Carpinteria Crystal

Carpinteria Crystal

by
Clifford E Carnicom
Sep 25 2016

An environmental crystal sample sent to Carnicom Institute from a concerned citizen has been analyzed as to its nature.  The ground sample was received three years ago and it has been held in custody since that time.  Circumstances are now more favorable toward establishing the identity or nature of inorganic compounds, and thus the opportunity to do so in this case has been exercised.  The sample originates from the Santa Barbara – Carpinteria region of the country.  The sample is well documented, clean, and has been collected and transported in a careful fashion.

One of the reasons for the interest in the sample is a repetition of events.  The citizen reports that similar appearing materials  have occurred within the same coastal housing district on multiple occasions over a period of many years.  In addition, the findings of this study may have relevance to a paper presented earlier on this site.  The interest in devoting time to sample analysis is directly related to the the frequency and pattern of appearance.

There are also several occasions of crystal samples collected or received over the years that have not received proper attention due to insufficient resources and means for investigation.  The majority of these cases, to my recollection, resulted from air filtration systems.  These deficiencies have likely delayed our understanding of various forms of pollution that likely surround us, and this will remain the case until full and sufficient resources are devoted to these types of problems.  It is the opinion of this researcher that the regulating environmental protections agencies have an obligation to this end and that it has not been well served.

This particular sample has the following appearance:

sb_crystal_2013-01

Environmental Crystal Sample Material Received in 2013

 

The purpose of this paper is not to debate the origin or delivery method of the sample; the information available is insufficient to fully detail those answers.  It can be stated in fairness that the observer witnessed heavy aerosol  operations over the region in the early hours of the day of collection of the sample.  The density and activity level of the operations was stated to be high.

The purpose of this paper IS to call attention to what may be a repeating type of material that has potentially important environmental consequences, particularly if they are found to exist in aerosol or particulate form within the general atmosphere.  The sample type is also fully consistent with many of the analyses and postulates that have developed within the research over the years.  The specifics of that discussion will follow within this paper.

The sample has been evaluated using multiple approaches.  These include, but are not limited to:

  1. Electrochemistry techniques, specifically differential normal pulse voltammetry.
  2. Solubility analyses
  3. Melting point determination
  4. Density estimates
  5. Microscopic crystal analysis
  6. Qualitative reagent tests
  7. Conductivity measurements
  8. Index of refraction measurements

The results of these analyses indicate that the dominant component of the material is that of potassium chloride, a metallic salt form.  There are indications that the sample does contain more than one component, but any further investigation will have to take place at a later time.   Every physical and chemical form has implications, applications and consequences, especially if they occur in a manner foreign or unexplained to the environment.  The material shown above is of no exception to those concerns.  It may be the case that the appearance of this material in an unexplained manner and location is of no consequence; prudence, however, would suggest that we are obligated to seek out that which has no accountable explanation.  This premise is at the very heart of any forensic investigation, and environmental science and pollution control are also subject to that very same demand.

 


 

A brief bit of historical perspective on this topic could be helpful.  A search on this site on the subject of crystals will bring up a minimum of eight additional papers that are relevant; there are likely to be more.  These papers range in date from 2001 to the current date, so from this standpoint alone there is a repeating issue involved here.

A search on this site for historical presentation on potassium issues produces at least three papers on the subject.  There is reason to consider, therefore, that potassium (and related) chemical compounds may be worthy of examination with respect to geoengineering as well as biological issues.

Within this combined set of close to a dozen or more papers on the subjects, two will be mentioned further at this time.

The first will be that of another sample, also of a crystalline nature, received in 2003 from the same specific region of the country.  The title of that short report is “Additional Crystal Under Examination” (Jun 2003).  There are three points of interest in comparison between that and the current report:

1. Two generally similar and unaccountable sample forms appear in similar locations over a 10 year period, and a public interest in identification of the nature of the material remains over this same prolonged period.

2. The report in 2003 is reasonably brief with a limited microscopic examination offered.  The topic is mentioned more in the sense of an anomaly and a curiosity as there is no basis at the time for an in depth study of the materials; in addition, resources to do so at the time are non-existent.

3. The third will be the comment regarding the lack of water solubility of the first sample.  The importance of this observation will be the fact that the samples, although visually similar, have important differing chemical properties.  The conclusion is that multiple material types are expected to be subject to investigation over the course of time.

The second will be that of a laboratory report received in the year of  2005.  The title of that paper is “Calcium and Potassium” (Mar. 2005).  The importance and relevance of this paper can be understood from the opening paragraph:

A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received.  This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California.

It will also be noticed that several health and environmental concerns with respect to aerosolized potassium salts are enumerated in that latter paper.  Attention should also be paid to the intriguing discussion of electromagnetic effects and impacts that must be considered with the chemistry of potassium and related ions.

Potassium chloride has common uses as well, such as a fertilizer or as a water treatment compound; there is, however, no cause given to think that it is being used in such fashions at this location and setting at this time.

 


 

Let us now bring ourselves back to the current moment.  The relevance and direction of those papers have borne themselves out over time, and the urgency of responsibility upon us is as imposing as ever.  We do not have the luxury of another 20 years to conclude on such an obvious state of affairs.

There are at least three immediate applications or consequences of the existence of aerosolized potassium chloride upon the atmosphere that should be mentioned.

1. Heat Impacts

2. Moisture Impacts

3. Electromagnetic Impacts

With respect to heat impact, potassium chloride is highly soluble within water.  When it does dissolve, it absorbs heat from the water, and the magnitude is significant.  Potassium chloride has actually been used as a cold pack commercially for this same reason; it is also readily available and relatively inexpensive.  It therefore can potentially be used to influence atmospheric thermodynamics, and this is one of many leads of investigation to pursue.

On the flip side of the equation, potassium chloride in a solid state has a rather low specific heat, especially relative to that of both air and water.  This means that, depending upon the state of the surrounding atmosphere, that it can also possess the capability to heat the atmosphere, rather than to cool it.

Furthermore, potassium as a metal in its elemental form also has a lower specific heat than air and once again this may allow for a net heating impact upon the atmosphere, depending on states of being, location and interaction with other elements or compounds.

The point of this discussion is that metallic salts of any kind DO have an impact upon the heating dynamics of the atmosphere, and that this process can be both complicated and variable.  You cannot place anything into the atmosphere without having an effect in some fashion, and it is a mistake to oversimplify and overgeneralize as to what those changes will be.  The location of placement of aerosols is another matter also, as has been discussed extensively on this site.

We are, therefore, not permitted to remain ignorant of the impacts that foreign and contaminating materials have upon the environment; heat dynamics are only one of many aspects of that we are forced to confront when the atmosphere is altered in ANY significant fashion.

There are, of course, many other environmental consequences from the addition of ionizable metallic salts into the environment.  These include plant life and agriculture, for example.  Readers may also wish to become familiar with a discussion regarding soil impacts as presented within the paper “The Salts of Our Soils” (May 2005).

As far as moisture is concerned, heat and moisture are obviously very closely related subjects.  One of the trademarks of the salt genre is that of absorbing moisture.  Some salts attract moisture so strongly that they are hygroscopic, meaning that they can draw moisture from the ambient atmosphere.  The observation of this phenomenon is quite remarkable; one can start with a solid and watch it change to an eventual liquid form.  Calcium chloride and strontium chloride are both good examples of this class of materials.

Locking moisture up in this fashion will most certainly increase the heat in the atmosphere; water is one of the greatest cooling compounds that exists on the planet.  It is impossible to separate heat and moisture impacts when dealing with aerosolized metallic salts; it is certain that there will be an impact upon the atmosphere,  environment and health.  It is difficult to predict a favorable outcome here.

Lastly, there may still be some that will ridicule the notion of electromagnetic impacts of ionized metallic salts upon the atmosphere and the environment.  I think such an approach might ultimately be foolhardy.  This tenet was brought forth early in the research of this organization, and the premise remains as strong as when it is originated.  For those that care to repeat the enterprise, there are measurements to support the hypothesis, and they only continue to accumulate.

