Carpinteria Crystal

Carpinteria Crystal

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 25 2016

An environmental crystal sample sent to Carnicom Institute from a concerned citizen has been analyzed as to its nature.  The ground sample was received three years ago and it has been held in custody since that time.  Circumstances are now more favorable toward establishing the identity or nature of inorganic compounds, and thus the opportunity to do so in this case has been exercised.  The sample originates from the Santa Barbara – Carpinteria region of the country.  The sample is well documented, clean, and has been collected and transported in a careful fashion.

One of the reasons for the interest in the sample is a repetition of events.  The citizen reports that similar appearing materials  have occurred within the same coastal housing district on multiple occasions over a period of many years.  In addition, the findings of this study may have relevance to a paper presented earlier on this site.  The interest in devoting time to sample analysis is directly related to the the frequency and pattern of appearance.

There are also several occasions of crystal samples collected or received over the years that have not received proper attention due to insufficient resources and means for investigation.  The majority of these cases, to my recollection, resulted from air filtration systems.  These deficiencies have likely delayed our understanding of various forms of pollution that likely surround us, and this will remain the case until full and sufficient resources are devoted to these types of problems.  It is the opinion of this researcher that the regulating environmental protections agencies have an obligation to this end and that it has not been well served.

This particular sample has the following appearance:

sb_crystal_2013-01

Environmental Crystal Sample Material Received in 2013

 

The purpose of this paper is not to debate the origin or delivery method of the sample; the information available is insufficient to fully detail those answers.  It can be stated in fairness that the observer witnessed heavy aerosol  operations over the region in the early hours of the day of collection of the sample.  The density and activity level of the operations was stated to be high.

The purpose of this paper IS to call attention to what may be a repeating type of material that has potentially important environmental consequences, particularly if they are found to exist in aerosol or particulate form within the general atmosphere.  The sample type is also fully consistent with many of the analyses and postulates that have developed within the research over the years.  The specifics of that discussion will follow within this paper.

The sample has been evaluated using multiple approaches.  These include, but are not limited to:

  1. Electrochemistry techniques, specifically differential normal pulse voltammetry.
  2. Solubility analyses
  3. Melting point determination
  4. Density estimates
  5. Microscopic crystal analysis
  6. Qualitative reagent tests
  7. Conductivity measurements
  8. Index of refraction measurements

The results of these analyses indicate that the dominant component of the material is that of potassium chloride, a metallic salt form.  There are indications that the sample does contain more than one component, but any further investigation will have to take place at a later time.   Every physical and chemical form has implications, applications and consequences, especially if they occur in a manner foreign or unexplained to the environment.  The material shown above is of no exception to those concerns.  It may be the case that the appearance of this material in an unexplained manner and location is of no consequence; prudence, however, would suggest that we are obligated to seek out that which has no accountable explanation.  This premise is at the very heart of any forensic investigation, and environmental science and pollution control are also subject to that very same demand.

 


 

A brief bit of historical perspective on this topic could be helpful.  A search on this site on the subject of crystals will bring up a minimum of eight additional papers that are relevant; there are likely to be more.  These papers range in date from 2001 to the current date, so from this standpoint alone there is a repeating issue involved here.

A search on this site for historical presentation on potassium issues produces at least three papers on the subject.  There is reason to consider, therefore, that potassium (and related) chemical compounds may be worthy of examination with respect to geoengineering as well as biological issues.

Within this combined set of close to a dozen or more papers on the subjects, two will be mentioned further at this time.

The first will be that of another sample, also of a crystalline nature, received in 2003 from the same specific region of the country.  The title of that short report is “Additional Crystal Under Examination” (Jun 2003).  There are three points of interest in comparison between that and the current report:

1. Two generally similar and unaccountable sample forms appear in similar locations over a 10 year period, and a public interest in identification of the nature of the material remains over this same prolonged period.

2. The report in 2003 is reasonably brief with a limited microscopic examination offered.  The topic is mentioned more in the sense of an anomaly and a curiosity as there is no basis at the time for an in depth study of the materials; in addition, resources to do so at the time are non-existent.

3. The third will be the comment regarding the lack of water solubility of the first sample.  The importance of this observation will be the fact that the samples, although visually similar, have important differing chemical properties.  The conclusion is that multiple material types are expected to be subject to investigation over the course of time.

The second will be that of a laboratory report received in the year of  2005.  The title of that paper is “Calcium and Potassium” (Mar. 2005).  The importance and relevance of this paper can be understood from the opening paragraph:

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It will also be noticed that several health and environmental concerns with respect to aerosolized potassium salts are enumerated in that latter paper.  Attention should also be paid to the intriguing discussion of electromagnetic effects and impacts that must be considered with the chemistry of potassium and related ions.

Potassium chloride has common uses as well, such as a fertilizer or as a water treatment compound; there is, however, no cause given to think that it is being used in such fashions at this location and setting at this time.

 


 

Let us now bring ourselves back to the current moment.  The relevance and direction of those papers have borne themselves out over time, and the urgency of responsibility upon us is as imposing as ever.  We do not have the luxury of another 20 years to conclude on such an obvious state of affairs.

There are at least three immediate applications or consequences of the existence of aerosolized potassium chloride upon the atmosphere that should be mentioned.

1. Heat Impacts

2. Moisture Impacts

3. Electromagnetic Impacts

With respect to heat impact, potassium chloride is highly soluble within water.  When it does dissolve, it absorbs heat from the water, and the magnitude is significant.  Potassium chloride has actually been used as a cold pack commercially for this same reason; it is also readily available and relatively inexpensive.  It therefore can potentially be used to influence atmospheric thermodynamics, and this is one of many leads of investigation to pursue.

On the flip side of the equation, potassium chloride in a solid state has a rather low specific heat, especially relative to that of both air and water.  This means that, depending upon the state of the surrounding atmosphere, that it can also possess the capability to heat the atmosphere, rather than to cool it.

Furthermore, potassium as a metal in its elemental form also has a lower specific heat than air and once again this may allow for a net heating impact upon the atmosphere, depending on states of being, location and interaction with other elements or compounds.

The point of this discussion is that metallic salts of any kind DO have an impact upon the heating dynamics of the atmosphere, and that this process can be both complicated and variable.  You cannot place anything into the atmosphere without having an effect in some fashion, and it is a mistake to oversimplify and overgeneralize as to what those changes will be.  The location of placement of aerosols is another matter also, as has been discussed extensively on this site.

We are, therefore, not permitted to remain ignorant of the impacts that foreign and contaminating materials have upon the environment; heat dynamics are only one of many aspects of that we are forced to confront when the atmosphere is altered in ANY significant fashion.

There are, of course, many other environmental consequences from the addition of ionizable metallic salts into the environment.  These include plant life and agriculture, for example.  Readers may also wish to become familiar with a discussion regarding soil impacts as presented within the paper “The Salts of Our Soils” (May 2005).

As far as moisture is concerned, heat and moisture are obviously very closely related subjects.  One of the trademarks of the salt genre is that of absorbing moisture.  Some salts attract moisture so strongly that they are hygroscopic, meaning that they can draw moisture from the ambient atmosphere.  The observation of this phenomenon is quite remarkable; one can start with a solid and watch it change to an eventual liquid form.  Calcium chloride and strontium chloride are both good examples of this class of materials.

Locking moisture up in this fashion will most certainly increase the heat in the atmosphere; water is one of the greatest cooling compounds that exists on the planet.  It is impossible to separate heat and moisture impacts when dealing with aerosolized metallic salts; it is certain that there will be an impact upon the atmosphere,  environment and health.  It is difficult to predict a favorable outcome here.

Lastly, there may still be some that will ridicule the notion of electromagnetic impacts of ionized metallic salts upon the atmosphere and the environment.  I think such an approach might ultimately be foolhardy.  This tenet was brought forth early in the research of this organization, and the premise remains as strong as when it is originated.  For those that care to repeat the enterprise, there are measurements to support the hypothesis, and they only continue to accumulate.

For those that seek conventional sources, one need look no further than a document that traces back to the 1990’s, entitled “Modeling of Positively Charged Aerosols in the Polar Summer Mesopause Region” (Rapp, Earth Planets Space 1999).  A very specific reference of the ability of potassium in combination with ultraviolet light to increase the electron density of the atmosphere will be found there.  There are other elements that share in this remarkable physical property, and they have been discussed within this site for many years now.  Reading the patents by Bernard Eastlund may also be insightful.  The ability of moisture to ionize many metallic salts is also to be included within the examinations that are required to take place.

