Tertiary Rainwater Analysis : Questions of Toxicity

Tertiary Rainwater Analysis : Questions of Toxicity

 Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 08 2015

ABSTRACT

This paper presents evidence of a chemical signature that exists within an analyzed rain sample that is characteristic of known toxins and pesticides. The method of analysis used is that of mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specifically, certain functional groups involving sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and halogens have been identified in the analysis. It is recommended that the investigation be duplicated by independent researchers to determine if an environmental hazard does exist. If these results are verified to be positive, the source of the contaminants is to be identified and eliminated from the environment.

residual_ir4Infrared Spectrum of Concentrated Rain Water Sample
(Aqueous Influence Removed)

The original rainwater sample volume for this analysis is approximately 3.25 liters.  The sample was evaporated under mild heat to approximately 0.5% of the original volume, or about 15 milliliters.  The sample has previously been shown to contain both aluminum, biological components, and a residue that appears to be an insoluble metallic or organometallic complex.  The target of this particular study is that of soluble organics.

The organic infrared signal within the solution is weak and difficult to detect with the means available; it is further complicated by being present in aqueous solution.  The aqueous influence was minimized by making an evaporated film layer on a KCl cell; the transmission mode was used. The signal is identifiable and repeatable under numerous passes in comparison to the reference background.

The primary conclusion from the infrared analysis is that a core group of elements exists within the solution; these appear to include carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen and a halogen.  The organic footprint appears to be weak but detectable and dominated by the above heteratoms.

As further evidence for the basis of this report, qualitative tests for an amine (nitrogen and hydrogen), sulfates and phosphates (sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus) have each produced a positive test result.  A qualitative test for a halogen in the concentrated rainwater sample has also produced a positive result; the most likely candidate at this point is the chloride ion.  All elements present have therefore been proven to exist at detectable levels by two independent methods.

This grouping of elements is distinctive; they essentially comprise the core elements of many important, powerful and highly toxic pesticides.   For example, three sources directly state the importance of the group above as the very base of most pesticides:

 

“In pesticides, the most common elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine”.

Pesticide Residues in Food and Drinking Water : Human Exposure and Risks, Dennis Hamilton, 2004.

 

“We can further reduce the list by considering those used most frequently in pesticides: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine, and sulfur”.

Fundamentals of Pesticides, A Self-Instruction Guide, George Ware , 1982.

 

“Heteratoms like fluorine, chlorine, bromine, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus, which are important elements in pesticide residue analysis, are of major interest”.

Analysis of Pesticides in Ground and Surface Water II : Latest Developments, Edited by H.J. Stan, 1995.

 

It is also true that phosphate diesters are at the core of DNA structure and that many genetic engineering procedures involve the splitting of the phosphate diester complex.

The information provided above is sufficient to justify and invoke further investigation into the matter.  The sample size, although it was derived from an extensive storm over several days in the northwest U.S., is nevertheless limited and quite finite after reduction of the sample volume.  The residual insoluble components (apparently metallic in nature) are also limited in amount and more materials will be required for further analysis.  The signal is weak and difficult to isolate from the background reference; concentration level estimates for elements or compounds (other than that of aluminum which has been assessed earlier) is another entire endeavor.  Systematic, wide-area, and long term testing will be required to validate or refute the results.  All caveats above aside, it would seem that the duty to address even the prospect of the existence of such toxins in the general rainfall befalls each of us.  It would seem wise that this process begins without delay.

There are a few additional comments on this finding that need be mentioned.

The first of these is the issue of local and regional vs. a national and international scope of consideration.  It is understood that pesticides or compounds similar in nature are a fact of our environment, and that considerable awareness and effort is in place to mitigate their damage over decades of use.  Organic farming and genetically engineered crops are two very divergent approaches to reconciliation with the impact of environmental harm, and they are shaping our society and food supply in the most important ways manageable.  Given that the pesticide industry exists, regardless of our varying opinions of merit or harm, I think that it is fair to say that we generally presume that pesticides are under some form of local control.  Our general understanding is that pesticides are applied at ground or close to ground level and are intended to be applied to a specific location or, at most, a region within a defined time interval.