For those that seek conventional sources, one need look no further than a document that traces back to the 1990’s, entitled “Modeling of Positively Charged Aerosols in the Polar Summer Mesopause Region” (Rapp, Earth Planets Space 1999).  A very specific reference of the ability of potassium in combination with ultraviolet light to increase the electron density of the atmosphere will be found there.  There are other elements that share in this remarkable physical property, and they have been discussed within this site for many years now.  Reading the patents by Bernard Eastlund may also be insightful.  The ability of moisture to ionize many metallic salts is also to be included within the examinations that are required to take place.

It is difficult to ignore and discount the fundamental heat, moisture, and electromagnetic impacts upon the planet when metallic salts are artificially introduced into the atmosphere.  It would not be wise to do so.  The case for investigation, accountability and redress is now strong, and each of us can make the choice as to how to best proceed.  It seems to be a simple matter to want to protect and ensure the welfare of our gifted home, as our existence depends upon it.  Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

Regardless of the origin of this particular sample (which is unlikely to ever be known exactly), this report points to the requirement of identifying repetitive and unknown contaminants in the environment.  The responsibility for this process does not fall either primarily or exclusively upon the citizens; this population has neither the resources or means to perform or satisfy the requirements of identification, evaluation and assessment.  Entrusted agencies that exist specifically for protection of the welfare of the common environment (e.g., air, water, soil) and that are funded by these same citizens ARE required to do so.  In this vein, I will once again repeat the closing statement from above:

Clarity and unity of purpose would seem to be an end goal here; I hope that each of us will seek it.

 

Clifford E Carnicom

Sep 25 2016


 

Supplemental Discussion:

Approximately a dozen methods of investigation have been used to reach the conclusions of this report.  These will now be described to a modest level of detail to assist in portraying the complexities of analyzing unknown environmental samples.  This description will further the argument that the citizenry is not realistically expected to assume this burden and cost; contamination and pollution are at the heart of existence for publicly funded environmental protection agencies and entities.  It is recommended that the public seek the level of accountability that is required to reduce and eliminate persistent and harmful pollution and the contamination of our common environment.

1. Voltammetry:

The methods of differential pulse voltammetry have been applied to the sample.  The methods are quite useful in the detection of inorganics, especially metals and trace metal concentrations.  The results of the analysis are shown below:

carpinteria-crystal-sep-04-2016-03

Differential Normal Pulse Voltammetry Analysis of Crystal Sample

The analysis indicates a minimum of two chemical species to consider.  The first of these is a suspected Group I or Group II element (-2.87V).  The most probable candidates to consider will be that of calcium, strontium, barium and potassium.  The other will be the consideration of  the chloride ion ( +0.63V and +1.23V).

At this point of the investigation, our strongest prospect will therefore be an ionic metallic salt crystalline form, most likely involving a subset of Group I or II of the periodic table.  The most likely candidate will, furthermore, be a chloride form of the salt.

2. We can then proceed to solubility tests.  Four candidates from above will now be considered, along with two additional candidates resulting from the chloride prospects:

calcium chloride
strontium chloride
barium chloride
potassium chloride

lithium chloride
cesium chloride

With respect to the first set of four, the solubility tests applied (i.e., water, methanol, acetone, sodium bicarbonate, acid, base) eliminate all but potassium chloride for further examination.

This reduces the primary set of consideration to that of:

potassium chloride
lithium chloride
cesium chloride

We now attempt to confirm the existence of the chloride ion in a redundant fashion.  A qualitative chemical test (HCl, AgNO3) is then applied to the sample in aqueous solution.  The existence of the chloride ion is confirmed.  The set of three candidates remains in place.

The next method applied to the sample is the determination of the melting point of the presumed ionic crystal form.  Ionic metallic salts have generally high melting points and this does present some difficulties with the use of conventional equipment and means.

The methods of calorimetry were adapted to solve this particular problem.  The methods were also applied to a control sample of potassium chloride, as well as two additional control compounds.  The results of the control and calibration trials produced results within the range of expected error (~ < 5%).

The melting point of the crystal form was determined experimentally by the above methods as approximately 780 deg. C.  The melting point of potassium chloride is 770 deg. C.  This result is well within the range of expected experimental error (1.4%).  During the process, it was noticed that an additional minority compound does exist within the sample, as a small portion of the sample does melt at a much lower point (est. 300-400 deg. C.) The minority compound would require separation and identification in a further analysis.

The melting points of lithium chloride and cesium chloride are 605 deg. C. and 645 deg. C., respectively, and they are thus eliminated from further consideration.

These results narrow the list of candidates specifically to that of potassium chloride.

An additional controlled test of conductivity of the salt in solution was applied.   The result of that test indicates agreement in conductivity with a known concentration solution of potassium chloride.  The error in that case was also well within the expected range of experimental error (0.6%).

In addition, further tests involving density determination, index of refraction, visual and microscopic crystal analysis further substantiate the identification of the crystal as being primarily that of potassium chloride.

Environmental Filament Project : An Introduction

Environmental Filament Project :

An Introduction

Clifford E Carnicom
Jul 09 2013
 

Under current projections, it wll be some months ahead before I will be able to engage fully into the Environmental Filament Project that has been outlined under this site. In the interim, however, an important introduction to what lies ahead can be presented.  Carnicom Institute is now able to display a series of scanning electron microphotographs of a typical sample; they will not be discussed in any detail until I am able to begin the study project.  Those familiar with my work may be aware of my reluctance to use the term nano-technology in association with any environmental or biological samples examined thus far; this has been due to the lack of any electron microscope images that are derived directly from these same samples.  This is no longer the case, and the use of the nano-technology term in association with this material is now fully justified.  The samples shown below are identical to those that the United States Environmental Protection Agency has refused to identify or analyze.    It has taken close to a decade and a half to acquire these images; appreciation is extended to all parties that have helped to make this information available to the public.  Sufficient additional samples have been received, both national and internationally, to support the Institute project plans.  This study will begin as the opportunity affords itself and as parallel work that is underway is completed.  Light microscope images of the same material are also shown below.

Carnicom Institute : Electron Microphotographs of Environmental Filament Sample

Carnicom Institute : Light Microscope (CMOS) Photographs of Environmental Filament Sample

cmos 1 cmos 2

cmos 3

Approximate magnification of original imagery : 6000x

Environmental Filament : False Report

Environmental Filament : False Report
Clifford E Carnicom
Jan 08 2013

It is now appropriate to disclose the circumstances involving a laboratory report on an airborne filament sample that was paid for in the year of 1999.  This report was issued jointly by three separate companies and they shall remain anonymous at this time.  It is now appropriate to present this information as the conclusions of the report are undeniably false.  Whether or not there was intent to misrepresent the facts of the case is not to be discussed in this paper; the purpose is to disclose information that is relevant to the public interest and welfare.  The laboratory was hired and paid significant monies to analyze and identify the very same airborne environmental filament sample that was sent to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during this same time period of 1999-2000.  The failure of the EPA to identify that sample is adequately documented in this site.  This report will chronicle the events that surround this affair. 

The circumstances are generally as follows:

1. A laboratory in the southwestern United States was privately contracted in the fall of 1999 to identify an airborne environmental filament sample.  The nature of this environmental filament has been discussed and researched extensively on this site over the subsequent years.  A portion of this same sample was sent to the EPA for identification as noted above.  The reason for contracting with the private company was because of the failure of the EPA to identify the material.

2. The laboratory report was issued in December of 1999 with joint responsibility of findings between three separate companies.  The report claims to use the results of infra-red spectroscopic analysis and Polarized Light Microscope Analysis on the sample.

3. The final statement of analysis from the contracting laboratory is as follows (names of laboratories redacted).  The conclusions of this report will be discussed in more detail below.