It is difficult to ignore and discount the fundamental heat, moisture, and electromagnetic impacts upon the planet when metallic salts are artificially introduced into the atmosphere.  It would not be wise to do so.  The case for investigation, accountability and redress is now strong, and each of us can make the choice as to how to best proceed.  It seems to be a simple matter to want to protect and ensure the welfare of our gifted home, as our existence depends upon it.  Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

Regardless of the origin of this particular sample (which is unlikely to ever be known exactly), this report points to the requirement of identifying repetitive and unknown contaminants in the environment.  The responsibility for this process does not fall either primarily or exclusively upon the citizens; this population has neither the resources or means to perform or satisfy the requirements of identification, evaluation and assessment.  Entrusted agencies that exist specifically for protection of the welfare of the common environment (e.g., air, water, soil) and that are funded by these same citizens ARE required to do so.  In this vein, I will once again repeat the closing statement from above:

Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

 

Clifford E Carnicom

Sep 25 2016


 

Supplemental Discussion:

Approximately a dozen methods of investigation have been used to reach the conclusions of this report.  These will now be described to a modest level of detail to assist in portraying the complexities of analyzing unknown environmental samples.  This description will further the argument that the citizenry is not realistically expected to assume this burden and cost; contamination and pollution are at the heart of existence for publicly funded environmental protection agencies and entities.  It is recommended that the public seek the level of accountability that is required to reduce and eliminate persistent and harmful pollution and the contamination of our common environment.

1. Voltammetry:

The methods of differential pulse voltammetry have been applied to the sample.  The methods are quite useful in the detection of inorganics, especially metals and trace metal concentrations.  The results of the analysis are shown below:

carpinteria-crystal-sep-04-2016-03

Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry Analysis of Crystal Sample

The analysis indicates a minimum of two chemical species to consider.  The first of these is a suspected Group I or Group II element (-2.87V).  The most probable candidates to consider will be that of calcium, strontium, barium and potassium.  The other will be the consideration of  the chloride ion ( +0.63V and +1.23V).

At this point of the investigation, our strongest prospect will therefore be an ionic metallic salt crystalline form, most likely involving a subset of Group I or II of the periodic table.  The most likely candidate will, furthermore, be a chloride form of the salt.

2. We can then proceed to solubility tests.  Four candidates from above will now be considered, along with two additional candidates resulting from the chloride prospects:

calcium chloride
strontium chloride
barium chloride
potassium chloride

lithium chloride
cesium chloride

With respect to the first set of four, the solubility tests applied (i.e., water, methanol, acetone, sodium bicarbonate, acid, base) eliminate all but potassium chloride for further examination.

This reduces the primary set of consideration to that of:

potassium chloride
lithium chloride
cesium chloride

We now attempt to confirm the existence of the chloride ion in a redundant fashion.  A qualitative chemical test (HCl, AgNO3) is then applied to the sample in aqueous solution.  The existence of the chloride ion is confirmed.  The set of three candidates remains in place.

The next method applied to the sample is the determination of the melting point of the presumed ionic crystal form.  Ionic metallic salts have generally high melting points and this does present some difficulties with the use of conventional equipment and means.

The methods of calorimetry were adapted to solve this particular problem.  The methods were also applied to a control sample of potassium chloride, as well as two additional control compounds.  The results of the control and calibration trials produced results within the range of expected error (~ < 5%).

The melting point of the crystal form was determined experimentally by the above methods as approximately 780 deg. C.  The melting point of potassium chloride is 770 deg. C.  This result is well within the range of expected experimental error (1.4%).  During the process, it was noticed that an additional minority compound does exist within the sample, as a small portion of the sample does melt at a much lower point (est. 300-400 deg. C.) The minority compound would require separation and identification in a further analysis.

The melting points of lithium chloride and cesium chloride are 605 deg. C. and 645 deg. C., respectively, and they are thus eliminated from further consideration.

These results narrow the list of candidates specifically to that of potassium chloride.

An additional controlled test of conductivity of the salt in solution was applied.   The result of that test indicates agreement in conductivity with a known concentration solution of potassium chloride.  The error in that case was also well within the expected range of experimental error (0.6%).

In addition, further tests involving density determination, index of refraction, visual and microscopic crystal analysis further substantiate the identification of the crystal as being primarily that of potassium chloride.

A NEW FORM : FREQUENCY INDUCED DISEASE?

A NEW FORM : FREQUENCY INDUCED DISEASE?
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 08 2011

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

A new, or modified, form of cultured growth has been developed from human oral filament samples that are characteristic of the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  Three unique features characterize this particular filament type of culture growth:

1. The growth rate is explosive, transforming itself from a film layer to a dense sheet of filaments as shown below within a 24 hour period.

2.  The growth type, and/or the growth rate, appears to be dependent upon the introduction of a specific visible light frequency range into the culture process.

3. The size, i.e., diameter, of the “filaments” is much greater than that previously studied in detail on this site.

The photographs from the laboratory session will now be described in greater detail below:

frequency 1

The new, or modified, filament growth culture that has developed.  The origin of the culture is a human oral filament sample.  The culture medium is red wine. The bulk of the growth that is shown here occurred within a 24 hour period, with an incubation period of approximately 5 to 7 days. The only known variation in the culturing process, relative to previous culture work over recent years, is subjecting the culture to a specific frequency range of visible light.  The frequency (blue light) has been chosen as a result of spectral analyses that have recently been conducted and reported on in this site.

One of the more important findings of this current research is that the application of certain frequencies, or their harmonics, may play a highly significant role in the various manifestations that the underlying “organism” may assume.  This may act in a highly detrimental fashion to the host; in this case, the human being.  The rate of growth of the organism under the conditions investigated here may also seriously hinder any efforts to mitigate or inhibit its influence within the human body.  The research also points out the extreme risks that may exist in “experimenting” with the use of frequency protocols without proper controls and without knowledge of the underlying physiological and physical processes involved.  

As one example of consideration, the speed of an electromagnetic wave within the body is a variable and therefore any frequency or its harmonic that is under consideration is also expected to vary by target location. The discovery reported here adds a new layer of complexity to the research that has been discussed on this site.

A close-up view of the modified growth form that has been developed. The growth rate of this form is remarkable and the topology of the culture is quite complex under higher magnification.   At this point, no additional information on the internal nature of the growth is known.  Additional microscopic and spectral analyses will need to be conducted in the future to determine if there is correspondence with previous growth forms that have been analyzed in detail. The circumstances of growth are identical to that of previous work, i.e., the introduction of human oral filament samples within a red wine base; what differs is the illumination of the petri culture dishes with light of a specific frequency chosen from earlier absorption analysis. It will be noticed that a strong and sharp absorption peak at approximately 375 nanometers (nm) has been identified in the previous report; this corresponds to the blue portion of the visible light spectrum. Tentative work some months past involving the use of this frequency range was applied and observed effects upon culture growth were observed.  As a result of the more exact, detailed and verified spectral analysis of recent weeks, the determination of the influence of this frequency has been pursued with greater vigor.  Magnification 10x.

frequency 4

Another close-up view of the modified growth form that has been developed.  To find a commercially available source at the appropriate wavelength of approximately 375 nanometers, it is found that an “actinic” lamp is sufficiently close to merit application. Actinic fluorescent lamps are commonly available for aquarium lighting, as they reproduce the light range that is suitable for coral growth.  Notice the absorption spectrum presented remains sufficiently pronounced and localized to accommodate the 420 nm wavelength; practice has shown that a measurable effect is apparent with its use. Magnification 10x.

frequency 5

A photograph of the sheen, or film-like layer that develops on the wine culture surface immediately prior to the explosive growth stage that takes place. The early stages of folding and rippling of the surface can be seen.  The incubation period to reach this stage is approximately 5 days under the current environmental conditions established.  Growth is then extremely rapid, and envelops the entire surface of the dish with filaments as shown above within a 24 hour period.  One of the effects that appears to result from the use of the actinic lamp is a very sharp increase in the rate of the culture growths in general.  The cultures in the past have usually required several weeks to even several months to develop; all cultures under examination in this report have produced visible results within a week of time.  The central lighted region of the dish is the light stage of the microscope underneath the culture dish.

frequency 6

Another close-up view of the modified growth form that has been developed
Magnification approximately 3x.

frequency 7

An oral filament sample that has been isolated from the red wine extraction fluid.  This isolation occurs by a process of decanting and dilution, and is relatively pure in this state within water.  Notice the color of the wine is absorbed by the materials.  This sample material provides the basis for further culture work and spectral analysis.

frequency 11

The test tube filament sample, as shown in the previous photograph, can be used to generate further cultures and to conduct spectral analyses. One method of preparing a culture is to simply place the material within red wine as a culture medium. This is the method used in setting up the culture dishes shown earlier in this report. Another method of preparing the sample for further analysis is to heat it (to the boiling point) within a lye (sodium hydroxide) solution. The advantage of this method is that it appears to be reasonably successful in breaking down the exterior casing of the filament and allows for examination of the internal components. It also allows for extraction of the more fundamental(interior) components for use in the culture process.

