accomplished. The samples of this paper were collected in 2016 and were condensed to roughly 5% of their original volume.The organic materials were then removed from the water using a non-polar solvent extraction method for subsequent infrared analysis.  Additional extensive studies were completed on these samples in the previous year, and they have been recorded in a series of papers on this site.

Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 19 2017
Edited Aug 21 2017
Edited Aug 25 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Carpinteria Crystal

Carpinteria Crystal

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 25 2016

An environmental crystal sample sent to Carnicom Institute from a concerned citizen has been analyzed as to its nature.  The ground sample was received three years ago and it has been held in custody since that time.  Circumstances are now more favorable toward establishing the identity or nature of inorganic compounds, and thus the opportunity to do so in this case has been exercised.  The sample originates from the Santa Barbara – Carpinteria region of the country.  The sample is well documented, clean, and has been collected and transported in a careful fashion.

One of the reasons for the interest in the sample is a repetition of events.  The citizen reports that similar appearing materials  have occurred within the same coastal housing district on multiple occasions over a period of many years.  In addition, the findings of this study may have relevance to a paper presented earlier on this site.  The interest in devoting time to sample analysis is directly related to the the frequency and pattern of appearance.

There are also several occasions of crystal samples collected or received over the years that have not received proper attention due to insufficient resources and means for investigation.  The majority of these cases, to my recollection, resulted from air filtration systems.  These deficiencies have likely delayed our understanding of various forms of pollution that likely surround us, and this will remain the case until full and sufficient resources are devoted to these types of problems.  It is the opinion of this researcher that the regulating environmental protections agencies have an obligation to this end and that it has not been well served.

This particular sample has the following appearance:

sb_crystal_2013-01

Environmental Crystal Sample Material Received in 2013

 

The purpose of this paper is not to debate the origin or delivery method of the sample; the information available is insufficient to fully detail those answers.  It can be stated in fairness that the observer witnessed heavy aerosol  operations over the region in the early hours of the day of collection of the sample.  The density and activity level of the operations was stated to be high.

The purpose of this paper IS to call attention to what may be a repeating type of material that has potentially important environmental consequences, particularly if they are found to exist in aerosol or particulate form within the general atmosphere.  The sample type is also fully consistent with many of the analyses and postulates that have developed within the research over the years.  The specifics of that discussion will follow within this paper.

The sample has been evaluated using multiple approaches.  These include, but are not limited to:

  1. Electrochemistry techniques, specifically differential normal pulse voltammetry.
  2. Solubility analyses
  3. Melting point determination
  4. Density estimates
  5. Microscopic crystal analysis
  6. Qualitative reagent tests
  7. Conductivity measurements
  8. Index of refraction measurements

The results of these analyses indicate that the dominant component of the material is that of potassium chloride, a metallic salt form.  There are indications that the sample does contain more than one component, but any further investigation will have to take place at a later time.   Every physical and chemical form has implications, applications and consequences, especially if they occur in a manner foreign or unexplained to the environment.  The material shown above is of no exception to those concerns.  It may be the case that the appearance of this material in an unexplained manner and location is of no consequence; prudence, however, would suggest that we are obligated to seek out that which has no accountable explanation.  This premise is at the very heart of any forensic investigation, and environmental science and pollution control are also subject to that very same demand.

 


 

A brief bit of historical perspective on this topic could be helpful.  A search on this site on the subject of crystals will bring up a minimum of eight additional papers that are relevant; there are likely to be more.  These papers range in date from 2001 to the current date, so from this standpoint alone there is a repeating issue involved here.

A search on this site for historical presentation on potassium issues produces at least three papers on the subject.  There is reason to consider, therefore, that potassium (and related) chemical compounds may be worthy of examination with respect to geoengineering as well as biological issues.

Within this combined set of close to a dozen or more papers on the subjects, two will be mentioned further at this time.

The first will be that of another sample, also of a crystalline nature, received in 2003 from the same specific region of the country.  The title of that short report is “Additional Crystal Under Examination” (Jun 2003).  There are three points of interest in comparison between that and the current report:

1. Two generally similar and unaccountable sample forms appear in similar locations over a 10 year period, and a public interest in identification of the nature of the material remains over this same prolonged period.

2. The report in 2003 is reasonably brief with a limited microscopic examination offered.  The topic is mentioned more in the sense of an anomaly and a curiosity as there is no basis at the time for an in depth study of the materials; in addition, resources to do so at the time are non-existent.