4. At the same time that the laboratory was conducting their tests, I also was conducting my own tests on this same sample material.  The results of that testing process are extensively reported on within this web site.  Certain primary conclusions were being reached on my side about the nature of the material such as size, chemical reactivity, microscopy results, conditions of collection and the like.  Prior to the results being officially released, we were given the subjective information above relaying that the material “could be” a “spider’s web”.  It was quite clear to me from my own analysis that the testing results were inadequate and inaccurate, as it was already evident that the material was not a “spider web”.  The final report claiming to use spectral analysis was then issued, and it was clear to me at this point that a contest of conclusions was in order.  It was equally obvious through any reasoned analysis that the material was likewise not a wool fiber or any other obvious fabric or textile.  Readers familiar with “counter arguments” of the period will also know that a commonly circulated theme by a relatively small group of vocal advocates was that the material was simply a “spider’s web that had fallen from the sky.”… There were also questions that had emerged from the spectral reports themselves.

5. At this point, it was obvious that a rather serious and important conflict of conclusions had developed.  The first conflict arose from the failure of the EPA to identify the material on behalf of the public interest.  The second conflict resulted from paid professional services that provided obvious and conflicting information to my own independent analysis of the material.

6.  A personal visit and meeting with the president of the issuing company was then arranged.  The meeting had three participants: the president of the company, Dave Peterson (a colleague of mine) and myself.  The subject of the meeting was identified ahead of time to all parties as a discussion of the conclusions that had been issued by the laboratory.  It is also a fact that the letter presented below was written by myself prior to the actual meeting and it was held in reserve until the outcome of the meeting was decided.  It is fair to say that I had serious concerns and issues with the professionalism and honesty of the science that was on display by the laboratory.

7. Prior to the meeting, in addition to the letter written and held below, I had also prepared a list of nine line items that substantiated, from my own analyses, why the laboratory results issued were false.  At the opening of the meeting, I expressed my concern that I had some reservations and conflicts with the validity of the report and that I would like to discuss them with him.  It is also true that the atmosphere of the meeting was generally one of unspoken tension and alertness.

8.  I began with my first item of nine on the list.  This issue was simply the point  and question of direct observation, especially under the microscope.  I told the president of the company that the materials did not even look like spider webs under the scope.  In my own analyses, I made extensive study of numerous filament, textiles, hairs and filaments in general, including those of spider webs.  I actually had the serious issue as to whether or not the sample had been properly observed, as it is the starting point of the scientific method.  The president of the company did not contest or agree with or discuss my point of contention in any fashion, there was at most a tacit or implied acknowledgment of this first of nine points.

9. I then proceeded to the second item on my list of nine.  This issue had to do with the size of the filaments.  The size of the filaments is micron to sub-micron in nature, and it does not correspond in any physical or possible way to a hair or a spider web.  My own measurements of spider webs were in the order of seven microns and hair is on the order of 60-100 microns.  The conclusion on the laboratory report simply had no justifiable metric basis.  I again wondered privately whether or not the laboratory had made the effort to even measure as well as look at the filament in any detail.

10. The next event in the meeting was entirely unexpected.  At the end of the second of nine points to be raised, the president of the company immediately halted the discussion and my speech.  The words that were uttered by this individual were the following:

“This meeting is now adjourned.”

11. There was nothing more that was allowed to be said.  The meeting was over as I had reached item two on my list of nine.  At this point, I personally handed the letter that I had written apriori to the President of this company.   Thirteen years later, it is now time to make this correspondence available to the public.  The letter could not be presented until a certain confidence in laboratory results was achieved; this is now in place.

12. The letter written at the time of the meeting in the year 2000 is presented below for the record:

13.  There are additional details that can be discussed.  In the short form, let me assert to you that these airborne environmental filaments, that have been repeatedly observed, reported and collected over the last decade and a half, at a minimum,  are:

a) NOT naturally occurring.

b) NOT a spider’s web or silk.

c) NOT wool (or any other common textile fiber or hair).

14.  They are, however, at least in part, indeed a “proteinacous material”, but that is another story….

Sincerely,

Clifford E Carnicom

Jan 07 2013

______________________________________________

Additional Note from David Peterson provided on Jan 07 2013:

The reason my signature does not appear on this statement is that I trusted that we were dealing with a legitimate laboratory at the time this document was presented to them. There were inconsistencies in their findings that were sent to us via USPS prior to this that were the reason the face to face meeting needed to take place. I attended this meeting with Clifford Carnicom to address our concerns with their findings, so I was indeed a witness to how the meeting transpired and in retrospect I would have absolutely signed this document when it was presented to them.

David Peterson

(P.S. Dave, thank you, 13 years later…)

Environmental Filament : Keratin Encasement

Environmental Filament : Keratin Encasement
Clifford E Carnicom
Jan 07 2013

 

It can now be established with a high degree of certainty that the external casing of the environmental filament samples are composed of keratin or a keratin-like material.  This supposition has been in place for a number of years by this researcher; it can now be demonstrated to be the case by direct chemical and spectroscopic means.  Certain ramifications of this finding, in conjunction with earlier work, are as follows:

1.  It is deduced that the environmental filament is not a naturally occurring material. 

2. The filaments contains non-keratin based chemical and biological components within the internals of the filaments.   Considerable information regarding the nature of the environmental filaments is available on this site; this information has been accrued over a period of several years of progressive research.

3. The emphasis upon study of the filaments is to be directed to the sub-micron components (biological and chemical) that are internal to the filaments.  The keratin aspect of structure is to be interpreted as an encasing mechanism only.

4.  The filaments are not hair or spider webs. 

5.  A false laboratory report has been issued in the past regarding the identification of this filament material (to be discussed in a separate report). 

The primary method by which this conclusion has been reached is with chemical and spectroscopic comparison of a known source of keratin with the environmental filament by similiar means.  This comparison has been made possible with the recent advance in methods of chemical decomposition of keratin based substances by this researcher.  Please see the report entitled “Environmental Filament Penetrated” for this discussion and presentation. 

human hair serbian sample
Human Hair Environmental Filament Sample

Spectroscopic comparisons of keratin obtained from human hair and the same substance obtained from the environmental filament casing are shown immediately below; it will be seen that they are essentially identical.  Additional notes and discussion will follow below the spectra.

spectroscopic analysis of keratin

A visual light spectroscopic analysis of keratin obtained from the decomposition of human hair in combination with ninhydrin and heating.  Human hair is composed predominantly of keratin.

 

spectroscopic analysis of the environmental filament

 

A visual light spectroscopic analysis of the environmental filament after chemical decomposition and in combination with ninhydrin and heat.  It will be seen that the spectrum obtained is essentially identical to the keratin spectrum above. The keratin of the environmental filament is interpreted as an encasement structure and it does not account for the biological components that have been repeatedly identified within this protein housing.

 

colored solutions

 

A photograph of the colored solutions subjected to visual light spectroscopic analysis.  The solutions result from chemical decomposition of keratin based structures, in combination with heat and ninyhdrin.  The solution on the left is derived from the environmental filament sample; the solution on the right is derived from human hair.  Both hues and spectra can vary to some degree by concentration levels within a solution; these examples and spectra indicate a coincidence of relative concentration in each case.

 

 

Additional Notes:

 

Keratin is an especially impervious protein structure.  Observation and study of your own hair is a very good analogy for understanding the hardiness of this particular protein.  During the recent trials of study in decomposition, chemical penetration of hair itself represents an excellent example of the challenge of examination of the environmental filaments and their internals.  Numerous trials were conducted using strong solutions of sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, salicylic acid, sodium hypochlorite (bleach), ammonium thioglycolate and others.  All essentially met with failure to the degree needed with the time available.  Although some mild success was achieved with a hair sample, the environmental filament sample remained essentially impervious to almost all methods.  The best success of decomposition has eventually come forth with the use of a commercial hair declogger used in plumbing systems.  This solution is primarily a combination of concentrated sodium hydroxide and concentrated potassium hydroxide.  This solutions is highly caustic. The greater success of this method also becomes  dependent upon the use of applied heat over an extended time period. It was with the use of this method that valid comparisons, both chemically and spectroscopically, could be made.  Considerable work remains before us to acquire the detailed biochemical knowledge of the internal nature of the environmental filaments; this work will continue as the proper resources and equipment avail themselves.