000_0012

The images that are shown in this set are a product of the heat and lye degradation process. This allows for extraction of the chlamydia-archaea-bacterial like component that resides within the filament structure. It therefore allows for examination of culture development at a more primitive, or base, level. In addition, these cultures in a red wine solution have been modified with the weak addition of iron sulfate and hydrogen peroxide. It has been found that these additions accelerate the growth rate of the cultures as has been described previously. The hydroxyl radical appears to be a significant fact in this increased growth rate. There is very good reason to believe that the “organism” can use both iron and calcium for its sustenance; this will have to be elaborated upon in later reports. In addition, the introduction of the blue wavelength light appears to be an additional accelerating factor in the culture growth rate. The section reflecting light on the right side of the petri dish is a young network of filaments that are beginning to form within the culture.

filament 1 filament 2 filament 3

This final section of photographs is a close-up of the young filament network referred to in the previous photograph on the right side of the set.  The photograph is taken at the surface level of the wine solution.  The individual filaments of the emerging network can be identified.  The use of accelerating factors in the growth rate of the cultures with the use of Fenton’s reaction and blue light appears to offer significant benefits in the turnover rate for future culture research.  In the past, the development of the filament network can take weeks to even months to develop; in the case of this report all culture developments have taken place within a week of time.  Magnification is estimated at approximately 100x.

ELF 2005 : POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION

ELF 2005 :
POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, NM
May 13 2005

The detection of sustained Extremely Low Frequency radiation is positively confirmed. A fundamental frequency of 4 cycles per second (Hz) is established, along with the harmonics of that frequency, 8Hz, 12Hz, 16Hz, 20Hz, etc. . The indication is that this phenomenon is expected to be global in scope, due to the extreme wavelengths associated with these frequencies. This is further confirmed by the orientation of the maximum field strength in the direction of the magnetic field lines of the earth.

The detection of this radiation puts forth the foreboding prospect of many applications and implications, including those of military, biological, psychological, health, energy, weapon systems and geophysical natures. The discovery of this fundamental frequency has profound geophysical implications as the Schumann frequency, i.e, the natural resonant frequency of the earth, is itself being exceeded in wavelength. There is no known natural source for its origin at this time.

ELF 2005 :
Spectral Graph of 4Hz and Harmonic Ambient ELF Propagation
12 May 2005

The initial stages of this work were conducted from November 2002 to April 2003. Approximately two dozen papers outlining that research exist on this site. Extended research into the conductivity changes in our modified atmosphere has necessitated a return to this topic. The repeated detection of this radiation over a 2 1/2 year period indicates that this represents a continuous and fundamental change in the global electromagnetic environment.

As there is extensive literature and evidence on the potentially detrimental biological, psychological and health effects upon humans of this radiation type, the international community is requested to openly investigate, locate and determine the source of this energy. Should it be determined to be of artificial origin, the intent and purpose of this radiation is subject to public challenge. The use of ELF pulse energy with ionospheric heaters may serve as a starting point for this investigation.  Environmental monitoring and protection is a right of the citizen.

Clifford E Carnicom
May 13, 2005


Additional Notes:

The radiation has now been measured by three completely different techniques over extensive time periods, including the use of a loop antenna -amplifier circuit in the time domain, an analog resonant circuit in combination with a sensitive gaussmeter and frequency generator, and the spectral analysis of the ELF-VLF receiver signal.

The location of this research is in the southwestern United States.

The reception of these apparently continuous signals can now be verified in a number of different ways:

Details of the ELF-VLF receiver circuit that has been built are available on this site; there have been minor experimental modifications to circuit components over time.  A outside loop antenna of approximately 12H has been constructed to replace the original inductor. The ELF-VLF circuit has now been used in both the time and spectral domains with equivalent results.  The ELF-VLF receiver detects the fundamental, the odd and the even harmonics during recent tests.

The analog method can be verified with the construction of a resonant coil capacitor circuit. The resonant frequency should be established in the range of the frequencies under measurement. It will be found that an injection of the fundamental frequency or the odd  harmonics will induce a visibly detectable oscillation of the gaussmeter needle when the pickup coil is placed in the vicinity of the coil of the LC circuit; oscillation will not occur at non-resonant frequencies. The 60Hz power signal is relatively powerful and simple to detect with this method. The analog method appears to produce primarily the odd harmonics ( 1,3,5) and the fundamental frequency for measurement. At approximately 30Hz it becomes increasingly difficult to separate out the components of the ambient 60Hz power signal.

THE SALTS OF OUR SOILS

THE SALTS OF OUR SOILS
Clifford E Carnicom
May 11 2005

A case can be made that the salt levels in our soils may be increasing from the deposition of atmospheric aerosol reactive metal salts over time1. Numerous measurements of soil samples in the northern New Mexico region are showing relatively high levels of conductivity. Conductivity is a direct measure of the concentration of ions in solution. Reactive metal hydroxide salt forms, such as those that have now been documented at unexpectedly high levels in both the atmosphere and rainwater2, are exactly the type of salt forms which will increase the conductivity (ion concentration) of the soil as well. The importance of this finding is that increased salt levels in the soils will lead to stress on the plant life, and if they are high enough, they will lead to reduced growth or eventual death of many species. The issues of soil salinity and salinity stress are quite serious, and they show that the effect of aerosol operations underway must be considered in their totality; with recent studies alone the impact upon the atmosphere, the water and the soils of this planet is increasingly apparent.3,4

 Piñon Pine Die-Off
Piñon Pine Die-Off
Santa Fe Region, New Mexico
April 2005

A continuous appeal for public pressure upon both international environmental and governmental agencies for determination of the health of the planet as it is affected by the aerosol operations is established. The unfortunate reality is that such groups in this country have failed to responsibly respond to public request, and most of the responses that have been made are branded with dishonesty and disingenousness. It is now required that not only should the environmental reporting occur in haste, but that such reports must be accompanied by independent audits that have no vested interest in the outcome of the results. It is a sad fact that many of the United States governmental agencies and authorities can no longer be trusted to be acting in the interest of the public welfare. Such patterns became evident at the onset of the aerosol operations that were commenced without public involvement or consent.

 View of Santa Fe New Mexico - April 19, 2005
View of Santa Fe New Mexico – April 19, 2005
(Ideal Weather Conditions)


The initial particulars of the current report are as follows

The best reference for expected conductivity levels in the soil on a nationwide basis found this far is a map issued by the Federal Communications Commission5. This effort was published in 1954 on a nationwide basis, as the conductivity of soils is a significant factor in AM radio propagation. Although general, the source nevertheless represents a major national effort that apparently has not been duplicated since. Conductivity maps and profiles are important as they are one of the best indicators of salt levels that are expected in the soil. There are numerous sources6,7,8,9 that describe the salt tolerances of the native flora, and there is a clear relationship between increased salt levels and decreased productivity of the soil. Increased salts in general, are certainly detrimental (and potentially fatal) to many plant species.

The current report is also precipitated in part by direct local observation. The first is the change that has been noticed in local grasslands in the rather severe and hostile environments of the drier southwest. A particular large field has been under observation since the aerosol operations began en masse near the beginning of 1999. This particular field at that time produced grass sufficient to support a couple of horses during the growing season without difficulty, and any changes reported are not a result of overgrazing. Over the years, it has been quietly observed that the grass production has steadily and continuously declined. It has been supposed that the primary cause of this decline has been the drought that affected this area for up to five years. However, as time progressed, it became evident that periods of increased rain did nothing to mitigate the changes. If a large storm or storms were to arrive at an optimum time for growth, the effect was increasingly minimal. It has now progressed to the point where even in the face of record levels of moisture during this last winter and spring, grass simply no longer will grow in that field. It has become a field of weeds (i.e., “an otherwise desirable plant in an undesirable location”) and the livestock has not been able to receive sustenance there for several years now.

 Former Agricultural Grass Land, Northern New Mexico
Former Agricultural Grass Land, Northern New Mexico
Invasive Species Now Dominate the Area – Grasses Are No Longer Supported
April 2005

The second observation considers a major die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area. This die-off is massive and it continues to present a major fire threat to this area. Many may recall the impact of the Los Alamos fire in this area several years ago, which came to national prominence due to the proximity of the National Laboratory. The community report that is circulated states that the past drought “led to stress” and that this stress in turn has allowed the infestation of a bark beetle that eventually has led to current devastation of the pinyon pine species. My interest in this report is to consider a second look at the so-called “stress factors” that may be at play.