3. The third will be the comment regarding the lack of water solubility of the first sample.  The importance of this observation will be the fact that the samples, although visually similar, have important differing chemical properties.  The conclusion is that multiple material types are expected to be subject to investigation over the course of time.

The second will be that of a laboratory report received in the year of  2005.  The title of that paper is “Calcium and Potassium” (Mar. 2005).  The importance and relevance of this paper can be understood from the opening paragraph:

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It will also be noticed that several health and environmental concerns with respect to aerosolized potassium salts are enumerated in that latter paper.  Attention should also be paid to the intriguing discussion of electromagnetic effects and impacts that must be considered with the chemistry of potassium and related ions.

Potassium chloride has common uses as well, such as a fertilizer or as a water treatment compound; there is, however, no cause given to think that it is being used in such fashions at this location and setting at this time.

 


 

Let us now bring ourselves back to the current moment.  The relevance and direction of those papers have borne themselves out over time, and the urgency of responsibility upon us is as imposing as ever.  We do not have the luxury of another 20 years to conclude on such an obvious state of affairs.

There are at least three immediate applications or consequences of the existence of aerosolized potassium chloride upon the atmosphere that should be mentioned.

1. Heat Impacts

2. Moisture Impacts

3. Electromagnetic Impacts

With respect to heat impact, potassium chloride is highly soluble within water.  When it does dissolve, it absorbs heat from the water, and the magnitude is significant.  Potassium chloride has actually been used as a cold pack commercially for this same reason; it is also readily available and relatively inexpensive.  It therefore can potentially be used to influence atmospheric thermodynamics, and this is one of many leads of investigation to pursue.

On the flip side of the equation, potassium chloride in a solid state has a rather low specific heat, especially relative to that of both air and water.  This means that, depending upon the state of the surrounding atmosphere, that it can also possess the capability to heat the atmosphere, rather than to cool it.

Furthermore, potassium as a metal in its elemental form also has a lower specific heat than air and once again this may allow for a net heating impact upon the atmosphere, depending on states of being, location and interaction with other elements or compounds.

The point of this discussion is that metallic salts of any kind DO have an impact upon the heating dynamics of the atmosphere, and that this process can be both complicated and variable.  You cannot place anything into the atmosphere without having an effect in some fashion, and it is a mistake to oversimplify and overgeneralize as to what those changes will be.  The location of placement of aerosols is another matter also, as has been discussed extensively on this site.

We are, therefore, not permitted to remain ignorant of the impacts that foreign and contaminating materials have upon the environment; heat dynamics are only one of many aspects of that we are forced to confront when the atmosphere is altered in ANY significant fashion.

There are, of course, many other environmental consequences from the addition of ionizable metallic salts into the environment.  These include plant life and agriculture, for example.  Readers may also wish to become familiar with a discussion regarding soil impacts as presented within the paper “The Salts of Our Soils” (May 2005).

As far as moisture is concerned, heat and moisture are obviously very closely related subjects.  One of the trademarks of the salt genre is that of absorbing moisture.  Some salts attract moisture so strongly that they are hygroscopic, meaning that they can draw moisture from the ambient atmosphere.  The observation of this phenomenon is quite remarkable; one can start with a solid and watch it change to an eventual liquid form.  Calcium chloride and strontium chloride are both good examples of this class of materials.

Locking moisture up in this fashion will most certainly increase the heat in the atmosphere; water is one of the greatest cooling compounds that exists on the planet.  It is impossible to separate heat and moisture impacts when dealing with aerosolized metallic salts; it is certain that there will be an impact upon the atmosphere,  environment and health.  It is difficult to predict a favorable outcome here.

Lastly, there may still be some that will ridicule the notion of electromagnetic impacts of ionized metallic salts upon the atmosphere and the environment.  I think such an approach might ultimately be foolhardy.  This tenet was brought forth early in the research of this organization, and the premise remains as strong as when it is originated.  For those that care to repeat the enterprise, there are measurements to support the hypothesis, and they only continue to accumulate.

For those that seek conventional sources, one need look no further than a document that traces back to the 1990’s, entitled “Modeling of Positively Charged Aerosols in the Polar Summer Mesopause Region” (Rapp, Earth Planets Space 1999).  A very specific reference of the ability of potassium in combination with ultraviolet light to increase the electron density of the atmosphere will be found there.  There are other elements that share in this remarkable physical property, and they have been discussed within this site for many years now.  Reading the patents by Bernard Eastlund may also be insightful.  The ability of moisture to ionize many metallic salts is also to be included within the examinations that are required to take place.

