Bean Growth Report

Bean Growth Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 03 2017

The growth of beans (Vigna unguiculata) that have been subjected to a specific and isolated protein for two weeks is now complete This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The protein concentration solution applied to the seeds is 2% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment is that germination and growth from the beans is essentially terminated by the presence of this protein at this concentration level. The control seeds have germinated and flourished normally. Additional trials with a lower concentration of the protein in solution are planned.

Photographs that demonstrate the condition of growth in both cases are shown below:

 

bean_control.jpg

The growth of beans (Black eyed pea) under control conditions of water nutrient solution alone is recorded above.  Growth appears to be entirely normal and healthy over the two week period. A bean that remained under the water level in the control solution is trapped by the root of the plant to the right.

 

bean_protein.jpg

The halted and damaged growth of the same bean species after being subjected to the isolated and specific protein under study. The origin and nature of this protein have been described within the research on this site. The concentration of the protein solution is 2% by weight. The time period for growth is two weeks.  The growth process has been terminated and it shows significant harm to the plant; in addition, the solution has fostered a fungal attack upon the seeds. A highly stunted from of germination occurs at the lower right of the seed shown to the left; there is no germination of the seed shown to the right. The vast majority of the beans subjected to the protein show no visible germination.

 

This report demonstrates that the agricultural, biological and health impacts from this particular protein are likely to be significant and detrimental. Additional tests reported and underway support this finding.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Oct 03 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Mustard Seed Report: Growth Termination

Mustard Seed Report: Growth Terminated

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 24 2017

The growth of mustard seeds that have been subjected to a specific and isolated protein for one week is now complete This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The concentration of the protein solution that was applied to the seeds is 2% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment is that germination and growth from the seeds is essentially terminated by the presence of this protein at this concentration level. The control seeds have germinated and flourished normally. Additional trials with a lower concentration of the protein in solution are planned.

Photographs that demonstrate the condition of growth in both cases are shown below:

 

Control_01.jpg Control_02.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in control water nutrient solution (alone). One week growth period.
Healthy and flourishing growth is evident. Centimeter rule on left photograph; magnification on right photograph approx. 10x.

 

Protein_01.jpg Protein_02.jpg

Mustard seeds subjected to 2% (by weight) protein and water solution. One week growth period.
The termination of the growth process is evident. The early stages of germination can be observed in isolated cases. The vast majority of mustard seeds subjected to the protein solution show no visible germination at the end of the one week period. Centimeter rule on left photograph; magnification on right photograph approx. 10x.

 

This report suggests that the agricultural, biological and health impacts from this particular protein may be highly significant and detrimental. Additional tests underway support this concern.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 24 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Yeast Deformation: Initial Report

Yeast Deformation: Initial Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 22 2017

 

A yeast culture that has been subjected to an isolated protein is under study. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The purpose of the project is to explore the impact of the protein upon more rudimentary life forms; in this case, a fungus. The protein concentration solution applied to the yeast culture is 0.5% by weight. Control solutions with the use of water and sucrose alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment, at this early stage, is that a cellular deformation or alteration of significant proportion has taken place. This suggests that the early growth of this particular fungus is modified in a significant fashion with the inclusion of this protein in the nutrient medium. The act of mutation must be considered as a distinct possibility in this case.

The change occurs primarily upon a surface layer that forms within the culture; this same layer does not develop within the control culture of water and sucrose alone. The act of change is a division process that appears to frequently “join” cells into doublets or triplets, as opposed to a full bud spherical division as expected.

 

control_01.jpg control_02.jpg

Control growth yeast cells in sucrose and water solution. 72 hour growth period. Cells are generally circular in shape and symmetric. Normal budding and division reproduction process. The appearance of the culture is normal and stable. Magnification approx. 5000x.

 

protein_01.jpg protein_02.jpg
Yeast culture subjected to water, sucrose, and specific protein solution. The isolation of the protein is described further within the research of this site. Concentration of the protein is 0.5% by weight. 72 hour growth period. Unusual growth alterations are evident. Doublet and triplet cell formation appears to be common within the population. Magnification approx. 5000x.

 

The growth process of the yeast culture will continue to be monitored.

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 22 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Mustard Seed Germination: Initial Report

Mustard Seed Germination: Initial Report

by

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 20 2017

 

A series of biological experiments and trials that involve the application of an isolated protein to various growth processes has commenced. This protein is described in greater detail in the paper entitled, Morgellons: Unique Protein Isolated and Characterized (Aug 2017). This protein is derived from the microorganism tentatively identified as a ‘cross-domain bacteria’ (CDB) as described more extensively on this site.

The purpose of the current trial is to explore the impact of the protein upon various plant germinations. A series of germinations is underway; the current report is limited to the advanced germination of mustard seeds within a 48 hour period. The protein solution applied to the seeds is 2% concentration by weight. Control solutions with the use of water alone are conducted in parallel for comparison.

The result of this experiment, at this early stage, is that germination of the seeds is delayed or impeded by the application of the protein solution. This suggests that the early growth of this particular plant is negatively impacted with the inclusion of this protein as a (potential) nutrient source.

The overwhelming majority of the mustard seeds subjected to the protein have not germinated during this brief time period. An optimistic selection of seeds that have been subjected to the protein are shown below; they demonstrate that sprouting to some degree is possible during this same 48 hour period.

The vast majority of the control seeds (i.e., water alone) have germinated normally and they appear to be healthy at this point.

 

Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0002.jpg Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0001.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in control water nutrient solution (alone). 48 hour germination period.
Germination appears to be normal at this stage.
Magnification approx. 20x

.

Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0003.jpg Mustard Seed 48 HRS-0004.jpg

Mustard seeds germinated in 2% (by weight) protein solution. 48 hour germination period.
The delay and stunting of the germination process is evident. The vast majority of mustard seeds subjected to the protein solution show no visible germination at the end of the 48 hour period. Variation in the surface texture of the seeds in comparison to that of the controls is also apparent.  Magnification approx. 20x.

 

The growth process of this seed trial, along with that of other seed types, will continue to be monitored.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 20 2017

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19 1953

Carpinteria Crystal

Carpinteria Crystal

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 25 2016

An environmental crystal sample sent to Carnicom Institute from a concerned citizen has been analyzed as to its nature.  The ground sample was received three years ago and it has been held in custody since that time.  Circumstances are now more favorable toward establishing the identity or nature of inorganic compounds, and thus the opportunity to do so in this case has been exercised.  The sample originates from the Santa Barbara – Carpinteria region of the country.  The sample is well documented, clean, and has been collected and transported in a careful fashion.

One of the reasons for the interest in the sample is a repetition of events.  The citizen reports that similar appearing materials  have occurred within the same coastal housing district on multiple occasions over a period of many years.  In addition, the findings of this study may have relevance to a paper presented earlier on this site.  The interest in devoting time to sample analysis is directly related to the the frequency and pattern of appearance.

There are also several occasions of crystal samples collected or received over the years that have not received proper attention due to insufficient resources and means for investigation.  The majority of these cases, to my recollection, resulted from air filtration systems.  These deficiencies have likely delayed our understanding of various forms of pollution that likely surround us, and this will remain the case until full and sufficient resources are devoted to these types of problems.  It is the opinion of this researcher that the regulating environmental protections agencies have an obligation to this end and that it has not been well served.

This particular sample has the following appearance:

sb_crystal_2013-01

Environmental Crystal Sample Material Received in 2013

 

The purpose of this paper is not to debate the origin or delivery method of the sample; the information available is insufficient to fully detail those answers.  It can be stated in fairness that the observer witnessed heavy aerosol  operations over the region in the early hours of the day of collection of the sample.  The density and activity level of the operations was stated to be high.

The purpose of this paper IS to call attention to what may be a repeating type of material that has potentially important environmental consequences, particularly if they are found to exist in aerosol or particulate form within the general atmosphere.  The sample type is also fully consistent with many of the analyses and postulates that have developed within the research over the years.  The specifics of that discussion will follow within this paper.

The sample has been evaluated using multiple approaches.  These include, but are not limited to:

  1. Electrochemistry techniques, specifically differential normal pulse voltammetry.
  2. Solubility analyses
  3. Melting point determination
  4. Density estimates
  5. Microscopic crystal analysis
  6. Qualitative reagent tests
  7. Conductivity measurements
  8. Index of refraction measurements

The results of these analyses indicate that the dominant component of the material is that of potassium chloride, a metallic salt form.  There are indications that the sample does contain more than one component, but any further investigation will have to take place at a later time.   Every physical and chemical form has implications, applications and consequences, especially if they occur in a manner foreign or unexplained to the environment.  The material shown above is of no exception to those concerns.  It may be the case that the appearance of this material in an unexplained manner and location is of no consequence; prudence, however, would suggest that we are obligated to seek out that which has no accountable explanation.  This premise is at the very heart of any forensic investigation, and environmental science and pollution control are also subject to that very same demand.

 


 

A brief bit of historical perspective on this topic could be helpful.  A search on this site on the subject of crystals will bring up a minimum of eight additional papers that are relevant; there are likely to be more.  These papers range in date from 2001 to the current date, so from this standpoint alone there is a repeating issue involved here.

A search on this site for historical presentation on potassium issues produces at least three papers on the subject.  There is reason to consider, therefore, that potassium (and related) chemical compounds may be worthy of examination with respect to geoengineering as well as biological issues.

Within this combined set of close to a dozen or more papers on the subjects, two will be mentioned further at this time.

The first will be that of another sample, also of a crystalline nature, received in 2003 from the same specific region of the country.  The title of that short report is “Additional Crystal Under Examination” (Jun 2003).  There are three points of interest in comparison between that and the current report:

1. Two generally similar and unaccountable sample forms appear in similar locations over a 10 year period, and a public interest in identification of the nature of the material remains over this same prolonged period.

2. The report in 2003 is reasonably brief with a limited microscopic examination offered.  The topic is mentioned more in the sense of an anomaly and a curiosity as there is no basis at the time for an in depth study of the materials; in addition, resources to do so at the time are non-existent.

3. The third will be the comment regarding the lack of water solubility of the first sample.  The importance of this observation will be the fact that the samples, although visually similar, have important differing chemical properties.  The conclusion is that multiple material types are expected to be subject to investigation over the course of time.

The second will be that of a laboratory report received in the year of  2005.  The title of that paper is “Calcium and Potassium” (Mar. 2005).  The importance and relevance of this paper can be understood from the opening paragraph:

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It will also be noticed that several health and environmental concerns with respect to aerosolized potassium salts are enumerated in that latter paper.  Attention should also be paid to the intriguing discussion of electromagnetic effects and impacts that must be considered with the chemistry of potassium and related ions.

Potassium chloride has common uses as well, such as a fertilizer or as a water treatment compound; there is, however, no cause given to think that it is being used in such fashions at this location and setting at this time.

 


 

Let us now bring ourselves back to the current moment.  The relevance and direction of those papers have borne themselves out over time, and the urgency of responsibility upon us is as imposing as ever.  We do not have the luxury of another 20 years to conclude on such an obvious state of affairs.

There are at least three immediate applications or consequences of the existence of aerosolized potassium chloride upon the atmosphere that should be mentioned.