 Piñon Pine Die-Off
Piñon Pine Die-Off
Santa Fe Region, New Mexico
April 2005

It has already been reported that the expected effect from the introduced aerosols is to heat up the lower atmosphere10, and not to cool it as many have attempted to promote under the guise of a secret but benevolent motive. Under the best of circumstances it can only be determined that the aerosols will aggravate the drought and warming problems, if not actually induce these very conditions. Reduced forage productivity is already expected in part from the specific heat and dessication properties of the aerosols.

Compounding the problem, we must now consider the effects of aerosols that eventually accumulate in salt forms within the soil from precipitation and gravity. This paper considers the effect of precipitation alone. Thirteen soil samples from widely varying habitats in the Santa Fe region have been investigated for conductivity results. These results indicate that seven of the thirteen samples indicate potential cases of salinity stress in the soil that may already be adversely affecting productivity.  If proximity to vegetation is considered  in the case of the pinyon die-off, (to be discussed in more detail), then six out of seven samples indicate the possibility of salinity stress.  It is to be considered, therefore, that a harmful salinity problem with the soils may already be in place.   The tests indicated here are only of preliminary nature, and they serve the purpose of simply raising the issue of salinity stress within our soils as a result of the aerosol campaign.  This complication is in addition to the drought and heat injuries that have already been substantiated.  The alarming alkaline results of numerous pH tests conducted by citizens across the country and presented on this site should also be recalled as the grander environmental alteration is assessed.

On a more ominous note, if the trends of this study are verified and continue to occur, it can be expected that the situation may deteriorate much further than is already indicated .  The conifers and deciduous trees are generally much less salt tolerant than the grasses.  The current work indicates that coniferous regions may already be subject to more salinity than they may be able to handle in the future.  The recent large scale die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area may only be a harbinger of drastic changes in the future vitality of the forage.  It would seem as though if international and national environmental organizations were truly concerned and heeded the signs of planetary change, then they would openly and publicly begin the investigation into the effects of the aerosol operations upon our air, our water, and soil -and all life upon this planet.  The quickest way to remedy the problem, during the “investigation” period is to terminate or to force a moratorium upon the aerosol program.


Secondary particulars of this report:

Complete and proper testing of soil conductivity will require adequately funded laboratory resources and analysis.  The current work attempts to assess conditions within the range of methods and resources available to this researcher.  There appear to be two primary methods of soil conductivity analysis.  The first of these uses a saturated paste method, and the second sample of soil that is resident within water, often at a ratio of approximately five to one.  The EC (Electrical Conductivity) paste method will be preferred should the proper means ever become available.  This paper uses the solution technique.  The expected measurement scale of results is quite different for each method, and attention must be paid to the units of the results.

The method chosen has been to place a soil sample approximately 1cm deep within a clean glass jar (radius 4cm) and to cover it with distilled water to a depth of approximately 7cm.  A conductivity reading is taken immediately after the mixing of the sample with the water with a calibrated conductivity meter that measures in uS.  The conductivity of the solution is then measured with respect to time elapsed, usually involving a period of approximately 4 to 7 days.  It has been found that conductivity in all cases increases considerably with this elapse of time, and it is difficult to reach any other conclusion than that a significant ion leaching condition is occurring.  It is expected that the slow leaching of salts within the soil is the most likely producer of this effect.  In the references found on soil conductivity testing, this phenomenon appears to be more of an anomaly than a universal result.  The effect is significant and has been found to result in increases in conductivity levels on the order of up to 15 times the initial reading given sufficient time.  The mixture always will reach a maximum conductivity level after which the elapse of time will not change the result; these are the readings accepted for reference in this study.  This maximum has been reached within a week of collecting the sample in all cases.  This observation alone may merit further study.

A broad range of local ecosystems have been investigated, including lower grasslands (~6500 ft. elev),  pinyon pine and juniper forests (~6800 -7500ft.), ponderosa pine forests (~8000ft), and the upper portions of the local mountain range (10,500ft.).  The FCC conductivity map has been examined at the highest resolution available to find the expected range of conductivity values for this region.  These values range from 20uS in the mountain forested areas, to 40uS for the northwest region of Santa Fe, to 150uS in the lower plain areas to the south of Santa Fe.  The maximum conductivity values shown on the conductivity map is 300uS.  In general, the higher the conductivity level (i.e, salt level), the more difficult it becomes to support the higher forms of plant life.  In general, the grasses will be found to be generally more salt tolerant, and deciduous tree forms relatively salt intolerant. Numerous references have been consulted to establish the expected salt tolerance levels for the variety of plant species in the southwest and for plant types in general across the country and world.  There are some difficulties that emerge in equating measurements of the solution and paste methods; efforts have been made to bridge that gap in a conservative fashion.

The lowest initial reading in the soil samples taken is 11uS. The highest initial reading is 130uS.  The highest reading of all samples, given sufficient time for ion leaching to occur, is 424uS.  The best estimate that can be achieved at this time is that considering all samples taken in all locations, conductivity estimates are on the order of approximately 3 times greater than is expected.  It is to be recalled that any increase in salinity levels of air, moisture and soil is to be taken seriously as salts will generally increase and accumulate in soils over time.  They will be expected at some level to demonstrate interference with the vitality of the plant.  This report makes the argument that such processes may already be in place.

The (former) grassland tests indicate that levels of conductivity may already be high enough to explain in part the failure of grasses to grow, even when blessed with sufficient or abnormally high rainfall.  It may be that rainfall itself is no longer as beneficial as we would like to believe, especially as reactive metal hydroxide salts now seem to be a regular source of pollution within the rain or snow.

The high mountain soil test (not water) at this point has come out favorably.  In addition, tests conducted some distance away from dominant vegetation such pinyon or juniper species has raises no undue concern.

The mid-level mountain test in the Ponderosa zone (~8000ft.) is not so favorable and does indicate a potential problem that could loom in our future. The extension of the pinyon pine die-off into the higher elevations of this area, to include ponderosa or other conifers at higher elevations, will be truly devastating to this region should it occur.   Moisture, the composition of that moisture, and salts in the soil must all be considered as additional “stress factors” that may lead to very serious problems in our future.

The pinyon pine die-off region has been especially interesting to study, with some unanticipated results along the way.  There remains much work to be done should sufficient interest and care arise.  One of the surprising results that has been found is that there is tremendous variation in conductivity with respect to the distance from the bole, or trunk of the tree.  Values of conductivity away from the vegetation, in the open, do not pose any special concern that I can determine at this time.  Close to the tree itself, however, the results are dramatically different.  Conductivity readings (and correspondingly, ion concentrations) seem especially high.  This result was found after unexplained variations within the die-off region was occurring.  Proximity to the trees in measurement does appear to be the primary factor that explains this variation.

Research was conducted to establish if distance from the vegetation is a known, common, important and expected factor within soil measurements. The answer appears to be no.  It has been difficult thus far to find many references to this finding that is being discussed.  One paper11 has been found that describes that such a phenomenon can occur, but the audience for the paper appears to be relatively restricted.  The second paper12 does not refer to variation with respect to distance, but does explain the majority of conductivity variation from calcium and magnesium salt forms.

This question that is being asked here may be much more than academic.  The conductivity levels in the immediate vicinity of the now dead trees appears to be unexpectedly high.  Calcium and magnesium components are two of the primary ionic salt forms that now are being identified at high levels in rainwater tests.  If ionic exchange and ion concentration processes are taking place in the roots and soil in the vicinity of the trees, it seems conceivable that a process of soil saline concentration and accumulation is occurring.  If the levels are high enough, and the testing results at hand indicate that they are, then it is quite possible that saline stress is an active process – here and now.  The sooner that the comprehensive nature of the die-off of the pinyon pine is established, the greater the chance that extensive and catastrophic larger scale events can be averted in the future.

There is no claim here that saline stress is the cause of all of our woes in the plant world.  This paper, however, does raise some questions that deserve fair consideration with respect to the massive global effects from the aerosol operations.  There is no doubt that global effects are occurring, and many of them have already been, and they continue to be, measured.  It is only by being fair and honest with ourselves that we will find these truths.  I continue to believe that infinite time is not a luxury you can afford to have at this point.  You shall have to answer the question of “ownership” for the air that you breathe, the water that you drink, and for the life and the plants that provide your food.  You will need to weigh that answer against that provided by any nation, government, agency, corporation or any other claimed source of power.  You then will need to act accordingly.