 

Environmental Filament Penetration

Environmental Filament Penetration
Clifford E Carnicom
Jan 06 2013

An improved method of penetration of the environmental (airborne) filament sample has been achieved.  This accomplishment provides a pathway to an increased understanding of the structure and contents of the fibers.  Numerous studies have been reported on the nature of this filament material over the years on this site.  This material is the same type of material that was sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over a decade ago.  The EPA refused to identify this material on the behalf of the public interest.

The original sample in this case came from Serbia; much appreciation is extended for the effort that made this sample available for study.  A photograph of this original sample is shown below:

serbian sample

Environmental Filament Sample that is the basis of this investigation.  Additional photographs related to this sample can be found on the following outline page:
Morgellons and Recent Findings.

filament breakdown

Photograph of the chemical method established to break down the outer shell of the filament and to access the contents of the filament. The method uses a combination of concentrated sodium hydroxide, concentrated potassium hydroxide and heat in a boiling water bath.  Note the separation of colors within the solution within the test tube, one yellowish and one a deep red color.  These colors represent different chemical and structural components of the filament.  Approximately 45 minutes are required at boiling temperature to complete the separation.

Considerable experimentation was required to achieve the method used in this report.  Many trials have been taken in the past using sodium hydroxide and heat alone.  The combination of the extreme caustic solutions applied to the filament along with a gentler heating process is a substantial improvement over previous methods.  Initial conclusions about the nature of the filament using this method will be discussed in a following report.  At this point it is of interest to note the following observations:

1. The original filament material is pure white, with no external or internal colors available.

2. The breakdown of the filament shows two colored effects, one a yellowish component and one a strong reddish component.  The strong colors internal to the filament, especially the brilliant reddish hue, are of more than casual interest.  Readers may wish to reexamine the numerous papers on this site involving blood and erythrocyte research as they relate to cultured (biological and environmental) filaments.

A great deal of information on the nature of these filaments is already available on this site; readers are encouraged to become familiar with this body of research that exists.  The advantage of the current finding is that it will allow more direct and ready access to the chemical composition of the filament samples.

Morgellons Research Project: Statement of Purpose

Morgellons Research Project:

Statement of Purpose

The Carnicom Institute is embarking on a first of its kind study of the Morgellons condition often referred to as Morgellons Disease. The project will start with a questionnaire process, and this is in progress at this time. Subsequent developments of data collection and/or clinical studies may develop in the future depending upon support and resources.

This research program will not be possible without the public’s participation and support. Based on what we already know, we believe that a greater understanding of the Morgellons condition is vital, and must be accomplished for the benefit of all human beings. Honest and legitimate scientific research participation is what we are providing to interested individuals. We hope that you will offer us your help.

This study will be conducted in an anonymous and confidential manner for research purposes only. There will be no medical diagnosis or individual interpretation(s) given. The research project is intended for scientific purposes and the knowledge obtained will be for the public benefit.

Disclaimer: The Carnicom Institute is a not for profit educational and research organization. It serves the public welfare. We do not advocate any particular products, protocols, or therapies related to health or environmental safeguards. The Institute is not affiliated with any political or religious groups.

MORGELLONS AND RECENT FINDINGS

MORGELLONS  AND RECENT FINDINGS:

PART I : MORGELLONS : A REVERSAL STRATEGY

PART II : PROTEINACEOUS FORM IDENTIFIED

PART III : DIMORPHISM, SYMBIOSIS OR DESIGN

PART IV: MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE GROWTH FORMS

PART V : DNA EXTRACTION

PART VI: THE SERBIAN SAMPLE

PART VII : COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPY

PART VIII : CONFERENCE VIDEO EDITING PROJECT

PART IX : CULTURE GROWTH RATE IMPROVED

PART X : ELECTROPHORESIS PROCESS BEGINSPART

XI : ANOTHER POSITIVE TEST METHOD FOR IRON (Fe+3) IN THE CULTURE

IN PROGRESS
Estimated Completion Date : Can Not Be Estimated At This Time

Clifford E Carnicom
Jan 2012

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

 

PART I : MORGELLONS : A REVERSAL STRATEGY (Dec. 18, 2011)

A viable and tangible strategy to disrupt the growth process of the Morgellons condition, as it exists within the culture form that has been developed, has been established.  This strategy involves the breakdown of certain chemical bonds within an identified proteinaceous complex in a manner that is not harmful to the human body.  The reduction strategy also includes the release of iron that is held within the proteinacous complex in a chelated form.  This strategy has been established with confidence and a repetition of results.  The current work will be applied next directly to oral human samples.  Much time, energy and resources will be required to further investigate, verify and apply this strategy. The preliminary results and the theories are promising at this stage.

biuret iron

To be continued

protein graph

To be continued

PART II: PROTEINACOUS FORM IDENTIFIED

A note to the staff of the Institute tonight (Dec. 2, 2011); this will give some idea as to some of the work in progress…


The existence of a protein within the culture growths has now been established with confidence tonight. I had to do work to eliminate questions of potential contaminants that might have distorted the results. It is also a process of much patience with chromatography, literally drip by drip over many days for each test that is set up. It has taken about 1 1/2 to 2 months to get to this point.

Existence of a protein is eventually of equal importance as that of the iron work. We now have iron and the protein as two primary and identified constituents. This work will raise more questions that it answers, but we need to live with this for now until future means and equipment and methods work their way in. One more reliable way of putting a stop to this fellow is to truly understand the biochemistry and the life cycle of growth; there is then a better chance of interfering with that cycle in a known manner.

The existence of a protein means there is DNA behind it. As you can imagine, the work has actually just begun if we can get these means. Next questions would be what type of protein, what is the function of the protein(s), sequencing of the proteins, etc. Right along with it would be the isolation of DNA, electrophoresis work, etc.  An infra-red spectrophotometer would be a very useful piece of equipment for us on an ongoing basis – we are having to work very hard to get certain results that would be more apparent with the right equipment.

I may put this comment on the paper to get the process started, otherwise I have so many to write I will never get to any of them at the current rate…

Clifford

 A positive Biuret protein test result

A positive Biuret protein test result using a separation of elute from the chromatography column. The sample material is based upon a culture from oral filaments.  The original extraction from the chromatography column is to the left; the positive Biuret result for the existence of a protein is shown on the right with the purple color.  Successful separation on the column has been achieved using various combinations of solvents in combination with a stationary phase

A positive Biuret test result using whey

A positive Biuret test result using whey (lactoferrin) protein for control purposes.  A positive test results in the purplish color shown above.  The Biuret test depends on a copper complex that forms between the protein (peptide bonds) and copper sulfate and an alkaline solution, such as sodium hydroxide.

PART III: DIMORPHISM, SYMBIOSIS OR DESIGN

The morphology, metabolism and life cycle of the “Morgellons” organism, as defined by this researcher, is increasingly being understood.  There are now three scenarios that can be provided that encompass the majority of the understanding that has been achieved.  

The first of these examines a similarity of form, at least in part, to a dimorphic fungal-like organism.  

The second considers the joint existence of bacterial-like and fungal-like organisms in a symbiotic relationship.  

The last raises the spectre of a genetically created or designed organism.  

Each of these scenarios has certain strengths, weaknesses and probabilities of occurrence.  There can also be a degree of overlap between these alternative interpretations.  This paper will discuss what has been discovered, within these three scenarios,  that helps us to potentially define the nature of this unusual organism.

morphology 1

morphology 2

morphology 3

morphology 4

morphology 5

morphology 6

morphology 7

morphology 8

morphology 9

morphology 10

morphology 11

morphology 12

morphology 13

morphology 12

morphology 13

PART IV: MAGNETIC (ELECTROMAGNETIC) PROPERTIES OF THE GROWTH FORMS:

The magnetic (and consequently, the electromagnetic) properties of the primary Morgellons growth form are now proven in a direct fashion.  The video segments below show the response of both the culture derived form and the oral sample to a strong magnetic field.  These demonstrations will call into consideration each of the papers written on the subject of electromagnetics by this researcher.  One such topic will be the extended research that has been done that reveals the ambient presence of unaccounted Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) energy over a testing period of several years.  The human electromagnetic system operates primarily within the ELF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.  The sensitivity and response of the Morgellons growth form to the electromagnetic spectrum is another of the many primary fields of research that requires funding, resources and skilled personnel to complete.  The identified presence of iron and ferromagnetic compounds within the growth forms establishes the basis of this future research, along with the direct demonstration of the magnetic response shown below:


To be continued.