The prospect, even I daresay, the hint, of pesticide or pesticide-like compounds in rainfall is more than daunting.  It seems immediately necessary to consider what scale of operation would support such toxins finding their way into the expanses of atmosphere and rainfall?  For the sake of the general welfare, I think we should all actively wish and seek to disprove the findings within this report.  I will not hesitate to amend this report if honest, fair and accurate testing bears out negative reports over an adequate time period, and my motive never includes sensationalizing an issue.  This is one test, one time, one place, with limited means and support in the process.  I cannot disprove the results at this time and I have an obligation to report on that which seems to be case, uncomfortable as it might be.  It is not the first time that I have been in this situation, and judging from the changes in the the health of the planet that have taken place, it is unlikely to be the last.  The sooner that the state of truth is reached, the better we shall all be for it in any sense that is real.

The second comment relates to the decline of the bee population.  Bees are an indicator species, the canary in the mine, as it were.  The bees and the amphibians have both been ringing their alarm for some time now, and we best not remain passive about finding the reasons for decline.  A minimum of 1/3 of our agricultural economy, and that means food, is dependent upon the bee population for its very existence.  This is no trifling matter, and we all need to get up to speed quickly on the importance of this issue, myself included.

Suffice it to say that compounds of this nature, i.e, historical pesticides like organophosphates and the purported safer and more recent alternatives (e.g., the neonicotinoids), have a very close relationship to the ongoing and often ambiguous studies regarding bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD).  From my perspective, it would seem prudent to eliminate the findings of this report as a contributing cause to the problem as promptly as possible.  If that can not be done so readily, then we may have a bigger problem on our hands than is imagined.

One of the interesting side notes is that the elements and groups identified as candidates for investigation actually seem to overlap between the neonicotinioids and the organophosphates.  This includes the nitrogen groups that characterize the neonicotinoids and the phosphate esters that characterize the organophosphates.  If such a combination were at hand, this would seem especially troublesome as both forms remain mired in controversy, let alone any combination thereof.

The third and final comment relates to the toxicity of these compound types in general.  It is not just an issue about bees or salamanders.  These particular compounds have a history and effects that are not difficult for us to research, and we should become aware of their impacts upon the planet quickly enough.  Many of us already are.  The fact is that organophosphates have their origins as nerve gas agents in the pre-World War II era, and in theory their use has been reduced but hardly eliminated.  Residential use is apparently no longer permissible in the United States, but commercial usage still is.  This raises questions on what real effect any such “restrictive” legislation has had.

The neonicotinoids are promoted as a generally safer alternative to the organophosphates, but they are hardly without controversy as well.  They too have strong associations with CCD in the research that is ongoing.  They also are neuro-active insecticides.

It would seem to me that we all have a job to do in getting up to speed on the source, distribution and levels of exposures to insecticide and insecticide related compounds.  A greater awareness of toxins in our environment, in general, also seems in order.  If our general environment has been affected to a degree that has avoided confrontation  thus far, then we need to face the music as quickly as possible.  I trust that we understand the benefits of both rationality and aggressiveness when serious issues face us, and this may be another such time.  I hope that I will be able to dismiss this report in due time; at this time, I cannot.

Sincerely,

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 05, 2015

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
Jan 19, 1953

 

Additional Notes:

The preliminary functional group assignments being made to the absorption peaks at this time are as follows (cm-1):

~ 3322 : Amine, Alkynes (R2NH considered)
~ 2921 : CH2 (methylene)
~ 2854 : CH2 (methylene)
~1739 : Ester (RCOOR, 6 ring considered)
~1447 : Sulfate (S=O considered)
~1149 : Phosphate (Phosphate ester, organophosphate considered)
~1072 : Phosphine, amine, ester, thiocarbonyl
~677  : Alkenes, aklynes, amine, alkyl halide

The assignments will be revised or refined as circumstances and sample collections permit, however, as a group they appear to provide a distinctive organic signature.  A structural model may be developed at a future date.