Clifford E Carnicom
May 11, 2005


References:

1. Carnicom, Atmospheric Salt Confirmed, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/atmospheric-salt-confirmed/, Oct 2000.
2. Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/calcium-and-potassium/, Mar 2005.
3. Carnicom, Drastic pH Changes, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/drastic-ph-changes/, Sep 2000.
4. Carnicom, Conductivity : The Air, The Water, The Soil, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/conductivity-the-air-the-water-and-the-land/ Apr 2005.
5. Federal Communications Commission, M3 Map of Effective Ground Conductivity in the USA, http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/m3/index.html
6. Utah State University, Salinity and Plant Tolerance, http://extension.usu.edu/publica/agpubs/salini.htm
7. Alberta Government, Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Salt Tolerance of Plants, http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3303?opendocument
8. Department of Primary Industries,  Victoria, Australia, Salinity and the Growth of Forage Species, http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nreninf.nsf/childdocs/
9. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Salt Tolerance of Various Temperate Zone Ornamental Plants, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/TRA/PLANTS/stable.html
10. Carnicom, Drought Inducement, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/drought-inducement/, Apr 2002.
11. Obradoor, Soil Nutrient Status and Forage Yield at Varying Distances from Trees in Four Dehesas in Extremadura, Spain, http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/safe/publications/papers/Soil%20nutrient%20status%20and%20forage%20yield%20at%20varying%20distances%20from%20trees%20in%20four%20dehesas%20in%20Extremadura,%20Spain.pdf
12.Harstock, Soil Electrical Conductivity Variability, http://www.bae.uky.edu/~precag/PrecisionAg/Reports/Soil_EC_Var/soil_electrical_conductivity_var.htm

CONDUCTIVITY: The Air, The Water, and The Land

CONDUCTIVITY:
The Air, The Water, and The Land
Clifford E Carnicom
April 15, 2005

A  rainfall laboratory test recently received from a rural location in the Midwestern United States has refocused attention on the electrolytic, ionic and conductive properties of environmental samples in connection with the aerosol operations.  These “interesting characteristics” of solids in our atmosphere have a more direct and down to earth impact as their nature is better understood.  This is nothing less than the changing of the air, the water and the soil of this planet.  All life is eventually to be affected as it continues.

A laboratory report has been received that documents unusually high levels of calcium and potassium within a rain sample.1   Previous work has demonstrated unexpected levels of barium and magnesium.   The continuous presence of easily ionizable salts at higher concentrations within atmospheric samples has many ramifications upon the environment.  A brief introduction to the severe health impact of this category of particulates has also been made on this site. Current work is now dedicated to the impact that these materials are having upon not only upon the atmosphere, but upon the water and soil as well.  All inhabitants of this planet will eventually confront, voluntarily or not, the consequences of the actions that are being allowed to degrade the viability and habitability of our home.

The burden of testing for the problems underway does not fall upon any private citizen, as the resources are not available to support it.  Nevertheless, testing and analysis does continue in whatever way is  possible.  Accountability must eventually fall to those public servants and agencies entrusted with protection of the general welfare and environment.  It should not be assumed that there is infinite time available to ponder the strategies of improvement and the solutions for remedy.  We shall all bear the final price for any condonement of what has been allowed to pass.

Now, for the more immediate particulars:

A series of conductivity tests have been conducted with recent heavy snowfall samples collected in New Mexico and Arizona. Conductivity is a means to measure the ionic concentration within a solution. These tests have been performed with the use of a calibrated conductivity meter in conjunction with calibrated seawater solutions. A series of electrolysis tests have also been completed with these same samples and calibrated solutions.

These tests demonstrate conclusively the presence of reactive metal hydroxides (salts) in concentrations sufficient to induce visible electrolysis in all recent snowfall samples encountered2.  

Precipitates result if reactive electrodes are used; air filtration tests have produced these same results in even more dramatic fashion from the solids that have been collected.  Highly significant electrolytic reactions occur in the case when the solid materials from the atmosphere are concentrated and then placed into solution.  Rainfall is expected to be one of the purest forms of water available, especially in the rural and high mountain sites that have been visited.  Rainfall from such “clean” environments is not expected to support electrolysis is any significant fashion3, and conductivity is expected to be on the order of 4-10uS4. Current conductivity readings are in the range of approximately 15 to 25uS. These values may not appear to be extraordinarily large, however any increase in salt content, especially with the use of remote samples, will need to be considered with respect to the cumulative effect upon the land.  These results do indicate an increase in conductivity on the order of 2-3 times, and the effects of increased salinity on plant life will merit further discussion.

Beyond the indicated increase in conductivity levels of sampled precipitation, there are two additional important results from the current study. The first is the ability to make an analytic estimate of the concentration of ionic salts within the regional atmosphere.  The results do appear to be potentially significant from an air quality perspective and with respect to the enforcement (or lack thereof) of existing standards.   The second is the introduction of the principle of “ohmic heating”, which in this case allows for increased conductivity of the atmosphere as a result of an introduced current.

First, with respect to estimated concentrations of ionic salt forms in the atmosphere, the principle is as follows.  The methods demonstrate that our focus is upon reactive metal hydroxide forms (barium hydroxide, for example).  Conductivity is proportional to ionic concentration.  Although a conductivity meter is especially useful over a wide range of concentrations, special care is required when dealing with the weak saline forms of precipitation as they now exist.  It has been found that current flow as measured by a sensitive ammeter (µamps) appears to be useful in assessing the conductivity of the weak saline solution.  The results have been confirmed and duplicated with the use of the calibrated conductivity meter. The use of on ohm meter to measure resistance is found from both experience and from the literature to not be reliable without much caution, due to complications of heating and/or polarization.  Weak saline solutions appear to have their own interesting characteristics with respect to introduced currents, and this topic will come to the forefront when ohmic heating is discussed.

A series of weak sea saltwater solutions have been carefully prepared for use in calibrating both the conductivity meter and the ammeter.  These solutions are in strengths of 0.56%, 1.51% and 3.01% respectively.  Many tests have also been completed with refined water samples as well as seawater equivalents.  Conductivity is proportional to concentration levels, especially as it has been bracketed with a variety of solutions in the range of expected measurements.  Measurements currently estimate the saline concentration of the precipitation samples at approximately 0.041%.  Salt concentrations in any amount are extremely influential to conductivity.  

Assuming an equivalency in density of the precipitation salts to sea salts, this results in an expected concentration level of approximately 15 milligrams per liter.  For comparison purposes, rainwater in Poker Flats, Alaska is reported as approximately 1mg/liter for all dissolved ions; the contribution from reactive metal compounds is a small fraction of that total.  Highly polluted rain over Los Angeles CA is reported at approximately 4mg/liter, with approximately 1mg/liter composed of the reactive metals.5  Simulated rainfall samples report concentration levels of approximately 4 and 21 mg/liter respectively, presumed to reflect reasonably clean and polluted samples respectively6.  In all cases cited, the contribution from reactive metal ions is quite small relative to the whole, and sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions are the largest contributors to the pollutants.    Testing here indicates the composition of the precipitate pollutants may be biased toward the reactive metal ion concentrations.

The next objective is to translate the measured and estimated concentration level to an equivalent density, or particulate count, within the atmosphere.  This method is based upon saturation levels for moisture within the atmosphere.  Air at a given temperature can only hold so much water.

From the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, the saturation density is given as:7

saturation density = 216.68 * (ew / (Cv * T) )

where ew is the saturation vapor pressure in millibars, T is temperature in Kelvin, and Cv is the compressibility factor.  Cv is 1.0000 to the level of precision required.

From Saucier8, the saturation vapor pressure in millibars with respect to water is estimated as:

 es = 6.11 * 10(a*t)/(t+b)

where a = 7.5
b = 237.3

and t is degrees Centigrade.

Therefore, the saturation density can be stated as:

density (gms /m3) = [ 216.68 * es / K

and the density in gms / m3 of salt particulate in the air can be estimated as:

gms / m3 = Conductivity Estimate of Solids (in gms per liter) * (RH% / 100) * Saturation Density * 1E-3

and in µgms:

µgms = gms / m3 * 1E6

and as an example, if the solid density is .015 gms / liter and the temperature is 15 deg centigrade and humidity is 50%, the estimate of particulate concentration from the salts is 96µgms / m3.  This concentration will vary directly with altitude (temperature) and humidity levels.

The estimates show that at ground levels and temperatures it is quite possible that the EPA air quality standards for particulate matter are no longer being met.  This determination will also depend on the size of the particles in question, as EPA standards vary according to size (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively).  All analyses indicate that the size of the aerosols under examination are sub-micron, and if so, this makes the problem more acute.  Air quality standards for comparison to various scenarios are available9 to examine the relationship that has been developed. Unfortunately, the failures of United States government agencies now require the independent audit of EPA data and presentation.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is especially culpable in this regard, and the enforcement of existing standards is a serious topic of controversy.

Finally, let us introduce the subject of ohmic heating.  The behavior of electric currents within weak saline solutions has many points of interest.  During the testing for this report, it was observed that the conductivity of weak saline solutions noticeably increased over time when these solutions were subjected to a weak electric current. It appears that the most likely source of this conductivity is a phenomenon known as ohmic heating.  In plasma physics, ohmic heating is the energy imparted to charged particles as they respond to an electric field and make collisions with other particles.  A classic definition would be the heating that results from the flow of current through a medium with electrical resistance.  Please recall the difficulty of using an ohmmeter to measure conductivity in a solution; this difficulty was realized in the trials of this report.