1. Heat Impacts

2. Moisture Impacts

3. Electromagnetic Impacts

With respect to heat impact, potassium chloride is highly soluble within water.  When it does dissolve, it absorbs heat from the water, and the magnitude is significant.  Potassium chloride has actually been used as a cold pack commercially for this same reason; it is also readily available and relatively inexpensive.  It therefore can potentially be used to influence atmospheric thermodynamics, and this is one of many leads of investigation to pursue.

On the flip side of the equation, potassium chloride in a solid state has a rather low specific heat, especially relative to that of both air and water.  This means that, depending upon the state of the surrounding atmosphere, that it can also possess the capability to heat the atmosphere, rather than to cool it.

Furthermore, potassium as a metal in its elemental form also has a lower specific heat than air and once again this may allow for a net heating impact upon the atmosphere, depending on states of being, location and interaction with other elements or compounds.

The point of this discussion is that metallic salts of any kind DO have an impact upon the heating dynamics of the atmosphere, and that this process can be both complicated and variable.  You cannot place anything into the atmosphere without having an effect in some fashion, and it is a mistake to oversimplify and overgeneralize as to what those changes will be.  The location of placement of aerosols is another matter also, as has been discussed extensively on this site.

We are, therefore, not permitted to remain ignorant of the impacts that foreign and contaminating materials have upon the environment; heat dynamics are only one of many aspects of that we are forced to confront when the atmosphere is altered in ANY significant fashion.

There are, of course, many other environmental consequences from the addition of ionizable metallic salts into the environment.  These include plant life and agriculture, for example.  Readers may also wish to become familiar with a discussion regarding soil impacts as presented within the paper “The Salts of Our Soils” (May 2005).

As far as moisture is concerned, heat and moisture are obviously very closely related subjects.  One of the trademarks of the salt genre is that of absorbing moisture.  Some salts attract moisture so strongly that they are hygroscopic, meaning that they can draw moisture from the ambient atmosphere.  The observation of this phenomenon is quite remarkable; one can start with a solid and watch it change to an eventual liquid form.  Calcium chloride and strontium chloride are both good examples of this class of materials.

Locking moisture up in this fashion will most certainly increase the heat in the atmosphere; water is one of the greatest cooling compounds that exists on the planet.  It is impossible to separate heat and moisture impacts when dealing with aerosolized metallic salts; it is certain that there will be an impact upon the atmosphere,  environment and health.  It is difficult to predict a favorable outcome here.

Lastly, there may still be some that will ridicule the notion of electromagnetic impacts of ionized metallic salts upon the atmosphere and the environment.  I think such an approach might ultimately be foolhardy.  This tenet was brought forth early in the research of this organization, and the premise remains as strong as when it is originated.  For those that care to repeat the enterprise, there are measurements to support the hypothesis, and they only continue to accumulate.

For those that seek conventional sources, one need look no further than a document that traces back to the 1990’s, entitled “Modeling of Positively Charged Aerosols in the Polar Summer Mesopause Region” (Rapp, Earth Planets Space 1999).  A very specific reference of the ability of potassium in combination with ultraviolet light to increase the electron density of the atmosphere will be found there.  There are other elements that share in this remarkable physical property, and they have been discussed within this site for many years now.  Reading the patents by Bernard Eastlund may also be insightful.  The ability of moisture to ionize many metallic salts is also to be included within the examinations that are required to take place.

It is difficult to ignore and discount the fundamental heat, moisture, and electromagnetic impacts upon the planet when metallic salts are artificially introduced into the atmosphere.  It would not be wise to do so.  The case for investigation, accountability and redress is now strong, and each of us can make the choice as to how to best proceed.  It seems to be a simple matter to want to protect and ensure the welfare of our gifted home, as our existence depends upon it.  Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

Regardless of the origin of this particular sample (which is unlikely to ever be known exactly), this report points to the requirement of identifying repetitive and unknown contaminants in the environment.  The responsibility for this process does not fall either primarily or exclusively upon the citizens; this population has neither the resources or means to perform or satisfy the requirements of identification, evaluation and assessment.  Entrusted agencies that exist specifically for protection of the welfare of the common environment (e.g., air, water, soil) and that are funded by these same citizens ARE required to do so.  In this vein, I will once again repeat the closing statement from above:

Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

 

Clifford E Carnicom

Sep 25 2016


 

Supplemental Discussion:

Approximately a dozen methods of investigation have been used to reach the conclusions of this report.  These will now be described to a modest level of detail to assist in portraying the complexities of analyzing unknown environmental samples.  This description will further the argument that the citizenry is not realistically expected to assume this burden and cost; contamination and pollution are at the heart of existence for publicly funded environmental protection agencies and entities.  It is recommended that the public seek the level of accountability that is required to reduce and eliminate persistent and harmful pollution and the contamination of our common environment.

1. Voltammetry:

The methods of differential pulse voltammetry have been applied to the sample.  The methods are quite useful in the detection of inorganics, especially metals and trace metal concentrations.  The results of the analysis are shown below:

carpinteria-crystal-sep-04-2016-03

Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry Analysis of Crystal Sample

The analysis indicates a minimum of two chemical species to consider.  The first of these is a suspected Group I or Group II element (-2.87V).  The most probable candidates to consider will be that of calcium, strontium, barium and potassium.  The other will be the consideration of  the chloride ion ( +0.63V and +1.23V).

At this point of the investigation, our strongest prospect will therefore be an ionic metallic salt crystalline form, most likely involving a subset of Group I or II of the periodic table.  The most likely candidate will, furthermore, be a chloride form of the salt.

2. We can then proceed to solubility tests.  Four candidates from above will now be considered, along with two additional candidates resulting from the chloride prospects:

calcium chloride
strontium chloride
barium chloride
potassium chloride

lithium chloride
cesium chloride

With respect to the first set of four, the solubility tests applied (i.e., water, methanol, acetone, sodium bicarbonate, acid, base) eliminate all but potassium chloride for further examination.