Some chemical compounds which may share some similar properties to that under consideration here include, for example, (not all elements included in any listed compound; only for reference comparison purposes):

p-chlorophenyl (3-phenoxypropyl)carbamate
N-(1-naphthylsulfonyl)-L-phenylalanyl chloride
2,2,2-trichloroethyl 2-(2-benzothiazolyl)dithio-alpha-isopropenyl-4-oxo-3-phenylacetamido-1-azetidineacetate
cytidine monophosphate
diiodobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II)

per :
SDBSWeb : http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nov 06 2015)

Secondary Rainwater Analysis : Organics & Inorganics

Secondary Rainwater Analysis :
Organics & Inorganics

Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 04 2015

ABSTRACT

A second rainwater sample has been evaluated. On this occasion, both organic and inorganic attributes of the sample have been examined.  Although the sample investigated is of much larger volume, the results demonstrate an essentially equivalent level of aluminum present to that defined within the earlier report, i.e., approximately 2 PPM.  This magnitude exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency recommended standards for aluminum in drinking factor by roughly a factor of 10. 

In addition, various organic attributes of the sample are introduced within this report.

rainwater_still_web

 Concentrated Rain Sample under Study in this Report
Distilled Water Reference on Left, Concentrated Rainfall to Right

concentrate
Residual Solid Materials from the Rainwater Sample of this Study

The volume of the sample collected is approximately 6.5 liters over a three day heavy storm period, collected in clean containers that are were exposed to open sky.  The sample was concentrated by evaporation under modest heat to approximately 6% of the original volume.  It is apparent from visual inspection and by visible light spectrometry that the concentrated rainfall sample is not transparent and that it does contain materials to some degree.

Visible Light Spectrum Rainfall2

Visible light spectrum of the concentrated rainfall sample.  The increase in absorption in the lower ranges of visible light correspond to the yellow and yellow-green colors that are observed with the sample.
The pH of the concentrated sample is recorded at 8.5; this value is surprisingly alkaline and indicates the presence of substantial hydroxide ions in solution.  The pH of the solution prior to concentration measures at 7.5; this also must be registered as highly alkaline under the circumstances.

The pH of  ‘natural’ rain water has been discussed in earlier papers and its relationship to the expected value of 5.7 due to the presence of carbonic acid in the atmosphere (carbon dioxide and water).  The departure of natural rainwater from the theoretical neutrality of 7.0 is one aspect of the pH studies that I conducted in conjunction with numerous citizens across the nation some years ago, and these reports remain available.  The current finding is remarkably alkaline and, by itself, is indicative of fundamental acid-base change in the chemistry of the atmosphere.

From those early reports, it may be wise to recall the words of Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize winner for Chemistry (Atmosphere, Climate and Change, 1995), who stated that the most important chemical attribute of precipitation is indeed the pH value.  It behooves us, as a species, to act rather quickly on any reasonable claim to a significant change in fundamental atmospheric chemistry that may exist.  It must be acknowledged that these same claims now prevail over decades of time, and that any dismissal as an aberration of no consequence is unjustifiably diminutive.

The sample has been examined again for the existence of trace metals using the method of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, as described in the earlier report. The results are essentially identical to that of the earlier report, and once again the signature of a soluble form of aluminum is detected . The sample in this case, however, is of much larger volume, was collected over a longer duration, and was more highly concentrated that that in the preliminary report.

The concentration level was again determined, and the analysis indicates a level of soluble aluminum within the rainwater sample at 2.0 PPM.  This compares quite closely with the earlier sample result of approximately 2.4 PPM . This determination once again takes into account the concentration process that has been applied to the sample for testing sensitivity purposes.