Metals are known to increase their resistance with the introduction of an electric current.  As the metal becomes hotter, resistance increases and conductivity decreases.  Salt water and plasmas are quite interesting in that the opposite effect occurs.  The conductivity of salt water increases when temperature increases.  The same effect occurs within a plasma; an increase in temperature will result in a decrease of the resistance.10, i.e, the conductivity increases.  Introduction of an electric current into the plasma, or salt water for that matter, will increase the temperature and therefore the conductivity will also increase.  This is in opposition to our normal experience with metals and conductors.

In the past, conductivity studies have focused on the ability of the reactive metals to lose ions through the photoionization process.  This remains a highly significant aspect of the aerosol research.

The importance of this study is that a second factor has now been introduced into the conductivity equation, and that is the introduction of electric current itself into the plasma state. This research, through direct observation and analysis,  has inadvertently turned attention once again to the HAARP facility, where ohmic heating is stated within the Eastlund patent to be a direct contributor to atmospheric conductivity increase.  All evidence indicates that this plasma is saline based, which further propagates the hypothesis of increased conductivity in the atmosphere with the introduction of electric current, in addition to that provided by photoionization.

A future presentation will examine the changes in the conductivity of our soil, in addition to that of our air and water.

1. CE Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/calcium-and-potassium/, March 2005.
2. Andrew Hunt, A-Z Chemistry, (McGraw Hill, 2003), 125.
3. Dr. Rana Munns, The Impact of Salinity Stress, http://www.plantstress.com/Articles/salinity_i/salinity_i.htm.
4. Steven Lower, Ion Bunk, http://www.chem1.com/CQ/ionbunk.html.
5. Hobbs, Peter, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p137.
6. Water Standards, Simulated Rainwater, http://www.hps.net/simrain.html
7. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, Table 108, (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984), 381.
8. Walter J. Saucier, Principles of Meterological Analysis, (Dover, 1989), 9.
9. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/compliance/monitoring/air/monops/naaqs.html
10. S. Eliezer and Y. Eliezer, The Fourth State of Matter, An Introduction to Plasma Science, (Institute of Physics Publishing 2001), 124-125.

CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM

CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM
Mar 15 2005

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It may be supposed that higher levels of such minerals in our atmosphere pose no immediate threat or concern; an examination of the physical processes likely to take place, however, shows exactly the opposite to be the case.  A search of the literature commonly reveals that an excess of positive ions in the atmosphere is detrimental to human health. 2,3,4,5

Examination of the aerosol issue has, almost from the beginning, focused on the important properties of the metallic elements of Groups I and II of the periodic table.  The attention has arisen because of the ease by which such elements are ionized.  This ionization will take place in the majority of cases quite readily with the energy available from ultra-violet light and, in some cases, from visible light alone.  It will be found6 that calcium and potassium, with a special emphasis upon potassium, are easily ionized with the energy available from either visible or ultra-violet sunlight.

A partial list of the effects of ion disturbances upon human health include, as a minimum, the following:

1. Impairment of the body’s ability to absorb oxygen, leading to headaches, asthma attacks, reduced circulation in the brain and emotional irritability.

2. The development of allergies.  Ionized air is associated with the following conditions : allergic bronchitis, allergic sinusitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic respiratory tract allergies.  It may also be recalled7 that “chronic lower respiratory disease” now ranks as the third leading cause of death in this country, and that it continues to climb in this ranking.

3. High levels of serotonin in the bloodstream, triggered by excessive numbers of positive ions in the environment.

4. A reduction in the body’s ability to filter airborne contaminants from lung tissue.

Direct research from this site alone now documents unexpected levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium and barium.  A common thread between all of these elements is the ease of ionization that characterizes Group I and Group II elements of the periodic table.  Magnesium  oxide is also of value as a dispersal agent8 in aerosol operations. The existence of barium levels is of special concern because of the high toxicity of water soluble forms. Candidates for further and future testing,  include strontium, aluminum and titanium. The acquisition of an ion counter will be a valuable instrument to further this research; if anyone is in a position to provide or loan this device please feel free to contact me.

The importance of ionization with respect to the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol operations has been extensively discussed and documented on this site.

The laboratory report received establishes an even deeper basis for further atmospheric and rainwater testing.  More importantly, the burden and obligation of governmental and public agencies to meet citizen demand for reestablishing the health of our atmosphere and planet remain as strong as ever.  The chronic failure of adequate response by these same public agencies requires that this accountability be accompanied by independent, non-vested verification.  It is hoped that the citizens will continue to exert this pressure for the public welfare.

References:
1.  Hobbs, Peter, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p137.
2. Ionized Air, http://www.kroger.com/hn/Therapy/Ionized_Air.htm
3. The Effects of Air Quality on the Serotonin Irritation Syndrome, http://www.berriman-usa.com/iaqsis.htm
4. Air Ion Effects on Human Performance, http://www.static-sol.com/library/articles/air%20ion%20effects.htm
5. Static Voltage and Environmental Ion Depletion, http://www.zenion.com/static.html
6. Carnicom, Ionization Apparent, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/ionization-apparent/
7. Carnicom, Leading Cause of Death, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/a-leading-cause-of-death/
8. Fuchs, N.A., The Mechanics of Aerosols, Dover, 1989, p.375

AN INQUIRY INTO POWER

AN INQUIRY INTO POWER
Clifford E Carnicom
Apr 06 2003

An inquiry into ambient magnetic field strengths has been conducted.  The potential associations of these findings with the HAARP facility is also to be discussed.   If readers wish to avoid the technical aspects of this study, it is my hope that the basis for the study will at least be generally examined. Any revisions to this study will be made as they are appropriate.

The primary result of this study is an understanding of the immense amount of energy available from the HAARP project, and the very real potential of that facility to affect, as an absolute minimum, human biology, physiology, mental and neural functioning.

This study begins with observations of magnetic strength around a series of residential and power lines in a rural location outside of Santa Fe, NM. The effects from any 60Hz power lines become increasingly important to understand when Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) -Very Low Frequency (VLF) detection operations are conducted.  A series of observations have been taken in the vicinity of the residential use of the directional loop antenna, in an effort to account for any influence from the 60Hz power line. A series of tests conducted in more remote locations to remove these influences has also been conducted.  

The first questions that are helpful to ask in this study are: – How strong should the magnetic field around a rural residential power line be? How far away can it and should it be measurable? How strong should the electrical field be around these wires, and how far away can it be expected to have an influence?  At what distance is the biological effect from these ELF waves of no further consequence?  It is of most benefit if any analytical result is further supported with direct measurements; this will be the case within this study.

The strength of the magnetic field around a line (wire) of current is given as1, 2, 5:

(1) B = ( uo * I ) / (2 * pi * r)

where B is the magnetic field strength in teslas, uo is permeability of free space, provided1 as 4 * pi  * 10-7 H/m. (henry/meter),

I is the current flowing through the wire in amperes, and r is the perpendicular distance from the wire in meters.

The next information that is helpful in this course of study is the relationship between the maximum electrical field strength and the maximum magnetic field strength.  This relationship is provided with respect to the maximum field strengths as3:

(2) Emax = c * Bmax

where E is the electrical field strength in Volts/ meter (V/m), c is the speed of light in meters/sec, and B is the magnetic field strength in teslas.

Therefore, for a line of current we have the electrical field strength as:

(3) Emax = ( c * uo * I ) / ( 2 * pi * r)

Now, what interests us most is not the electrical field strength in V/m, but the electrical field intensity in units of watts per square meter.  This quantity is physically more understandable, as it represents the power density, or the amount of power passing through a unit of area.  The electrical intensity of a plane electromagnetic wave is therefore given as3:

(4) Int = ( c * eo * Emax2 )  / 2

where Int = the electrical intensity of the electromagnetic wave in W/m2(watts per square meter) and eo is permittivity of free space, given as4 8.85 * 10-12 C2 / N m2.

We therefore have:

(5) Int = ( c * eo * [( c * uo * I ) / ( 2 * pi * r )]2  ) / 2

and if we would like to convert this equation so that r is measured in feet, we can simplify and rearrange the equation to the form:

(6) Int = 5145 * I2 / rft2

and if we would like to further solve for r expressed in feet or miles as a function of the electromagnetic wave intensity in terms of microwatts per square centimeter, we are led to:

(7) rft = 71.73 * I / IntuW1/2

(8) rmi = .0136 * I / IntuW1/2

This gives us a useful equation to estimate the distance in feet or miles from a power line that we should be to reduce the intensity to a desired level, given that the power line is carrying a certain amount of current.