It is difficult to ignore and discount the fundamental heat, moisture, and electromagnetic impacts upon the planet when metallic salts are artificially introduced into the atmosphere.  It would not be wise to do so.  The case for investigation, accountability and redress is now strong, and each of us can make the choice as to how to best proceed.  It seems to be a simple matter to want to protect and ensure the welfare of our gifted home, as our existence depends upon it.  Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

Regardless of the origin of this particular sample (which is unlikely to ever be known exactly), this report points to the requirement of identifying repetitive and unknown contaminants in the environment.  The responsibility for this process does not fall either primarily or exclusively upon the citizens; this population has neither the resources or means to perform or satisfy the requirements of identification, evaluation and assessment.  Entrusted agencies that exist specifically for protection of the welfare of the common environment (e.g., air, water, soil) and that are funded by these same citizens ARE required to do so.  In this vein, I will once again repeat the closing statement from above:

Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

 

Clifford E Carnicom

Sep 25 2016


 

Supplemental Discussion:

Approximately a dozen methods of investigation have been used to reach the conclusions of this report.  These will now be described to a modest level of detail to assist in portraying the complexities of analyzing unknown environmental samples.  This description will further the argument that the citizenry is not realistically expected to assume this burden and cost; contamination and pollution are at the heart of existence for publicly funded environmental protection agencies and entities.  It is recommended that the public seek the level of accountability that is required to reduce and eliminate persistent and harmful pollution and the contamination of our common environment.

1. Voltammetry:

The methods of differential pulse voltammetry have been applied to the sample.  The methods are quite useful in the detection of inorganics, especially metals and trace metal concentrations.  The results of the analysis are shown below:

carpinteria-crystal-sep-04-2016-03

Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry Analysis of Crystal Sample

The analysis indicates a minimum of two chemical species to consider.  The first of these is a suspected Group I or Group II element (-2.87V).  The most probable candidates to consider will be that of calcium, strontium, barium and potassium.  The other will be the consideration of  the chloride ion ( +0.63V and +1.23V).

At this point of the investigation, our strongest prospect will therefore be an ionic metallic salt crystalline form, most likely involving a subset of Group I or II of the periodic table.  The most likely candidate will, furthermore, be a chloride form of the salt.

2. We can then proceed to solubility tests.  Four candidates from above will now be considered, along with two additional candidates resulting from the chloride prospects:

calcium chloride
strontium chloride
barium chloride
potassium chloride

lithium chloride
cesium chloride

With respect to the first set of four, the solubility tests applied (i.e., water, methanol, acetone, sodium bicarbonate, acid, base) eliminate all but potassium chloride for further examination.

This reduces the primary set of consideration to that of:

potassium chloride
lithium chloride
cesium chloride

We now attempt to confirm the existence of the chloride ion in a redundant fashion.  A qualitative chemical test (HCl, AgNO3) is then applied to the sample in aqueous solution.  The existence of the chloride ion is confirmed.  The set of three candidates remains in place.

The next method applied to the sample is the determination of the melting point of the presumed ionic crystal form.  Ionic metallic salts have generally high melting points and this does present some difficulties with the use of conventional equipment and means.

The methods of calorimetry were adapted to solve this particular problem.  The methods were also applied to a control sample of potassium chloride, as well as two additional control compounds.  The results of the control and calibration trials produced results within the range of expected error (~ < 5%).

The melting point of the crystal form was determined experimentally by the above methods as approximately 780 deg. C.  The melting point of potassium chloride is 770 deg. C.  This result is well within the range of expected experimental error (1.4%).  During the process, it was noticed that an additional minority compound does exist within the sample, as a small portion of the sample does melt at a much lower point (est. 300-400 deg. C.) The minority compound would require separation and identification in a further analysis.

The melting points of lithium chloride and cesium chloride are 605 deg. C. and 645 deg. C., respectively, and they are thus eliminated from further consideration.

These results narrow the list of candidates specifically to that of potassium chloride.

An additional controlled test of conductivity of the salt in solution was applied.   The result of that test indicates agreement in conductivity with a known concentration solution of potassium chloride.  The error in that case was also well within the expected range of experimental error (0.6%).

In addition, further tests involving density determination, index of refraction, visual and microscopic crystal analysis further substantiate the identification of the crystal as being primarily that of potassium chloride.