Two facts bear repeating here:

First, this value exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for drinking water by roughly a factor of 10, again using the most conservative approach possible that can be taken.

Second, the previously referenced U.S. Geological Survey statement from the year of 1967 is valuable both in relation to evaluating the EPA standards as well as assessing the expectations of aluminum concentrations in natural waters:

usgs_quote_1967-2

There is now a necessity to include an additional aspect of the rainfall analysis that has made its presence known more clearly.  This is the case of biologicals.  It is a fact, that in addition to the repeated detection of a trace metal at questionable levels, certain organic constituents are coming to the fore.   The test results are repeatable at this point and these organics will eventually require an equal accounting for their existence.  I will not enter into an extended discussion of their potential significance at this time, as the first and necessary step is to place on the table that which must be confronted.  My introductory suggestion at this point is to become aware of a previous paper on this site, entitled “A New Biology” to gain some familiarity with the scope of the issue . It is fair to say that along with changes of chemistry in this planet, we must also confront certain changes in biology that are in place.  The history of this planet, the cosmos, life and our own species is dynamic, and intelligence itself is partially expressed in the ability to adapt to changing circumstances.  We are in the process, whether we like it or not, of learning if and how quickly we can adapt to changes that have and are taking place, induced or otherwise.  We may also choose whether to participate in the process (hopefully for the betterment of the world, as opposed to its detriment), or if we shall remain ignorant in an effort to ensconce ourselves in a purported comfort zone.

The methods of examination to be presented here are twofold: that of microscopy and that of infrared spectroscopy.  Here are some some images that relate to the fact of the matter; they are repeated in both samples that have been examined:

rain1rain2
rain3rain4

Low Power (~200x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples
(The colors of the filaments are a unique characteristic (commonly red and blue) and they exist as an aid to identification with low power microscopy)

rain5rain6
rain7rain8

High Power (~5000x) of Biological Filaments Contained in
Residual Materials from Concentrated Rainwater Samples

These images will not be elaborated on in detail at this time, as it may require a period of time to examine the information that has come forth here.  They most certainly indicate a biological nature that shares a common origin with many of the research topics that have evolved on this site over the years.  It may be worthwhile to begin by becoming familiar with the ‘environmental filament’ issue that is so thoroughly examined on this site.  Since it seems clear that we are indeed dealing with an ‘environmental contaminant’ of sorts, the history of communication with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may also be worthy of review.

It would also seem to be the case that a significant portion of the residual material is inorganic as well, as in an insoluble metallic form.  It may be that the insoluble residual material may be composed in part as an organometallic complex, based upon historical findings.

Regardless of the source or impact of these materials, it does seem to fair to state that an accounting for their existence in the atmosphere and rainfall is deserved.  Each of us may wish to play a part in seeking the answers to such issues and questions before us all.  I wish for this to happen, as I suspect many of us know that it is the right thing to do.

 

Clifford E Carnicom
November 01, 2015.

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
January 19, 1953.

Preliminary Rainwater Analysis : Aluminum Concentration

Preliminary Rainwater Analysis :
Aluminum Concentration


Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 02 2015

ABSTRACT

A method and means to identify the species and concentration of several different trace metals in ionic form has been established.  The method employed is that of differential cyclic chronopotentiometry, which is a subset of the science of voltammetry.  The brief paper presents a preliminary examination of a rainwater sample for the existence of trace metals.  The sample under examination shows the existence of aluminum in a soluble form.  An estimate of the concentration level of the aluminum has been made; this level exceeds that of the recommended standards for drinking water.  The results indicate that public concerns about the toxicity levels of certain trace metals in the general environment are warranted, and that a more thorough evaluation of the state of atmospheric quality by the responsible agencies is required.

rainwater_analysis
Rainwater Sample of this Study Collected under “Clean” Conditions
Note that Visible Pollution is also Evident