The next question to ask is, what is the desired intensity of the electromagnetic wave that we should seek? At what level of intensity is the effect upon biological systems negligible, or of no known consequence?  To help address this question, the following studies published by RFSafe at the following location is helpful : http://www.rfsafe.com.  From this reference, we learn of a series of studies involving electrical intensity, or power density, that range from 0.1uW / cm2 (microwatts per square centimeter) to 120uW / cm2.  These magnitudes will become increasingly important as we later put them into perspective with the capabilities of the HAARP facility.  We see that the minimum influence of 0.1 uW/cm2 has led to reported results of altered EEG waves and that the maximum intensity of 120uW / cm2 has led to reported pathological changes in the blood brain barrier.

For the sake of this study, let us choose an extraordinarily low value of intensity, and solve for the distance that we should be from the nearest power line to ensure that we are not likely to incur any measurable electromagnetic effect.  Let this value be 0.02 uW/cm2, an exceptionally low value.  Furthermore, let the current in the wire range from 1 to 100 amps.  At this point of research, no references have been found that indicate that 100amps of power is ever exceeded in any rural power line system. A maximum of 60amps in rural residential areas appears to be likely, with a usual amount at a much lower value.  Applying the result obtained above:

Expected Distance vs. Current From Power Line
to Reduce Intensity of Radiation to .02uW/cm
2:

Distance from Power Line
r (feet or miles)

Power Density with
Current in Power Line
I = 1 amp

Power Density with
Current in Power Line
I = 5 amps

Power Density with
Current in Power Line
I = 60 amps

Power Density with
Current in Power Line
I = 100 amps

rft = 507 feet

.02uW/cm2

 

 

 

rft = 2536 feet

 

.02uW/cm2

 

 

rmi= 5.77miles

 

 

.02uW/cm2

 

rmi= 9.62 miles

 

 

 

.02uW/cm2

 

This chart is helpful in that in allows us to estimate, under the most extreme of circumstances, how far we need to be from a power line to reduce its effect to being of no consequence of measurement or influence upon this study.  In practice, much lower magnitudes of current exist in this rural region, and this chart can be viewed in a conservative fashion from that standpoint.

The next stage in this study was to travel to an electromagnetically quiet area in this rural environment, the San Cristobal Ranch located approximately 30 miles southeast of Santa Fe, NM.  This rural location covers a vast region in which no significant power line infrastructure is visible.

As another point of reference, the magnetic field strength that would be measured that corresponds to the .02uW/cm2 intensity above is approximately .01milligauss(mg).  The equipment available to measure the strength of the local AC magnetic field is a Cell Sensor EMF Detection Meter.  This particular gaussmeter has a high sensitivity range of 0 to 5 mg (milligauss) (1 gauss = 1E-4 teslas).  The meter can easily be read to 0.1 mg at the lower end of the high sensitivity scale.  A value of .01mg is so low as to be irrelevant to this measurement device.

The ambient magnetic field in this location was measured at 0.2mg.  Numerous other readings were taken at isolated locations, all leading to the same result of an ambient field of approx. 0.2mg.  The nearest visible power line structure at the location of the readings is a minimum of 10 miles distant.

The result of this finding is that an ambient and measurable magnetic field strength appears to exist, even when sufficiently isolated from any known power infrastructure influence.  It is this measured ambient magnetic field which is of interest and concern in this study, especially as it relates to the numerous ELF-VLF variations which have recorded over time by this researcher.  The published ELF activities by the HAARP facility are also a concern within this study.

The next step in this project is to determine the electrical field strength that is associated with the ambient magnetic field strength of 0.2mg.

From (2), Emax = (3E8m/s) * (0.2E-7T) = 6V/m.

The next step is to determine the intensity of the field from (4):

(4) Int = ( c * eo * Emax2 )  / 2

Int = (3E8m/s * 8.85E-12 C2 / N m2 * (6V/m)2 ) / 2 = .048 W/m2 = 4.8uW/m2 = approximately 5uW/cm2.

A value of 5uW/cm2 is sufficient to attract our interest.  If one were to evaluate the series of electromagnetic power density studies that have been referred to earlier, it can be seen that a host of biological effects have been reported at levels at or beneath 5uW/cm2.  These reported effects range from the minimum to slowed visual and memory functions as well as impaired nervous activity.  It would be worthwhile for readers to review these tabulated results at this linked location

This being said, the final objective of this report is to consider such ambient power levels and their potential associations with the HAARP facility.

The next requirement is to investigate the HAARP literature itself, as reported under the auspices of the U.S. Navy Research Laboratory on the page entitled The Safety of ELF Fields Generated in the Ionosphere, where we read the following statement:

“The process of generating ELF within the ionosphere is very inefficient (the conversion efficiency is about 10-8).”

Let us take a second look at this statement.  The HAARP facility presents this statement to the public in a forward direction, that is, given an original power level, what is the small level of ELF that results.  I would suggest that, along with measured values, we apply this statement in reverse to see where it leads us.

If there does exist an ambient electrical intensity of .048W/m2, and if we were to assume this originates from the HAARP facility, and we were to apply this “inefficient” conversion factor, we are led to an original power level of (.048W/m2 * 1E8) = 4.8MW, or approximately 5 million watts of power.  This appears to be an extremely reasonable number which is well in accord with the nominal power levels of the HAARP facility.  This power level is 100 times greater than that of any commercial broadcast station in the United States.  It is therefore not unreasonable to consider that such an ambient field strength could indeed result from the HAARP facility, along with the reported effects upon biology and physiology in the literature.

The capstone to this investigation is to ask another question.  If we were each to take a look at the Executive Summary Document for the HAARP literature published by the United States Air Force, it would declare that the design considerations of the HAARP facility have the stated objective of transmitting over 1 billion watts of power into the ionsophere.   In fact, numerous sources state that a maximum level of 3.6 billion watts of power has already been achieved.  This is 72,000 times more power than that of any commercial U.S. broadcast station. But let us remain conservative, and use the stated design goal of 1 billion watts.

What is the effect of this power, after applying the “inefficient” conversion factor, upon the human biology and physiology?  What would occur if this maximum level of power was used?

This power level translates to (1E-8) * (1E9watts) = 10 Watts of ELF energy.

With the ability to be transmitted across the globe through the magnetic field lines of the earth, this would lead to an expected value of approximately 1000uW/cm2 if assumed to be uniform and if we disregard the attenuation of the energy.  The attenuation of ELF energy is extremely low.   From the power density studies referenced, this is a horrendous amount of ELF energy and the biological studies clearly establish a basis for concern, if not alarm.  Thestudies above reference a maximum field of 120uW/cm2, with the corresponding effect of a “pathological change in the blood brain barrier” (Salford 1993).

At what point do you have “concern”?

And at what point are you alarmed?

Clifford E Carnicom
Apr 06 2003 

References:

1. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, Vladmir Rojansky, 1979, Dover.
2. Physics by Example, W.G. Rees, 1994, Cambridge University Press.
3. Beginning Physics II, Waves, Electromagnetism, Optics and Modern Physics, A. Halpern, 1998 by McGraw Hill. 
4. The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook, Gordon Coleman, 1997, by Addison-Wesley Publishers Limited. 
5. The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol II, Richard Feynman, 1964, by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company

DIRECTION OF ELF-VLF ENERGY VERIFIED

DIRECTION OF ELF-VLF ENERGY VERIFIED
Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe NM
Mar 29 2003

 

The direction from which the maximum VLF-ELF energy originates has been verified from this location, and it is in accordance with the expectation that the magnetic field lines of the earth are the primary carriers of this energy. A measurement test has been conducted with the loop directional antenna, and the results show that the maximum level of energy is received in the direction from magnetic north to magnetic south.  It is anticipated and predicted that this same finding will occur from other locations in the nation and from around the globe. Research and analysis indicates that the HAARP facility is an increasingly likely candidate as a source of these emissions and energy.

 

The following statement from the 1987 patent by Bernard Eastlund, generally regarded as an accurate template for the HAARP project, is again presented as being especially relevant to the above finding:

 

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region normally existing above the earth’s surface and more particularly relates to a method and apparatus for altering said at least one region by initially transmitting electromagnetic radiation from the earth’s surface essentially parallel to and along naturally-occurring, divergent magnetic field lines which extend from the earth’s surface through the region or regions to be altered.

 

Additional information from a textbook on radio astronomy, although of a technical nature, is also important to understand why this test has been conducted:

 

If an electromagnetic wave travels through a plasma, there is a response by electrons at that same frequency.  In addition, these electrons are further affected by any static magnetic field, e.g., the earth’s magnetic field (DC).  This magnetic field will cause the electrons to travel in curved, circular or helical paths, depending upon the orientation of the magnetic field.  If the electromagnetic wave happens to be circularly polarized, the amplitude of the electron response will depend upon the direction of the magnetic field.  Please refer to “An Introduction to Radio Astronomy”, by Bernard Burke, Cambridge University Press, 2002 for additional information on this topic.