PART V: DNA EXTRACTION

dna 1 dna 2 dna 3

To be continued.


PART VI: THE SERBIAN SAMPLE

To be continued.

serbia 1 serbia 2
serbia 3
serbia 4 serbia 5
serbia 6 serbia 7
serbia 8

PART VII: COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

To be continued.

column 1

column 2

 

PART VIII : CONFERENCE VIDEO EDITING PROJECT

 

To be continued.

PART IX : CULTURE GROWTH RATE IMPROVED

To be continued.

X : ELECTROPHORESIS PROCESS BEGINS

ELECTROPHORESIS 1

Starch Gel Electrophoresis Applied to Proteinacous Samples : Initial Tests Underway

ELECTROPHORESIS 2

ELECTROPHORESIS 3

Starch Gel Electrophoresis : Trial Runs of Test Dyes and Blood Sample.   Left photograph shows methylene blue dye migration towards the negative terminal. Arrows on right photograph depict origins of placement.  Blood sample shows both positive and negative charged protein component separation at lower portion of right photograph.  Eosin test case on upper left of right photograph; migration toward positive terminal  Methods remain under development; no successful separation of presumed culture based proteinacous component at this time.

To be continued.

XI :ANOTHER POSITIVE TEST METHOD FOR FERRIC IRON (Fe3+) IN THE CULTURE

Another test method has been developed to detect and establish the presence of iron in the Fe3+ state within the culture growth that is based upon the oral samples.  The test is positive.  The further significance of this test is that it has been applied directly to the proteinaceous complex that has been extracted from the culture with the use of column chromatography.  This further substantiates the case that the proteinaceous complex itself contains iron in the ferric state and that this iron is bound to certain amino acids that are under examination as candidates.   It will be possible to determine the concentration of the iron within the proteinaceous complex through spectrometry.  The test is based upon the use of ammonium thioglycolate.

Clifford E Carnicom
(born Clifford Bruce Stewart Jan 19 1953)

THE BIGGEST CRIME OF ALL TIME

THE BIGGEST CRIME OF ALL TIME
Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 01 2011

Note: I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.  Each individual must work with their own health professional to establish any appropriate course of action and any health related comments in this paper are solely for informational purposes and they are from my own perspective.

It can now be shown with conviction that environmental filament samples and the filaments that are characteristic of the “Morgellons” condition are of one and the same nature.  This has been demonstrated visually at the microscopic level on two prior occasions (please see An Environmental Source and The Breath of a Decade) but there has been a reluctance on the part of the general public to engage in the truths of this issue.

The case that they are of one and the same nature can and is also now being made analytically through the use of spectral analysis.  This paper will progress through a series of spectral analyses that have been made, both on the control side as well as on the investigative side.  The end conclusion that is reached from the work is that at least one source of the so-called “Morgellons” condition has been identified.  The fact that this traces itself to a repeatedly occurring environmental sample represents, in my opinion, the worst crime in human history.  There have been repeated attempts to have the full nature of these environmental samples disclosed for more than a decade but they have failed.

The primary party that is responsible for the failure of the identification and disclosure is the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  The United States Centers For Disease Control and Prevention shares in the culpability of health neglect.  The United States Air Force and the United States Congress share in the complicity of dismissal.  I claim the right to speak honestly as I see appropriate.

The general public will at one point or another confront and reconcile with this reality, no matter how difficult the prospect will be.  Progress in addressing the seriousness of the problem is not going to take place until this recognition by the public does take place.  However unfortunate the task, this researcher will continue to put forth the evidence that forces this confrontation to the point of understanding.

Let us now proceed with the work that is to be described.

Through the course of the last year, a Beckman dual-beam spectrophotometer has been acquired under the auspices of the Carnicom Institute.  It has been put to introductory use through the course of last year and familiarity with the capabilities and the principles of the instrument has been acquired.  There remains a need for much additional equipment, a facility and a more contemporary version of the current spectrophotometer but some progress, nevertheless, has taken place.  The current project involves the calibration of the spectrometer through a series of controlled studies and then the application of the instrument to unique and unidentified biological entities.

The Beckman model that has been acquired is rather elderly and it is based upon tube technology.  All tubes have been replaced and control studies have been completed to give a reference point on the serviceability and the reliability of the instrument.  These tests have been passed with sufficient confidence and the results of these tests will be presented first in this discussion.

The first problem is to acquire known spectral analyses and to see if the results can be duplicated with the equipment at hand.  Spectral analysis is its own profession deserving of sufficient staff and resources, but the principles of operation and result are not so difficult that they cannot be understood by the majority of us.  Levels of refinement in the process can continue as the understanding of the need for further support avails itself to the cause.

The first example chosen will be a spectral analysis of human blood, or hemoglobin as the case may be.  This was one of the early studies in the application of the instrument and a level of confidence in those early results was achieved some time ago.  Let us look at such a chart:

crime 1

http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/

A spectral analysis is essentially a fingerprint, or a unique signature, of a chemical substance or species within a particular range of frequencies.  There are many ranges of energy that can be used if the required instrument and detectors are available; our particular interest here is in the range of visible light.  The particular spectrum shown here from the reference designated above shows the absorbance of energy of hemoglobin (two variants, one combined with oxygen) as it is subjected to visible light energy; there is also some extension on each end into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.  Visible light runs from approximately 400 to 700 nanometers in wavelength and it is represented along the horizontal axis of the graph.  The Beckman instrument being used has a useful range of approximately 300 to 800 nanometers and that will be the band of comparison in the graphs that are presented.  

Our main interest in the study at this time is the location of the peaks and troughs of the spectrum, as these locations are a key feature in establishing the unique signature of a particular species or substance.  The magnitudes of the peaks and troughs (local maximums and minimums) can vary depending on concentration levels and is not our primary concern at this point; locations can also vary by the solvent involved.  What we are looking for is a reasonable comparison between the minimums and maximums of a known substance in solution and that same substance in solution measured directly with the Beckman spectrophotometer.  Some variations are to be allowed for, however, the locations of the maximums and minimums at specific wavelengths should compare reasonably well.  Recall that we shall confine our examination to between 300 and 800 nanometers.  For the graph above it is reasonable to use an average of the two graphs; our sampling methods do not allow for the distinction between pure hemoglobin and that combined with oxygen.  At this point, we are simply attempting to establish a reasonable control on the reliability of the instrument that is being used.

In the control chart above, we see a minimum at approximately 310 nm, a maximum at approximately 420 nm, minimums at 480-505 nm, a maximum at approximately 550 nm and finally another low in the range of 700-750 nm.  This provides us with several reference points to see if these inflection points can be reasonably reproduced.


crime 2

A graph of human blood in water obtained with the approximately 50 year old Beckman dual-beam spectrophotometer is shown above.  This particular instrument has no automatic recording features, and all data must be observed by visually sampling meter readings at periodic intervals and then producing them on the graph above.  In this case, the sampling has been done at 20 nm increments from 300 to 800 nm.  Blood is a complex substance but we expect to see at least some reasonable concurrence in the data to continue the work further.   Remembering that we are to dismiss magnitudes at this point and focus on the inflection points, we find a minimum at approximately 320 nm, a maximum at approximately 420 nm, a minimum at approximately 480 nm, a maximum at approximately 525 nm and a final minimum at approximately 725 nm.  This indicates that we have in some reasonable fashion captured the characteristic signature of hemoglobin and that at this point there is no reason to doubt the integrity of the instrument.   