The determination of  trace metals can be an expensive and sophisticated proposition.  One of the more modern methods of detection at trace levels involves the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP); such means and skill sets are not practiced by the public under normal circumstances.  The determination of inorganic compounds at trace levels has always presented a serious challenge to this Institute, and in the past all such efforts have been relegated to that which can be gleaned primarily from qualitative testing methods.  One interesting alternative, with a long history and of increasing importance, is the science of voltammetry.  Many are familiar with the fact that elements and compounds have unique electromagnetic spectrums, such as those employed in the disciplines of spectroscopy including, for example, infrared spectrometry and atomic absorption.  It is valuable to know that many of these same elements also have an ‘electrochemical signature’, and that they behave in unique and identifiable ways when exposed to variations in voltage and current.  It is from this fact that voltammetry was born, and its origin dates back to the the days of Michael Faraday.  The basic principle of voltammetry is to examine the relationships of oxidation and reduction within a medium or a reaction; there are numerous variations upon the specifics of this theme.  Voltammetry equipment is dramatically more modest in cost than ICP and mass spectrometry, and yet it can still produce usable results that are, on many occasions, commensurate with the more advanced equipment and technology.  Such equipment, in is most basic form, is now employed at the Institute and it is yielding promising results in the important domain of inorganic analysis, such as metals and halogens.

The study here refers only to an inorganic analysis that has been made; at a later date a presentation on biological aspects of the rainwater sample will occur as time and circumstances permit.

The rain sample was collected on Oct 30 2015 with new and clean containers with a clear path to the sky above.  The sample was then evaporated to 33% of the original volume for the purpose of increasing the concentration level sufficient for testing purposes.  The sample was compared to a control volume of distilled water.

The potentiostat used in the voltammetry work is a CV-27 model from Bioanalytical Sciences. The unit has passed all test procedures as described in the manual. The output from the potentiostat is coupled to a Pico 2000 series digital oscilloscope, whereby both voltage input and output can be displayed as a function of time. The basic mode of operation for the testing process is therefore one of chronopotentiometry.

A series of calibration tests were made with a variety of trace metals, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron and aluminum.

The goals of the investigations include both the ability to identify the species as well as concentration; both goals have been achieved with the above elements in an ionic state in sufficient concentration, i.e., on the order of a few parts per million (PPM).  The work will extend to other species and combinations thereof in the future.

The particular variation of chronopotentiometry that has been utilized is that of cyclic chronopotentiometry, i.e, the alternating sweep between positive and negative voltages in the effort to identify the peak potential that characterizes the redox reaction of the particular element.

In addition, it has been found that the derivative of the chronopotentiogram is a key and critical factor in the determination of the species.  A careful analysis of the derivative of the cyclic chronopotentiogram can be used with favor to identify the peak potential of the element.

When this point is identified and collated with the identifying element, concentration levels can also be established if a set of known standards is available. Concentration determinations on the order of a few parts per million have been achieved on multiple occasions.

Further careful evaluation of the derivative of the cyclic chronopotentiogram in combination with variable voltage sweeps can be used to identify separate components within a mixture of ionic species; this has been accomplished with a combination of three elements in ionic form in aqueous media to date.

The current work, under these preliminary conditions and examinations, leads to an assessment of a concentration level estimate of aluminum (+3, ionic state) within the rain sample at approximately 2.5 PPM.  A conservative approach in all manners of examination has been adopted in the preparation of this estimate, and the condensing of the sample is accounted for.

The Environmental Protection Agency in 2012 lists the secondary regulations for aluminum in drinking water as being within the range of 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L.  This corresponds to a range of 0.05 to 0.2 PPM for this same standard.  It is an interesting observation within the same report that Secondary Drinking Water Regulations exist as non-enforceable federal guidelines. The wisdom of that classification process can be determined by the reader.

Continuing with the most conservative approach possible, one is led to the assessment that this particular rain sample from a rural location in northern Idaho exceeds the EPA drinking water standard and health advisory by roughly a factor of 12.