This reduces the primary set of consideration to that of:

potassium chloride
lithium chloride
cesium chloride

We now attempt to confirm the existence of the chloride ion in a redundant fashion.  A qualitative chemical test (HCl, AgNO3) is then applied to the sample in aqueous solution.  The existence of the chloride ion is confirmed.  The set of three candidates remains in place.

The next method applied to the sample is the determination of the melting point of the presumed ionic crystal form.  Ionic metallic salts have generally high melting points and this does present some difficulties with the use of conventional equipment and means.

The methods of calorimetry were adapted to solve this particular problem.  The methods were also applied to a control sample of potassium chloride, as well as two additional control compounds.  The results of the control and calibration trials produced results within the range of expected error (~ < 5%).

The melting point of the crystal form was determined experimentally by the above methods as approximately 780 deg. C.  The melting point of potassium chloride is 770 deg. C.  This result is well within the range of expected experimental error (1.4%).  During the process, it was noticed that an additional minority compound does exist within the sample, as a small portion of the sample does melt at a much lower point (est. 300-400 deg. C.) The minority compound would require separation and identification in a further analysis.

The melting points of lithium chloride and cesium chloride are 605 deg. C. and 645 deg. C., respectively, and they are thus eliminated from further consideration.

These results narrow the list of candidates specifically to that of potassium chloride.

An additional controlled test of conductivity of the salt in solution was applied.   The result of that test indicates agreement in conductivity with a known concentration solution of potassium chloride.  The error in that case was also well within the expected range of experimental error (0.6%).

In addition, further tests involving density determination, index of refraction, visual and microscopic crystal analysis further substantiate the identification of the crystal as being primarily that of potassium chloride.

The Demise of Rainwater

The Demise of Rainwater

by
Clifford E Carnicom

A Paper to be Developed During
the Summer of 2016
(Last Edit Jun 20 2016)

The single most important chemical species in clouds and precipitation is the .. pH value.

Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry, 1995

Atmosphere, Climate and Change, Thomas Graedel & Paul J. Crutzen

Scientific American Library, 1997

rain_idaho_04

Photo : Carnicom Institute

An analysis of five rainfall samples collected over a period of six months and spanning three states in the western United States has been completed.  There are five conclusions that are forthcoming:

1. The rainfall samples studied portray a smorgasbord of contamination. The contaminants appear to be both complex and numerous in nature.

2. There does not appear to be effective or comprehensive monitoring or regulation of the state of air quality, and consequently, rainfall quality in the United States at this time.

3. The results of the current analysis, utilizing more capable equipment and methods, are highly consistent with those that originated from this researcher close to two decades ago.

4. All reasonable requests or demands by the citizenry for the investigation and addressing of this state of affairs over this same time period have been refused or denied.

5. The level of contamination that exists poses both a risk and a threat to health, agriculture, biology, and the welfare of the planet.

 

Let us now proceed with some of the details.

We can begin with the pH, i.e., the acid or alkaline nature of rainfall.  Biochemical reactions take place (or, for that matter, do not take place..) at a specific temperature and pH.  If the system or environment for that reaction is disturbed with respect to the acidity and temperature, then the reaction itself is interfered with.  If the conditions depart far enough from what is required, the reaction may simply not even take place at all.  Such is the risk of interference to the acid-base nature of rainfall, upon which all life on this planet depends.

 

To be continued.

 

PART I: SUMMARY VIEW

summary_graph

summary_lab

UV Detector & Lab Equipment Used for Summary View Data

PART II: TRACE METAL ANALYSIS

Rainfall Analysis_16

Electrochemical Signature of Rainwater Tests for Trace Metals
as Determined by Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry

The following metallic elements have been determined to exist, or to be strong candidates to exist, within a series of five rainwater samples that have been tested for trace metals.  The samples span three states across the country and six months of time.  The method applied is that of Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry.  The level of detection for the method is on the order of parts per million (PPM).  This list considerably extends the scope of consideration for the future investigation and detection of metallic elements within rainwater.  The findings in the upper portion of the table are highly consistent with those under reporting by various laboratories across the country; those in the lower half serve to prompt further investigations into additional elements that are highly related in their properties within the periodic table.  An examination of the physical properties of these elements, in detail, will likely provide additional insight into the applications of use for these same elements.  It can be noticed that the majority of elements within the list act as reducing agents.
 

Element Measured Mean Redox Voltage
(Absolute Value)
Actual Redox Voltage
(Absolute Value)
Titanium (Ti) 1.63, 1.32, 1.24 1.63, 1.31, 1.23
Aluminum (Al) 1.67 1.66
Barium (Ba) 2.90 2.90
Strontium (Sr) 2.90 2.89
Magnesium (Mg) 2.66, 2.35 2.68, 2.37
Gallium (Ga) .52, .65 .56, .65
Scandium (Sc) 2.56, 2.09 2.60, 2.08
Zirconium (Zr) 1.45 1.43
Standard Error of Measurement 0.013 V; n = 15
(No information regarding concentration or concentration ranking is provided here)

 

Additional Inorganic Analyses:
qualitative_tests

Qualitative (Color Reagents) Test Results for Combined Rainfall Sample
A Value of 1 Indicates a Positive Test Result
Concentration of RainwaterSample ~15x
(No information regarding concentration or concentration ranking is provided here.)
(Chromium, Cyanide & Iron appear to be at minimal trace levels)

phosphatenitrate
nh3silica

Qualitative Positive Test Examples:
Phosphates, Nitrates, Ammonia, Silica

 

PART III: BOILING POINT TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS:

bp_01

Tests to Determine the Boiling Point
for the Concentrate Rainfall Sample Using an Oil Bath
(Contamination is Evident)