It may be fair to presume that the resolution of detection within an older instrument is not expected to be the same as that of a modern instrument, but the locations of inflections should compare reasonably well.   This has been achieved with the example above.  It is also noticed that the varying light colors are easily and directly visible within the sample container of the instrument and that they correspond to the expected meter readings as the wavelengths are varied; this adds to the confidence in the instrument being used.   A modern recording instrument would indeed be valuable but it is simply not available.  Incidentally, dual beam spectrophotometers are considerably more complex but easier to use than single beam instruments, as they eliminate many of the variations that can occur with the swapping of a reference solution with the substance dissolved in another container of that same solution.

 

crime 3
http://www.bjarke.com/upload/P1_done.pdf

Our next example of a control test is that of a solution of copper sulphate (CuSO4); the graph above will serve as our reference.  In the example above, the point is made that the concentration of the solution can directly affect the magnitude of the spectrum.  The general shape of the characteristic curve remains generally consistent, however,  we can see that the major peak at approximately 750 nm is not revealed until sufficient concentration exists.  This is another reason that we must constrain ourselves to generalized interpretations of the spectrums at this point.  More detailed instrumentation and constraints on the solutions will yield correspondingly more precise information for interpretation.  Our objective here is simply to assure the reliability of the instrument being used for this report.  The general features of this example are to notice a relatively sharp decrease in absorbance from the 300 to 400 nm range, a generally and relatively low and level absorbance in the range of 400 to 550 nm, a rather sharp increase in absorbance in the 600 to 800 nm range, and with sufficient concentration, a sharp local maximum at approximately 740-760 nm.

crime 4

Above is the graph of solution of copper sulphate (concentration unknown) made with the Beckman dual-beam spectrophotometer.  Once again, the general reliability of the instrumentation is established here.   We notice a decrease in absorbance in the 300 to 360 nm range, a relatively modest to slightly increasing absorbance in the 400-600 nm range (mild increase in slope over the control sample, however),  a sharp increase in absorbance over the 600-800 nm range, and a very pronounced maximum at approximately 750-760 nm.  The more generalized resolution of the instrument on hand also remains apparent, but the uniqueness of the spectrum is once again established with reasonable confidence and reliability.  A third control test was conducted using food dyes and the results again remain reasonable.  It is at this point that we are sufficiently prepared to apply the spectral measurement instrumentation and techniques to an unknown substance.  This will be discussed in the examples below.

 

crime 5

It is at this point that we begin to gain valuable new insight into a long standing problem.  Above is a spectral analysis graph of an important and unique filament structure.  The filament sample above is the same airborne environmental filament sample type that was sent to the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  It was requested that the agency identify the nature of this filament structure on behalf of the public welfare and health interest.  The agency refused to conduct this analysis and disclosure and stated that it was not their policy to do so.  This filament structure has been described in detail on this site as it has been subjected to extensive microscopic analysis; please see the many reports in this site on this matter.

It has been learned from much testing that the exterior of the filament appears to be primarily an encasing structure and that it appears to consist of a keratin-like substance that is extremely resilient and difficult to penetrate or break down.  Over recent years my focus has been on the internal nature of the filament as there are complex structures and biological developments that occur within.  These observations have also been reported on extensively in this site.  One of the most successful methods of penetrating the filament has been with the use of sodium hydroxide and heat; several experiments of that sort have been described.  

The graph above shows a spectral analysis using primarily visible light wavelengths in a solution of sodium hydroxide after heat was applied; the sampling rate is 10 nm.  The most salient features of this absorbance spectrum analysis include a very sharp peak at approximately 375 nm, a sharp increase prior to this maximum and a fairly sharp and steady decline in absorbance out to the end of the spectrum at 800 nm.  As such, the spectrum is not inordinately complex but by nature it is unique and distinctive.  This is, to my knowledge, the first time that this spectral information has been made available to the public using this particular analytical technique.

 

crime 6

The graph immediately above is also remarkable for what becomes an obvious reason.  The graph above is an absorbance spectral analysis of a culture that has been developed from human oral filament samples that are representative of, and characteristic of, the so-called “Morgellons” condition.  The description of these cultures and the many microscopic examinations of these cultures have been presented throughout this site.  This particular culture material is approximately one year old and was subject to drying and pulverization and it also was also placed into a sodium hydroxide solution with heat.  The relative smoothness of this graph is likely due to the homogeneity that can be achieved in the preparation of this sample state. The biology of the organism appears to allow existence indefinitely in a dormant state if the environmental conditions demand it.

It is apparent that the latter two graphs are essentially identical.  As the reliability of the instrument under use has been established with reasonable confidence, the following conclusion becomes evident:  This conclusion is that the nature of a repeatedly occurring environmental filament sample is identical in nature to that filament entity which is representative and characteristic of the “Morgellons” condition.  This equality in nature has now been established unequivocally through three different methods:  visually, metrically, and analytically. There are potential therapeutic ramifications to the strong absorbance peak at approximately 375 nm and any strategies are to be treated with caution and respect; these will need to be developed in later reports.

As such, at least one source of the Morgellons condition has been identified and it is a repeating environmental source.  It is now up to us as the inhabitants and stewards of this planet to comprehend the consequences and the significance of the conclusions herein.  

Sincerely,  

Clifford E Carnicom
Mar 1, 2011

MORGELLONS : AN ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCE

MORGELLONS :
AN ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCE

Clifford E Carnicom
Dec 14 2009

I am not offering any medical advice or diagnosis with the presentation of this information. I am acting solely as an independent researcher providing the results of extended observation and analysis of unusual biological conditions that are evident.

An environmental source, at least in part, for specific biological organisms that are under scrutiny in association with the so-called “Morgellons” condition, has been identified.   This source is the unusual airborne filament sample that was sent in June of 2000 to the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for identification on behalf of the public welfare.  The United States EPA refused to acknowledge the existence of the sample for a period of one and one-half years, and subsequently returned the sample without identification after a Freedom of Information Act request for accounting was submitted by a third party.  

Upon return in 2001, the EPA stated that it was not the policy of the Agency to “test, or otherwise analyze any unsolicited samples of material or matter.

The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is to “protect human health and the environment.”1

This particular and same sample that was sent to the EPA has been successfully cultured and reproduced, and the culture growth exhibits the identical biological organisms, structure and chemistry of certain biological filaments that are under extensive study in association with the Morgellons condition.  The sample has been held in custody for more than ten years to await opportunities for proper identification.  This particular form of material has been observed, gathered, reported and documented on numerous occasions by independent citizens during the last decade.  The filament samples have been considered by many to be a potential health hazard due to the sustained lack of proper identification and the airborne nature.  Previous documentation of the events surrounding the original requests for identification are available through this site.

An incomplete (or false) report by a private laboratory, at cost, was received shortly after the EPA refusal of identification.  A meeting held to confront and dispute the findings of the private laboratory was abruptly canceled while in process when evidence was presented that contradicted the report using numerous independent methods of observation and analyses.  No further progress in formal analytical or biological identification has been made since that time.

The method of culturing is identical to that which has been developed for certain dental filament samples, and it involves the application of an alkali in solution to the filaments, heat, and subsequently an introduction into a wine medium for growth.  The culture has taken approximately four to six weeks to develop.  This method has been briefly described on numerous occasions with respect to the dental sample analyses, and it will not be repeated here.

The specific cultured structures that have been identified are the chlamydia-like organism, the mycoplasma-like organism (pleomorphic), and the encasing filament structure.  The erthyrocytic form within the EPA culture has not been identified at this time.  The recent set represents three out of four primary forms that continue to be under examination from a multitude of analyses viewpoints.  Erythrocytic forms were identified by an independent medical professional in the original sample that was submitted to the EPA, and that has been reported on in detail within this site during the early part of this decade.

PHOTOGRAPHS:

cultured fiber

digital close up

An example of more mature development within the culture medium.  Comprised of an encasing filament and internal structures of both chlamydia-like (red arrows) and the pleomorphic (ribbon-like) forms.  Magnification approx. 10,000x.