The following reference statement from the United States Geological Survey (Bulletin 1827-A, 1967) may be of interest in the evaluation of importance that is to take place:

usgs_quote_1967

It is a point of interest that many individuals have ascribed the detection of aluminum within the atmosphere over a period of many years to my name.  Such was never the case.  My earlier work did indeed establish the precept that ionizable metallic salts are at the core of atmospheric pollution that we now live under, but the testing of aluminum, specifically, was not a part of that process.  The chemistry of aluminum is quite different from that of the alkali earth metals, and the documentation of its existence by others has always raised intriguing questions of physics. Prior to this current work, most of the inorganic analyses that I have made have been restricted to qualitative tests.  No means of testing aluminum at the trace levels has existed for the Institute prior to this occasion.  Hopefully, this situation is now mildly improved with the current voltammetric studies.  This paper adds itself to a long list of documented actions by the citizenry on the consideration that aluminum is certainly, and has been, entitled to.

As a starting point, we might wish to consider the role that aluminum may play within a geoengineered environment, and it may be worthwhile to look at the exothermic energetics of nano-particulates of aluminum under exposure to moisture.  It raises some tantalizing prospects for additional capabilities of an induced or artificial plasma state.

It is also an observation that visible pollutants in rainwater may be most pronounced with the advent of a storm. This is logical, and this has certainly been observed in the cases of excessive fires in this region.  Time will tell if it is the circumstance of other samples.  It remains to be seen how the gradation of pollutants varies with respect to the duration of the rainfall.  Nevertheless, this study does exist as a valid data point and the merit of consideration is not weakened by any progression of dilution.  The concentration gradient with respect to storm length for invisible pollutants, such as those in ionic form, remains as a topic of equal interest for the future.

There is, of course, considerable debate on the issue of the sources of contamination within our water supplies on this planet.  I will not engage in that debate in this paper, as the purpose here is to simply provide another data point of reference that may be of service in helping to establish the accountability that is required.  There are arguments by some that wish to frame a state of ‘normalcy’ for us, regardless of the level of contamination that as a species we now infest ourselves with.  Regardless of various machinations that may be in vogue, we may all ask the questions of where standards evolve from, and whether or not we knowingly wish to deny the legacy of health knowledge that has been acquired over decades, if not centuries.  We should also be called upon to use our united common sense and intuition, pray coupled with the best scientific information available, to act as stewards for our future, and to be worthy of such a title.

Clifford E Carnicom
November 01, 2015.

Born Clifford Bruce Stewart
January 19, 1953.

LAB TESTS ARE POSITIVE

LAB TESTS ARE POSITIVE
Mar 14 2002

 

Please click on each page individually for an enlarged view:

 

LAB TESTS

 LAB TESTS

LAB TESTS

LAB TESTS

LAB TESTS

 


Additional notes by CE Carnicom, Mar 18 2002:

Citizens may wish to begin investigating the role of the MDL (Method Detection Limit) in trace metal analysis per EPA 200.7 and ICP-MS methods as provided by various commercial testing labs, such as:

http://www.rpc.ca/icpms.html

where the following statements are made regarding detection capabilities beneath the MDL:

“Please note that the limits included in the table are “reporting limits” (for waters) and may be higher than the actual instrument detection limit. In many cases, it is possible to report elements to substantially lower levels.”

and

“The Reporting Limit is essentially a practical method detection limit (MDL). The reporting limit is the concentration of a parameter that can be reliably reported in the presence of a moderate amount of sample-based interferences. In many cases, lowe [incomplete sentence listed – apparently to read lower levels may be able to be reported – CEC]”

RAINWATER – SUBMITTAL

RAINWATER – SUBMITTAL
Posted on behalf of the researcher
on Feb 18 2002

Hi Clifford.

I’m sending you photos which I believe illustrate visually an approximation of the amount of metals in the local rainwater. I’ve been making my own colloidal silver for some time now and I know the process I use produces a Colloidal silver solution of 5 to 8 parts per million.