 

PART IV: INFRARED ANALYSIS:
(ORGANIC)

 

organics_separation_03

An Organic Extraction Process

(Results subsequently to be examined by Infrared Spectroscopy)

organics_separation_05

Infrared Spectrum of Rainfall Organic Extraction :

Water Soluble & Insoluble Components

(see previous photo)

(solvent influences removed)

gc_01

Gas Chromatography (TCD) Applied to Organic Extracts

(tailing from varying polarities)

PART V: BIOLOGICALS

 

rain_biolgicals_01

Biologicals Extracted from Rainfall Concentrate Samples

~2000x

Additional Note:

I wish to thank Mr. John Whyte for his dedication and effort to organize and produce an environmental conference in Los Angeles, California during the summer of 2012. Mr. Whyte, in support of the speakers at the conference, provided the means for some of the environmental test equipment used in this report. I also wish to thank the general public for their assistance during this last year in the acquisition of important scientific instrumentation by Carnicom Institute. This report is made possible only by that generosity.

Clifford E Carnicom

Jun 18, 2016

To be continued.

Tertiary Rainwater Analysis : Questions of Toxicity

Tertiary Rainwater Analysis : Questions of Toxicity

 Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 08 2015

ABSTRACT

This paper presents evidence of a chemical signature that exists within an analyzed rain sample that is characteristic of known toxins and pesticides. The method of analysis used is that of mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specifically, certain functional groups involving sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and halogens have been identified in the analysis. It is recommended that the investigation be duplicated by independent researchers to determine if an environmental hazard does exist. If these results are verified to be positive, the source of the contaminants is to be identified and eliminated from the environment.

residual_ir4Infrared Spectrum of Concentrated Rain Water Sample
(Aqueous Influence Removed)

The original rainwater sample volume for this analysis is approximately 3.25 liters.  The sample was evaporated under mild heat to approximately 0.5% of the original volume, or about 15 milliliters.  The sample has previously been shown to contain both aluminum, biological components, and a residue that appears to be an insoluble metallic or organometallic complex.  The target of this particular study is that of soluble organics.

The organic infrared signal within the solution is weak and difficult to detect with the means available; it is further complicated by being present in aqueous solution.  The aqueous influence was minimized by making an evaporated film layer on a KCl cell; the transmission mode was used. The signal is identifiable and repeatable under numerous passes in comparison to the reference background.

The primary conclusion from the infrared analysis is that a core group of elements exists within the solution; these appear to include carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen and a halogen.  The organic footprint appears to be weak but detectable and dominated by the above heteratoms.

As further evidence for the basis of this report, qualitative tests for an amine (nitrogen and hydrogen), sulfates and phosphates (sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus) have each produced a positive test result.  A qualitative test for a halogen in the concentrated rainwater sample has also produced a positive result; the most likely candidate at this point is the chloride ion.  All elements present have therefore been proven to exist at detectable levels by two independent methods.

This grouping of elements is distinctive; they essentially comprise the core elements of many important, powerful and highly toxic pesticides.   For example, three sources directly state the importance of the group above as the very base of most pesticides:

 

“In pesticides, the most common elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine”.

Pesticide Residues in Food and Drinking Water : Human Exposure and Risks, Dennis Hamilton, 2004.

 

“We can further reduce the list by considering those used most frequently in pesticides: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine, and sulfur”.

Fundamentals of Pesticides, A Self-Instruction Guide, George Ware , 1982.

 

“Heteratoms like fluorine, chlorine, bromine, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus, which are important elements in pesticide residue analysis, are of major interest”.

Analysis of Pesticides in Ground and Surface Water II : Latest Developments, Edited by H.J. Stan, 1995.

 

It is also true that phosphate diesters are at the core of DNA structure and that many genetic engineering procedures involve the splitting of the phosphate diester complex.

The information provided above is sufficient to justify and invoke further investigation into the matter.  The sample size, although it was derived from an extensive storm over several days in the northwest U.S., is nevertheless limited and quite finite after reduction of the sample volume.  The residual insoluble components (apparently metallic in nature) are also limited in amount and more materials will be required for further analysis.  The signal is weak and difficult to isolate from the background reference; concentration level estimates for elements or compounds (other than that of aluminum which has been assessed earlier) is another entire endeavor.  Systematic, wide-area, and long term testing will be required to validate or refute the results.  All caveats above aside, it would seem that the duty to address even the prospect of the existence of such toxins in the general rainfall befalls each of us.  It would seem wise that this process begins without delay.

There are a few additional comments on this finding that need be mentioned.

The first of these is the issue of local and regional vs. a national and international scope of consideration.  It is understood that pesticides or compounds similar in nature are a fact of our environment, and that considerable awareness and effort is in place to mitigate their damage over decades of use.  Organic farming and genetically engineered crops are two very divergent approaches to reconciliation with the impact of environmental harm, and they are shaping our society and food supply in the most important ways manageable.  Given that the pesticide industry exists, regardless of our varying opinions of merit or harm, I think that it is fair to say that we generally presume that pesticides are under some form of local control.  Our general understanding is that pesticides are applied at ground or close to ground level and are intended to be applied to a specific location or, at most, a region within a defined time interval.

The prospect, even I daresay, the hint, of pesticide or pesticide-like compounds in rainfall is more than daunting.  It seems immediately necessary to consider what scale of operation would support such toxins finding their way into the expanses of atmosphere and rainfall?  For the sake of the general welfare, I think we should all actively wish and seek to disprove the findings within this report.  I will not hesitate to amend this report if honest, fair and accurate testing bears out negative reports over an adequate time period, and my motive never includes sensationalizing an issue.  This is one test, one time, one place, with limited means and support in the process.  I cannot disprove the results at this time and I have an obligation to report on that which seems to be case, uncomfortable as it might be.  It is not the first time that I have been in this situation, and judging from the changes in the the health of the planet that have taken place, it is unlikely to be the last.  The sooner that the state of truth is reached, the better we shall all be for it in any sense that is real.