A digital close-up of the chlamydia-like organisms (red arrows) that have developed in solution from the cultured EPA filament sample.  Magnification approx 30,000x.

pleomorphic structures

encasing filament

What appears to be an example of the pleomorphic structure (red arrows)  that is under examination in addition to the chlamydia-like organism.  These two forms appear first in growth at the bottom of the petri dish.  They slowly coalesce into linear formations that eventually form as separating filaments in solution.  Magnification approx. 10,000x.

An example of the encasing filament structure with little internal detail at this particular location.  The general process of culturing is  to subject the EPA filament to an alkali solution (sodium hydroxide) and then heat the solution to the boiling point.  Temperature is maintained at this level just beneath boiling for several minutes.  The resulting solution and remaining  filaments are placed into the wine medium for examination within a petri dish.  The process of culturing here has taken approximately 6 to 8 weeks to reach the stages shown. Magnification approx. 10,000x.

emerging filament

filament 2

A photograph of an emerging filament and surrounding early growth within the wine culture medium.  This culture process has taken approximately 4-6 weeks to reach this stage of development.  The chlamydia-like and pleomorphic structures develop at the bottom of the petri dish and slowly continue to develop until they reach a filamentous form which eventually separates from the bottom of the petri dish.  Magnification approx 300x.

To be continued. The photographs within this are taken while the filaments remain in solution.  An emerging filament structure and surrounding earlier growth stages.  Magnification approx. 300x.

EPA fibrous sample

EPA 2000

The original EPA fibrous sample material, as sent to the EPA in 2000. What might be viewed as a single filament in this photograph at low  magnification is actually comprised of hundreds to thousands of sub-micron fibers.  Please refer to early reports on this site for the original studies on the EPA filament samples.  Magnification approx. 300x.

A larger segment of the original EPA filament sample as sent to the EPA in the year 2000.  Magnification approx. 300x.


Reference:

1. EPA Mission Statement, http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm#mission

THE SALTS OF OUR SOILS

THE SALTS OF OUR SOILS
Clifford E Carnicom
May 11 2005

A case can be made that the salt levels in our soils may be increasing from the deposition of atmospheric aerosol reactive metal salts over time1. Numerous measurements of soil samples in the northern New Mexico region are showing relatively high levels of conductivity. Conductivity is a direct measure of the concentration of ions in solution. Reactive metal hydroxide salt forms, such as those that have now been documented at unexpectedly high levels in both the atmosphere and rainwater2, are exactly the type of salt forms which will increase the conductivity (ion concentration) of the soil as well. The importance of this finding is that increased salt levels in the soils will lead to stress on the plant life, and if they are high enough, they will lead to reduced growth or eventual death of many species. The issues of soil salinity and salinity stress are quite serious, and they show that the effect of aerosol operations underway must be considered in their totality; with recent studies alone the impact upon the atmosphere, the water and the soils of this planet is increasingly apparent.3,4

 Piñon Pine Die-Off
Piñon Pine Die-Off
Santa Fe Region, New Mexico
April 2005

A continuous appeal for public pressure upon both international environmental and governmental agencies for determination of the health of the planet as it is affected by the aerosol operations is established. The unfortunate reality is that such groups in this country have failed to responsibly respond to public request, and most of the responses that have been made are branded with dishonesty and disingenousness. It is now required that not only should the environmental reporting occur in haste, but that such reports must be accompanied by independent audits that have no vested interest in the outcome of the results. It is a sad fact that many of the United States governmental agencies and authorities can no longer be trusted to be acting in the interest of the public welfare. Such patterns became evident at the onset of the aerosol operations that were commenced without public involvement or consent.

 View of Santa Fe New Mexico - April 19, 2005
View of Santa Fe New Mexico – April 19, 2005
(Ideal Weather Conditions)


The initial particulars of the current report are as follows

The best reference for expected conductivity levels in the soil on a nationwide basis found this far is a map issued by the Federal Communications Commission5. This effort was published in 1954 on a nationwide basis, as the conductivity of soils is a significant factor in AM radio propagation. Although general, the source nevertheless represents a major national effort that apparently has not been duplicated since. Conductivity maps and profiles are important as they are one of the best indicators of salt levels that are expected in the soil. There are numerous sources6,7,8,9 that describe the salt tolerances of the native flora, and there is a clear relationship between increased salt levels and decreased productivity of the soil. Increased salts in general, are certainly detrimental (and potentially fatal) to many plant species.

The current report is also precipitated in part by direct local observation. The first is the change that has been noticed in local grasslands in the rather severe and hostile environments of the drier southwest. A particular large field has been under observation since the aerosol operations began en masse near the beginning of 1999. This particular field at that time produced grass sufficient to support a couple of horses during the growing season without difficulty, and any changes reported are not a result of overgrazing. Over the years, it has been quietly observed that the grass production has steadily and continuously declined. It has been supposed that the primary cause of this decline has been the drought that affected this area for up to five years. However, as time progressed, it became evident that periods of increased rain did nothing to mitigate the changes. If a large storm or storms were to arrive at an optimum time for growth, the effect was increasingly minimal. It has now progressed to the point where even in the face of record levels of moisture during this last winter and spring, grass simply no longer will grow in that field. It has become a field of weeds (i.e., “an otherwise desirable plant in an undesirable location”) and the livestock has not been able to receive sustenance there for several years now.

 Former Agricultural Grass Land, Northern New Mexico
Former Agricultural Grass Land, Northern New Mexico
Invasive Species Now Dominate the Area – Grasses Are No Longer Supported
April 2005

The second observation considers a major die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area. This die-off is massive and it continues to present a major fire threat to this area. Many may recall the impact of the Los Alamos fire in this area several years ago, which came to national prominence due to the proximity of the National Laboratory. The community report that is circulated states that the past drought “led to stress” and that this stress in turn has allowed the infestation of a bark beetle that eventually has led to current devastation of the pinyon pine species. My interest in this report is to consider a second look at the so-called “stress factors” that may be at play.

 Piñon Pine Die-Off
Piñon Pine Die-Off
Santa Fe Region, New Mexico
April 2005

It has already been reported that the expected effect from the introduced aerosols is to heat up the lower atmosphere10, and not to cool it as many have attempted to promote under the guise of a secret but benevolent motive. Under the best of circumstances it can only be determined that the aerosols will aggravate the drought and warming problems, if not actually induce these very conditions. Reduced forage productivity is already expected in part from the specific heat and dessication properties of the aerosols.

Compounding the problem, we must now consider the effects of aerosols that eventually accumulate in salt forms within the soil from precipitation and gravity. This paper considers the effect of precipitation alone. Thirteen soil samples from widely varying habitats in the Santa Fe region have been investigated for conductivity results. These results indicate that seven of the thirteen samples indicate potential cases of salinity stress in the soil that may already be adversely affecting productivity.  If proximity to vegetation is considered  in the case of the pinyon die-off, (to be discussed in more detail), then six out of seven samples indicate the possibility of salinity stress.  It is to be considered, therefore, that a harmful salinity problem with the soils may already be in place.   The tests indicated here are only of preliminary nature, and they serve the purpose of simply raising the issue of salinity stress within our soils as a result of the aerosol campaign.  This complication is in addition to the drought and heat injuries that have already been substantiated.  The alarming alkaline results of numerous pH tests conducted by citizens across the country and presented on this site should also be recalled as the grander environmental alteration is assessed.

On a more ominous note, if the trends of this study are verified and continue to occur, it can be expected that the situation may deteriorate much further than is already indicated .  The conifers and deciduous trees are generally much less salt tolerant than the grasses.  The current work indicates that coniferous regions may already be subject to more salinity than they may be able to handle in the future.  The recent large scale die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area may only be a harbinger of drastic changes in the future vitality of the forage.  It would seem as though if international and national environmental organizations were truly concerned and heeded the signs of planetary change, then they would openly and publicly begin the investigation into the effects of the aerosol operations upon our air, our water, and soil -and all life upon this planet.  The quickest way to remedy the problem, during the “investigation” period is to terminate or to force a moratorium upon the aerosol program.