In the photos, I used a laser beam to illuminate the particles of metal in the different solutions . Colloidal silver, rain water, tap water, and distilled water. The brighter the beam, the more metals in the water. As you can see, the beam going through rainwater was similar to the colloidal silver in brightness.

Even though this study does not present a series of concentration measurements, I thought it was a way to show the amount of metals in rainwater. The photos were all shot with the same exposure. Four seconds at f/4, ASA 800 film with a Nikon fm2, 105 macro lense.

Very truly yours,
Pat Dollins

RAINWATER - SUBMITTAL

RAINWATER SAMPLES: MICROSCOPE VIEWS (II)

RAINWATER SAMPLES:
MICROSCOPE VIEWS (II)
Clifford E Carnicom
Aug 16 2001
Santa Fe NM

The following photographs of rainwater concentrate as viewed under the microscope are offered with limited interpretation. This page will serve primarily as a log of recurring structures which are found under various conditions. As further information is acquired regarding the identity of certain materials, it will be provided. All citizens are urged to participate in the process of further collection of rainfall samples, subsequent distillation or concentration and the identification of material substances within. Any assistance provided by other researchers or sources is welcome. The majority of the photographs are taken at a magnification of approximately 500x.

If sufficient rainfall is available, the water is now commonly being reduced by approximately 99% in volume. In two cases, approximately 400ml (~2cups) of rainfall was reduced to a volume of approximately 4ml.

Users may also refer to the initial investigation on this page. Crystal examinations as described on previous pages may also be of interest to readers. Additional microscopic images are available as well.

Additional short descriptions and captions for these microphotographs without comments will be provided in the near future.

RAINWATER SAMPLES
Magnification approx. 500x.
Fibrous materials occurring frequently within samples.
A dominant material of the samples appears to be an oxide form,
which appears to be attracted to fibrous elements when they are present.


RAINWATER SAMPLES

Magnification approx. 500x.
This is one of the visually dominant materials found within the rainfall
samples that are subjected to the heat of boiling or distillation.
At this stage of investigation, it appears to be an metallic oxide form.
Further assistance of identification through chemical analysis is invited.


RAINWATER SAMPLES

Magnification Approx. 2000x
The appearance of the spherical structures shown has been difficult to
detect. Although these forms have been visible in an unaltered rainfall
concentrate sample, they have been brought to greater prominence and visibility
by the addition of a small amount of sulfuric acid (approx. 2 drops per 4ml).
The acid appears to dissolve the apparent oxide form which is
dominant in both size and visibility to most samples, but does not
appear to affect the spherical components. The spherical structures
shown are essentially transparent and difficult to both see and photograph.
In a reference book on aerosols that has been consulted, it is of interest to
note that aluminum particulates are shown within a photograph as being
spherical in shape. The materials shown measure at approximately 2 microns
for each sphere (human hair approx. 60-100microns thick).

RAINWATER SAMPLES
Magnification Approx. 2000x
Another example of the spherical components which have been described above,
readily visible and isolated after the introduction of a couple of drops of
sulfuric acid into the rainfall concentrate sample. It is also of interest that
the remaining sample within the test tube that has been treated in this manner
visibly shows what appears to abundant metallic particulate matter within it.
Although no claim at this time will be made that this material is aluminum,
it does satisfy the expected visible properties of that element. When the test
tube is agitated, the highly reflective particulate matter can be seen to adhere
and gradually descend on the inside of the glass wall of the test tube.


RAINWATER SAMPLES

Magnification approx. 500x.
This material is being shown because of its repeated presence.
It has been dismissed on several occasions because it has been assumed
to be of a spurious plant origin. The repeated appearance of this cellular structure
establishes the need for positive identification of it.


RAINWATER SAMPLES

Magnification approx. 500x.
Another example of the cellular layer material that is repeating within different samples
that have been viewed under the microscope. Strong consideration must be given to the
possibility of a plant origin or contaminant with this material. It is reoccurring, however,
and it maintains this form after subjection to heat. It is presented because of the
need for identification that exists.