The second comment relates to the decline of the bee population.  Bees are an indicator species, the canary in the mine, as it were.  The bees and the amphibians have both been ringing their alarm for some time now, and we best not remain passive about finding the reasons for decline.  A minimum of 1/3 of our agricultural economy, and that means food, is dependent upon the bee population for its very existence.  This is no trifling matter, and we all need to get up to speed quickly on the importance of this issue, myself included.

Suffice it to say that compounds of this nature, i.e, historical pesticides like organophosphates and the purported safer and more recent alternatives (e.g., the neonicotinoids), have a very close relationship to the ongoing and often ambiguous studies regarding bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD).  From my perspective, it would seem prudent to eliminate the findings of this report as a contributing cause to the problem as promptly as possible.  If that can not be done so readily, then we may have a bigger problem on our hands than is imagined.

One of the interesting side notes is that the elements and groups identified as candidates for investigation actually seem to overlap between the neonicotinioids and the organophosphates.  This includes the nitrogen groups that characterize the neonicotinoids and the phosphate esters that characterize the organophosphates.  If such a combination were at hand, this would seem especially troublesome as both forms remain mired in controversy, let alone any combination thereof.

The third and final comment relates to the toxicity of these compound types in general.  It is not just an issue about bees or salamanders.  These particular compounds have a history and effects that are not difficult for us to research, and we should become aware of their impacts upon the planet quickly enough.  Many of us already are.  The fact is that organophosphates have their origins as nerve gas agents in the pre-World War II era, and in theory their use has been reduced but hardly eliminated.  Residential use is apparently no longer permissible in the United States, but commercial usage still is.  This raises questions on what real effect any such “restrictive” legislation has had.

The neonicotinoids are promoted as a generally safer alternative to the organophosphates, but they are hardly without controversy as well.  They too have strong associations with CCD in the research that is ongoing.  They also are neuro-active insecticides.

It would seem to me that we all have a job to do in getting up to speed on the source, distribution and levels of exposures to insecticide and insecticide related compounds.  A greater awareness of toxins in our environment, in general, also seems in order.  If our general environment has been affected to a degree that has avoided confrontation  thus far, then we need to face the music as quickly as possible.  I trust that we understand the benefits of both rationality and aggressiveness when serious issues face us, and this may be another such time.  I hope that I will be able to dismiss this report in due time; at this time, I cannot.

Sincerely,

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 05, 2015

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19, 1953

 

Additional Notes:

The preliminary functional group assignments being made to the absorption peaks at this time are as follows (cm-1):

~ 3322 : Amine, Alkynes (R2NH considered)
~ 2921 : CH2 (methylene)
~ 2854 : CH2 (methylene)
~1739 : Ester (RCOOR, 6 ring considered)
~1447 : Sulfate (S=O considered)
~1149 : Phosphate (Phosphate ester, organophosphate considered)
~1072 : Phosphine, amine, ester, thiocarbonyl
~677  : Alkenes, aklynes, amine, alkyl halide

The assignments will be revised or refined as circumstances and sample collections permit, however, as a group they appear to provide a distinctive organic signature.  A structural model may be developed at a future date.

Some chemical compounds which may share some similar properties to that under consideration here include, for example, (not all elements included in any listed compound; only for reference comparison purposes):

p-chlorophenyl (3-phenoxypropyl)carbamate
N-(1-naphthylsulfonyl)-L-phenylalanyl chloride
2,2,2-trichloroethyl 2-(2-benzothiazolyl)dithio-alpha-isopropenyl-4-oxo-3-phenylacetamido-1-azetidineacetate
cytidine monophosphate
diiodobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II)

per :
SDBSWeb : http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nov 06 2015)

Secondary Rainwater Analysis : Organics & Inorganics

Secondary Rainwater Analysis :
Organics & Inorganics

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 04 2015

ABSTRACT

A second rainwater sample has been evaluated. On this occasion, both organic and inorganic attributes of the sample have been examined.  Although the sample investigated is of much larger volume, the results demonstrate an essentially equivalent level of aluminum present to that defined within the earlier report, i.e., approximately 2 PPM.  This magnitude exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency recommended standards for aluminum in drinking factor by roughly a factor of 10. 

In addition, various organic attributes of the sample are introduced within this report.

rainwater_still_web

 Concentrated Rain Sample under Study in this Report
Distilled Water Reference on Left, Concentrated Rainfall to Right

concentrate
Residual Solid Materials from the Rainwater Sample of this Study

The volume of the sample collected is approximately 6.5 liters over a three day heavy storm period, collected in clean containers that are were exposed to open sky.  The sample was concentrated by evaporation under modest heat to approximately 6% of the original volume.  It is apparent from visual inspection and by visible light spectrometry that the concentrated rainfall sample is not transparent and that it does contain materials to some degree.

Visible Light Spectrum Rainfall2

Visible light spectrum of the concentrated rainfall sample.  The increase in absorption in the lower ranges of visible light correspond to the yellow and yellow-green colors that are observed with the sample.
The pH of the concentrated sample is recorded at 8.5; this value is surprisingly alkaline and indicates the presence of substantial hydroxide ions in solution.  The pH of the solution prior to concentration measures at 7.5; this also must be registered as highly alkaline under the circumstances.