Secondary particulars of this report:

Complete and proper testing of soil conductivity will require adequately funded laboratory resources and analysis.  The current work attempts to assess conditions within the range of methods and resources available to this researcher.  There appear to be two primary methods of soil conductivity analysis.  The first of these uses a saturated paste method, and the second sample of soil that is resident within water, often at a ratio of approximately five to one.  The EC (Electrical Conductivity) paste method will be preferred should the proper means ever become available.  This paper uses the solution technique.  The expected measurement scale of results is quite different for each method, and attention must be paid to the units of the results.

The method chosen has been to place a soil sample approximately 1cm deep within a clean glass jar (radius 4cm) and to cover it with distilled water to a depth of approximately 7cm.  A conductivity reading is taken immediately after the mixing of the sample with the water with a calibrated conductivity meter that measures in uS.  The conductivity of the solution is then measured with respect to time elapsed, usually involving a period of approximately 4 to 7 days.  It has been found that conductivity in all cases increases considerably with this elapse of time, and it is difficult to reach any other conclusion than that a significant ion leaching condition is occurring.  It is expected that the slow leaching of salts within the soil is the most likely producer of this effect.  In the references found on soil conductivity testing, this phenomenon appears to be more of an anomaly than a universal result.  The effect is significant and has been found to result in increases in conductivity levels on the order of up to 15 times the initial reading given sufficient time.  The mixture always will reach a maximum conductivity level after which the elapse of time will not change the result; these are the readings accepted for reference in this study.  This maximum has been reached within a week of collecting the sample in all cases.  This observation alone may merit further study.

A broad range of local ecosystems have been investigated, including lower grasslands (~6500 ft. elev),  pinyon pine and juniper forests (~6800 -7500ft.), ponderosa pine forests (~8000ft), and the upper portions of the local mountain range (10,500ft.).  The FCC conductivity map has been examined at the highest resolution available to find the expected range of conductivity values for this region.  These values range from 20uS in the mountain forested areas, to 40uS for the northwest region of Santa Fe, to 150uS in the lower plain areas to the south of Santa Fe.  The maximum conductivity values shown on the conductivity map is 300uS.  In general, the higher the conductivity level (i.e, salt level), the more difficult it becomes to support the higher forms of plant life.  In general, the grasses will be found to be generally more salt tolerant, and deciduous tree forms relatively salt intolerant. Numerous references have been consulted to establish the expected salt tolerance levels for the variety of plant species in the southwest and for plant types in general across the country and world.  There are some difficulties that emerge in equating measurements of the solution and paste methods; efforts have been made to bridge that gap in a conservative fashion.

The lowest initial reading in the soil samples taken is 11uS. The highest initial reading is 130uS.  The highest reading of all samples, given sufficient time for ion leaching to occur, is 424uS.  The best estimate that can be achieved at this time is that considering all samples taken in all locations, conductivity estimates are on the order of approximately 3 times greater than is expected.  It is to be recalled that any increase in salinity levels of air, moisture and soil is to be taken seriously as salts will generally increase and accumulate in soils over time.  They will be expected at some level to demonstrate interference with the vitality of the plant.  This report makes the argument that such processes may already be in place.

The (former) grassland tests indicate that levels of conductivity may already be high enough to explain in part the failure of grasses to grow, even when blessed with sufficient or abnormally high rainfall.  It may be that rainfall itself is no longer as beneficial as we would like to believe, especially as reactive metal hydroxide salts now seem to be a regular source of pollution within the rain or snow.

The high mountain soil test (not water) at this point has come out favorably.  In addition, tests conducted some distance away from dominant vegetation such pinyon or juniper species has raises no undue concern.

The mid-level mountain test in the Ponderosa zone (~8000ft.) is not so favorable and does indicate a potential problem that could loom in our future. The extension of the pinyon pine die-off into the higher elevations of this area, to include ponderosa or other conifers at higher elevations, will be truly devastating to this region should it occur.   Moisture, the composition of that moisture, and salts in the soil must all be considered as additional “stress factors” that may lead to very serious problems in our future.

The pinyon pine die-off region has been especially interesting to study, with some unanticipated results along the way.  There remains much work to be done should sufficient interest and care arise.  One of the surprising results that has been found is that there is tremendous variation in conductivity with respect to the distance from the bole, or trunk of the tree.  Values of conductivity away from the vegetation, in the open, do not pose any special concern that I can determine at this time.  Close to the tree itself, however, the results are dramatically different.  Conductivity readings (and correspondingly, ion concentrations) seem especially high.  This result was found after unexplained variations within the die-off region was occurring.  Proximity to the trees in measurement does appear to be the primary factor that explains this variation.

Research was conducted to establish if distance from the vegetation is a known, common, important and expected factor within soil measurements. The answer appears to be no.  It has been difficult thus far to find many references to this finding that is being discussed.  One paper11 has been found that describes that such a phenomenon can occur, but the audience for the paper appears to be relatively restricted.  The second paper12 does not refer to variation with respect to distance, but does explain the majority of conductivity variation from calcium and magnesium salt forms.

This question that is being asked here may be much more than academic.  The conductivity levels in the immediate vicinity of the now dead trees appears to be unexpectedly high.  Calcium and magnesium components are two of the primary ionic salt forms that now are being identified at high levels in rainwater tests.  If ionic exchange and ion concentration processes are taking place in the roots and soil in the vicinity of the trees, it seems conceivable that a process of soil saline concentration and accumulation is occurring.  If the levels are high enough, and the testing results at hand indicate that they are, then it is quite possible that saline stress is an active process – here and now.  The sooner that the comprehensive nature of the die-off of the pinyon pine is established, the greater the chance that extensive and catastrophic larger scale events can be averted in the future.

There is no claim here that saline stress is the cause of all of our woes in the plant world.  This paper, however, does raise some questions that deserve fair consideration with respect to the massive global effects from the aerosol operations.  There is no doubt that global effects are occurring, and many of them have already been, and they continue to be, measured.  It is only by being fair and honest with ourselves that we will find these truths.  I continue to believe that infinite time is not a luxury you can afford to have at this point.  You shall have to answer the question of “ownership” for the air that you breathe, the water that you drink, and for the life and the plants that provide your food.  You will need to weigh that answer against that provided by any nation, government, agency, corporation or any other claimed source of power.  You then will need to act accordingly.

Clifford E Carnicom
May 11, 2005


References:

1. Carnicom, Atmospheric Salt Confirmed, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/atmospheric-salt-confirmed/, Oct 2000.
2. Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/calcium-and-potassium/, Mar 2005.
3. Carnicom, Drastic pH Changes, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/drastic-ph-changes/, Sep 2000.
4. Carnicom, Conductivity : The Air, The Water, The Soil, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/conductivity-the-air-the-water-and-the-land/ Apr 2005.
5. Federal Communications Commission, M3 Map of Effective Ground Conductivity in the USA, http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/m3/index.html
6. Utah State University, Salinity and Plant Tolerance, http://extension.usu.edu/publica/agpubs/salini.htm
7. Alberta Government, Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Salt Tolerance of Plants, http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3303?opendocument
8. Department of Primary Industries,  Victoria, Australia, Salinity and the Growth of Forage Species, http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nreninf.nsf/childdocs/
9. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Salt Tolerance of Various Temperate Zone Ornamental Plants, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/TRA/PLANTS/stable.html
10. Carnicom, Drought Inducement, https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/drought-inducement/, Apr 2002.
11. Obradoor, Soil Nutrient Status and Forage Yield at Varying Distances from Trees in Four Dehesas in Extremadura, Spain, http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/safe/publications/papers/Soil%20nutrient%20status%20and%20forage%20yield%20at%20varying%20distances%20from%20trees%20in%20four%20dehesas%20in%20Extremadura,%20Spain.pdf
12.Harstock, Soil Electrical Conductivity Variability, http://www.bae.uky.edu/~precag/PrecisionAg/Reports/Soil_EC_Var/soil_electrical_conductivity_var.htm