 

And lastly, the repeated references within the Eastlund patent to the HAARP transmissions of circularly polarized electromagnetic energy demonstrates the relevance of the test that has been completed:

 

The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating of electrons which are already present and/or artificially created in the region….this is done by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation from the earth’s surface… where a naturally occurring dipole magnetic field (force) line intersects the earth‘s surface.

 

A knowledge of cyclotron resonance (especially of physiologically important ions), circular polarization and HAARP  technology will be of increasing importance to understand in relation to the aerosol operations.

 


At this time, the methods of the test will be presented:

The maximum electrical response of a small loop antenna, such as the one which has been developed, is in the plane of the loop antenna.  The maximum MAGNETIC response is in a direction normal (perpendicular) to the plane of the loop. The method by which the HAARP facility transmits energy along magnetic field lines of the earth suggests that the magnetic response of the loop antenna is of the greatest interest. In addition, a primary characteristic of an inductor, of which the small loop antenna is an example, is the storing of energy in the form of a magnetic field.  A few statements about the nature of inductors is helpful to establish a foundation for this work:

 

“It is the interaction of magnetic fields with a conductor that produces the effects we call inductance.”
Basic Electricity, Van Valkenburgh, Prompt Publications 1992.

 

“Inductors …store energy in the form of magnetic fields about their coils.”
Practical Electronics for Inventors, Paul Scherz, McGraw Hill 2002.

 

“The ability of an inductor to vary its reactance as the voltage across its leads fluctuates makes it a particularly useful device in frequency-sensitive applications.”
Practical Electronics for Inventors, Paul Scherz, McGraw Hill 2002. 

 

The small loop antenna is primarily an inductor.  The orientation of the small loop antenna can be useful in detecting the direction of maximum magnetic interaction, as the normal to the plane of the small loop antenna produces the greatest magnetic response.  As such, the small loop antenna has been rotated across a range of azimuths, and the magnitude of the AC response in millivolts has been tabulated. The ELF receiver was set to the frequency range of approximately 1-3KHz.  The results are as follows:

 

Magnetic Azimuth of the Plane of the Antenna

Magnetic Azimuth of the Normal (perpendicular) to the Plane of the Antenna

AC (millivolts)

360

90

32.75

350

80

42

340

70

46.5

331

61

49

321

51

56

306

36

59

295

25

62

284

14

63

279

9

63

268

-2

69

230

-40

59

212

-58

59

180

-90

30

25

115

38

 

A negative azimuth in this case refers to an azimuth west, or counterclockwise of north.  All azimuths are taken with a liquid filled magnetic hand compass graduated to 2 degrees.  The data when plotted is of a clear cyclic nature. A least-squares trigonometric fit of the form ACmv = a * sin (b * Normal Magnetic Azimuth + c) + d has been developed leading to the following result:

 

ACmv = 16.34 * sin (.0284 * Normal Magnetic Azimuth + 1.51) + 50.16

 

This function will reach a maximum under the following condition:

 

dAC / dNormal Magnetic Azimuth = 0

 

which leads to:

 

0 = a*b * cos(b * Normal Magnetic Azimuth + c)

 

or

 

Normal Magnetic Azimuth = ((pi / 2) – c) / b

 

or

 

Normal Magnetic Azimuth = ((pi / 2) – 1.51) / .0284

 

or

 

Normal Magnetic Azimuth = 2.1 degrees

 

which is essentially due magnetic north and well within the limits of the test equipment used.  This value is within the least count of the instrument used for the test.

 

This leads us to conclude that the maximum magnetic response to the ELF-VLF fields under examination occurs when the normal to the plane of the small loop antenna is oriented towards magnetic north.  It is predicted that this same finding will occur in other locations across the nation or globe. The pursuit of the association of these emissions with the HAARP facility is therefore reasonably justified with these findings.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Ma4r 29 2003 

 

ELF VERIFIED IN UTAH

ELF VERIFIED IN UTAH
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 23 2003

UTAH
ELF Data Logged by Utah Resident 02/11/03
X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second)
Y Axis : Frequency in Hz. 

A concerned citizen in the state of Utah has extended the effort to construct an Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) receiver circuit similar to that which has been developed and presented on this site.  Data has been collected by that citizen in that location which corroborates the existence of geometrically arranged ELF propagation at multiples of 4Hz.  This now extends the evidence of this electromagnetic propagation to a range of approximately 400 miles across the United States.  The plots above were created by the resident of Utah and communicated directly to me, and they are dated Feb 11 2003.

The circuit design used is of an earlier form that has been presented, and does not include the use of the directional antenna nor the common-emitter amplifier at the tail of the circuit.  Significant difficulties with the filtering of the 60Hz power line signals have been reported and they remain a significant difficulty in the collection of additional data.   The frequencies of 4Hz and 8Hz at the lower end of the spectrum furthest away from the 60Hz power line signal are visible on these plots. The presence of an unusually strong 60Hz signal appearing after this data was collected is also under investigation by that citizen.

This citizen has additional data which appears to indicate the presence of multiples of 5hz, however, this data can not be confirmed at this point and may be affected by noise.  This additional data will be presented if it is corroborated through additional sources.

My gratitude is extended to this individual for the exceptional efforts that have been made.

UTAH
ELF Data Logged by Utah Resident 02/11/03
X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second)
Y Axis : Frequency in Hz. 

Experience from this location indicates that the 60Hz power line signal is a significant source of interference that is difficult to filter out and yet retain the influence from the adjacent 4Hz multiples.  The use of the human as a direct or joint antenna appears to be the most successful in this regard thus far.  The magnitude of inductance within the human body and biological resonances at ELF frequencies may be significant factors underlying this finding.  Testing in remote locations, although considerably more involved and difficult, may be helpful under these conditions.

Additional efforts by other citizens in other locations across the nation and globe will help to assess the breadth and scope of these emissions.  Readers may wish to review several papers on this site that disclose the role that the HAARP facility assumes in ELF emissions, as well as the health issues associated with that energy form.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 23 2003

VLF PULSES AND HAARP

VLF PULSES AND HAARP
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 23 2003

HAARP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
(NOTE REFERENCES TO ELF-VLF PULSE PROPAGATION
FROM 30Hz TO 30KHz)

(
Credit to: Weapons of Total Destruction Site
http://www.viewzone.com/haarp.exec.html)
 

VLF PULSES AND HAARP
VLF Data Logged 032303 at approx. 1000.
X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second)
Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. 

Very Low Frequency (VLF) pulse data is again evident.  Research is underway to determine the nature of the signals.  It appears that either harmonics and or mixing of signals may be a factor.  The role of sunlight is also being investigated as a factor in the presence of these signals.   It will be helpful if any researchers in any location can verify the existence of these signals during periods of darkness and/or heavy cloud cover.

The ELF circuit is configured to use the external directional antenna aligned with the magnetic field lines of the earth.  The antenna is tuned with a 2pF capacitor in parallel resonance and the potentiometers set for the maximum frequency attainable (approx. 1 – 3 Khz.). Extended periods of monitoring are required to capture these segments of data.

Citizens should be especially aware of at least the following two excerpts from the HAARP Executive Summary mentioned above:

“…Because this area of research appears especially promising, and because of existing DOD requirements for ELF and VLF, it is already a primary driver of the proposed research program.

In addition to its potential application to long range, survivable, DOD communications, there is another potentially attractive application of strong ELF/VLF waves generated in the ionosphere by ground-based heaters. It is known that ELF/VLF signals generated by lightning strokes propagate through the ionosphere and interact with charged particles trapped along geomagnetic field lines, causing them, from time to time, to precipitate into the lower ionosphere. If such processes could be reliably controlled…”

The potential applications of precipitate control within a modified lower atmosphere, under the current state of knowledge of the aerosol operations, are also now to be considered. Readers are encouraged to read in detail and distribute the Executive Summary referenced above.

VLF PULSES AND HAARP
VLF Data Logged 032303 at approx. 1030.
X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second)
Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. 

From the Weapons of Total Destruction web site referring to the HAARP Executive Summary Paper”

“The military’s own Executive Summary of the HAARP program clearly states their reliance on ELF waves. Instead of transmitting these waves from ground based transmitters, HAARP created these waves through the use of “pulse” transmissions of their HF energy beams. Or, to put it another way, HAARP duplicated the ELF signals by turning their signal on and off at rates (30 to 3000 cycles per second) within the ELF range. The result was that ELF radiation could be directed to a specific area on the surface of the planet, at will.” 

Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 23 2003