The pH of  ‘natural’ rain water has been discussed in earlier papers and its relationship to the expected value of 5.7 due to the presence of carbonic acid in the atmosphere (carbon dioxide and water).  The departure of natural rainwater from the theoretical neutrality of 7.0 is one aspect of the pH studies that I conducted in conjunction with numerous citizens across the nation some years ago, and these reports remain available.  The current finding is remarkably alkaline and, by itself, is indicative of fundamental acid-base change in the chemistry of the atmosphere.

From those early reports, it may be wise to recall the words of Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize winner for Chemistry (Atmosphere, Climate and Change, 1995), who stated that the most important chemical attribute of precipitation is indeed the pH value.  It behooves us, as a species, to act rather quickly on any reasonable claim to a significant change in fundamental atmospheric chemistry that may exist.  It must be acknowledged that these same claims now prevail over decades of time, and that any dismissal as an aberration of no consequence is unjustifiably diminutive.

The sample has been examined again for the existence of trace metals using the method of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, as described in the earlier report. The results are essentially identical to that of the earlier report, and once again the signature of a soluble form of aluminum is detected . The sample in this case, however, is of much larger volume, was collected over a longer duration, and was more highly concentrated that that in the preliminary report.

The concentration level was again determined, and the analysis indicates a level of soluble aluminum within the rainwater sample at 2.0 PPM.  This compares quite closely with the earlier sample result of approximately 2.4 PPM . This determination once again takes into account the concentration process that has been applied to the sample for testing sensitivity purposes.

Two facts bear repeating here:

First, this value exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for drinking water by roughly a factor of 10, again using the most conservative approach possible that can be taken.

Second, the previously referenced U.S. Geological Survey statement from the year of 1967 is valuable both in relation to evaluating the EPA standards as well as assessing the expectations of aluminum concentrations in natural waters:

usgs_quote_1967-2

There is now a necessity to include an additional aspect of the rainfall analysis that has made its presence known more clearly.  This is the case of biologicals.  It is a fact, that in addition to the repeated detection of a trace metal at questionable levels, certain organic constituents are coming to the fore.   The test results are repeatable at this point and these organics will eventually require an equal accounting for their existence.  I will not enter into an extended discussion of their potential significance at this time, as the first and necessary step is to place on the table that which must be confronted.  My introductory suggestion at this point is to become aware of a previous paper on this site, entitled “A New Biology” to gain some familiarity with the scope of the issue . It is fair to say that along with changes of chemistry in this planet, we must also confront certain changes in biology that are in place.  The history of this planet, the cosmos, life and our own species is dynamic, and intelligence itself is partially expressed in the ability to adapt to changing circumstances.  We are in the process, whether we like it or not, of learning if and how quickly we can adapt to changes that have and are taking place, induced or otherwise.  We may also choose whether to participate in the process (hopefully for the betterment of the world, as opposed to its detriment), or if we shall remain ignorant in an effort to ensconce ourselves in a purported comfort zone.

The methods of examination to be presented here are twofold: that of microscopy and that of infrared spectroscopy.  Here are some some images that relate to the fact of the matter; they are repeated in both samples that have been examined:

rain1rain2
rain3rain4

Low Power (~200x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples
(The colors of the filaments are a unique characteristic (commonly red and blue) and they exist as an aid to identification with low power microscopy)

rain5rain6
rain7rain8

High Power (~5000x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples

These images will not be elaborated on in detail at this time, as it may require a period of time to examine the information that has come forth here.  They most certainly indicate a biological nature that shares a common origin with many of the research topics that have evolved on this site over the years.  It may be worthwhile to begin by becoming familiar with the ‘environmental filament’ issue that is so thoroughly examined on this site.  Since it seems clear that we are indeed dealing with an ‘environmental contaminant’ of sorts, the history of communication with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may also be worthy of review.

It would also seem to be the case that a significant portion of the residual material is inorganic as well, as in an insoluble metallic form.  It may be that the insoluble residual material may be composed in part as an organometallic complex, based upon historical findings.

Regardless of the source or impact of these materials, it does seem to fair to state that an accounting for their existence in the atmosphere and rainfall is deserved.  Each of us may wish to play a part in seeking the answers to such issues and questions before us all.  I wish for this to happen, as I suspect many of us know that it is the right thing to do.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
November 01, 2015.

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
January 19, 1953.

Preliminary Rainwater Analysis : Aluminum Concentration

Preliminary Rainwater Analysis :
Aluminum Concentration


Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 02 2015

ABSTRACT

A method and means to identify the species and concentration of several different trace metals in ionic form has been established.  The method employed is that of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, which is a subset of the science of voltammetry.  The brief paper presents a preliminary examination of a rainwater sample for the existence of trace metals.  The sample under examination shows the existence of aluminum in a soluble form.  An estimate of the concentration level of the aluminum has been made; this level exceeds that of the recommended standards for drinking water.  The results indicate that public concerns about the toxicity levels of certain trace metals in the general environment are warranted, and that a more thorough evaluation of the state of atmospheric quality by the responsible agencies is required.

rainwater_analysis
Rainwater Sample of this Study Collected under “Clean” Conditions
Note that Visible Pollution is also Evident

The determination of  trace metals can be an expensive and sophisticated proposition.  One of the more modern methods of detection at trace levels involves the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP); such means and skill sets are not practiced by the public under normal circumstances.  The determination of inorganic compounds at trace levels has always presented a serious challenge to this Institute, and in the past all such efforts have been relegated to that which can be gleaned primarily from qualitative testing methods.  One interesting alternative, with a long history and of increasing importance, is the science of voltammetry.  Many are familiar with the fact that elements and compounds have unique electromagnetic spectrums, such as those employed in the disciplines of spectroscopy including, for example, infrared spectrometry and atomic absorption.  It is valuable to know that many of these same elements also have an ‘electrochemical signature’, and that they behave in unique and identifiable ways when exposed to variations in voltage and current.  It is from this fact that voltammetry was born, and its origin dates back to the the days of Michael Faraday.  The basic principle of voltammetry is to examine the relationships of oxidation and reduction within a medium or a reaction; there are numerous variations upon the specifics of this theme.  Voltammetry equipment is dramatically more modest in cost than ICP and mass spectrometry, and yet it can still produce usable results that are, on many occasions, commensurate with the more advanced equipment and technology.  Such equipment, in is most basic form, is now employed at the Institute and it is yielding promising results in the important domain of inorganic analysis, such as metals and halogens.

The study here refers only to an inorganic analysis that has been made; at a later date a presentation on biological aspects of the rainwater sample will occur as time and circumstances permit.

The rain sample was collected on Oct 30 2015 with new and clean containers with a clear path to the sky above.  The sample was then evaporated to 33% of the original volume for the purpose of increasing the concentration level sufficient for testing purposes.  The sample was compared to a control volume of distilled water.

The potentiostat used in the voltammetry work is a CV-27 model from Bioanalytical Sciences. The unit has passed all test procedures as described in the manual. The output from the potentiostat is coupled to a Pico 2000 series digital oscilloscope, whereby both voltage input and output can be displayed as a function of time. The basic mode of operation for the testing process is therefore one of chronopotentiometry.

A series of calibration tests were made with a variety of trace metals, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron and aluminum.

The goals of the investigations include both the ability to identify the species as well as concentration; both goals have been achieved with the above elements in an ionic state in sufficient concentration, i.e., on the order of a few parts per million (PPM).  The work will extend to other species and combinations thereof in the future.

The particular variation of chronopotentiometry that has been utilized is that of cyclic chronopotentiometry, i.e, the alternating sweep between positive and negative voltages in the effort to identify the peak potential that characterizes the redox reaction of the particular element.

In addition, it has been found that the derivative of the chronopotentiogram is a key and critical factor in the determination of the species.  A careful analysis of the derivative of the cyclic chronopotentiogram can be used with favor to identify the peak potential of the element.

When this point is identified and collated with the identifying element, concentration levels can also be established if a set of known standards is available. Concentration determinations on the order of a few parts per million have been achieved on multiple occasions.

Further careful evaluation of the derivative of the cyclic chronopotentiogram in combination with variable voltage sweeps can be used to identify separate components within a mixture of ionic species; this has been accomplished with a combination of three elements in ionic form in aqueous media to date.

The current work, under these preliminary conditions and examinations, leads to an assessment of a concentration level estimate of aluminum (+3, ionic state) within the rain sample at approximately 2.5 PPM.  A conservative approach in all manners of examination has been adopted in the preparation of this estimate, and the condensing of the sample is accounted for.

The Environmental Protection Agency in 2012 lists the secondary regulations for aluminum in drinking water as being within the range of 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L.  This corresponds to a range of 0.05 to 0.2 PPM for this same standard.  It is an interesting observation within the same report that Secondary Drinking Water Regulations exist as non-enforceable federal guidelines. The wisdom of that classification process can be determined by the reader.

Continuing with the most conservative approach possible, one is led to the assessment that this particular rain sample from a rural location in northern Idaho exceeds the EPA drinking water standard and health advisory by roughly a factor of 12.

The following reference statement from the United States Geological Survey (Bulletin 1827-A, 1967) may be of interest in the evaluation of importance that is to take place:

usgs_quote_1967

It is a point of interest that many individuals have ascribed the detection of aluminum within the atmosphere over a period of many years to my name.  Such was never the case.  My earlier work did indeed establish the precept that ionizable metallic salts are at the core of atmospheric pollution that we now live under, but the testing of aluminum, specifically, was not a part of that process.  The chemistry of aluminum is quite different from that of the alkali earth metals, and the documentation of its existence by others has always raised intriguing questions of physics. Prior to this current work, most of the inorganic analyses that I have made have been restricted to qualitative tests.  No means of testing aluminum at the trace levels has existed for the Institute prior to this occasion.  Hopefully, this situation is now mildly improved with the current voltammetric studies.  This paper adds itself to a long list of documented actions by the citizenry on the consideration that aluminum is certainly, and has been, entitled to.

As a starting point, we might wish to consider the role that aluminum may play within a geoengineered environment, and it may be worthwhile to look at the exothermic energetics of nano-particulates of aluminum under exposure to moisture.  It raises some tantalizing prospects for additional capabilities of an induced or artificial plasma state.

It is also an observation that visible pollutants in rainwater may be most pronounced with the advent of a storm. This is logical, and this has certainly been observed in the cases of excessive fires in this region.  Time will tell if it is the circumstance of other samples.  It remains to be seen how the gradation of pollutants varies with respect to the duration of the rainfall.  Nevertheless, this study does exist as a valid data point and the merit of consideration is not weakened by any progression of dilution.  The concentration gradient with respect to storm length for invisible pollutants, such as those in ionic form, remains as a topic of equal interest for the future.

There is, of course, considerable debate on the issue of the sources of contamination within our water supplies on this planet.  I will not engage in that debate in this paper, as the purpose here is to simply provide another data point of reference that may be of service in helping to establish the accountability that is required.  There are arguments by some that wish to frame a state of ‘normalcy’ for us, regardless of the level of contamination that as a species we now infest ourselves with.  Regardless of various machinations that may be in vogue, we may all ask the questions of where standards evolve from, and whether or not we knowingly wish to deny the legacy of health knowledge that has been acquired over decades, if not centuries.  We should also be called upon to use our united common sense and intuition, pray coupled with the best scientific information available, to act as stewards for our future, and to be worthy of such a title.

Clifford E Carnicom
November 01, 2015.

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
January 19, 1953.