RAINWATER SAMPLES
Magnification approx. 2000x.
This photograph shows two primary components. The first is a fibrous component,
which forms the backdrop of the image. In addition, numerous rod shaped objects
appear within this image. These rods are quite small and numerous within the
sample shown. This is an image of what remains after a portion of a wet slide
mount has dried. The higher magnification increases the difficulty of light
collection under the microscope. The objects have been measured at
approximately 1-2 microns in thickness, and approximately 5 microns in
length. A human hair is approximately 60-100 microns thick.

RAINWATER SAMPLES
Magnification Approx. 2000x
Another image of the rod-shaped features that are visible under one sample
of a wet slide mount that has been allowed to dry.

RAINWATER SAMPLES
Magnification Approx. 500x
This is a distinctive crystal that is forming along the perimeter of a
rainfall concentrate sample that has been treated with a small amount
of sulfuric acid (approx. 2 drops per 4ml of rainfall concentrate).

RAINWATER SAMPLES
Magnification Approx. 500x
Another example of a distinctive crystal that forms under the conditions
which have been described immediately above.


RAINWATER SAMPLES

Magnification Approx. 500x
This photograph is dominated with by what appears to be a metal oxide form
as has been described earlier. One strong candidate for testing will be magnesium
oxide, due to earlier test results with unheated rain water samples. This sample
also has the presence of larger circular or spherical objects. At this point
these are not to be considered recurring components. Because of their size,
strong consideration should be given to the possibility of being a pollen grain.
In the past, however, both pine and juniper pollen grains have been identified,
(both of which are expected in this southwestern region), and these are not
similiar to form of either of these pollen types. It must also be remembered
that these rain sample concentrates have been subject to the heat of distillation
or evaporation by boiling. If the structures shown continue to appear under
further observation, they will also require positive identification.

RAINWATER SAMPLES

RAINWATER SAMPLES

RAINWATER SAMPLES

RAINWATER SAMPLES

RAINWATER SAMPLES

RAINWATER METALS: MICROSCOPE VIEWS

RAINWATER METALS:
MICROSCOPE VIEWS
Clifford E Carnicom
Jul 30 2001

The following photographs of rainwater concentrate as viewed under the microscope are now offered to the public as a complement to the initial investigations recently presented on this website. The majority of the photographs are taken at a magnification of approximately 500x, and they depict an evaporated crystalline form as well as a wet slide mount of the samples.

Collection of rainwater samples by citizens and the subsequent positive identification of all materials that are being shown is both requested and encouraged.

The materials appear to be composed of several distinctive and complex forms. The dominant material appears to be occurring as a metal oxide, which apparently is forming as a result of the heat applied to metal particulates during the distillation process. The evaporated crystalline form on a clean glass slide has a slight pinkish tinge to it. Spherical bodies frequently occur near the perimeter of an evaporated crystal. Isolated occurrences of a rather large crystal also occur along the perimeter. Wet slide mounts make the basic unit of constitution difficult to discern with a light microscope; it appears to be on the order of 1-2 microns in size or less. The presence of fibrous material occurs frequently and is easily visible within the wet slide mount. It appears to measure on the order of 1-2 microns (or less) in diameter. As a frame of reference, a human hair is approximately 60-100 microns in diameter and asbestos fibers are on the order of 2-3 microns in diameter.

Users may also refer to the initial investigation on this page. Crystal examinations as described on previous pages may also be of interest to readers.

Research will continue on the positive identification of these excessive levels of airborne particulates. Participation by other citizens within this endeavor will be of benefit.

RAINWATER METALS
Dried Crystal Form; Magnification Approx. 500x
Note Spherical Bodies, size approx. 6 microns;
form near perimeter of evaporated crystals.

RAINWATER METALS
Evaporated Crystal Form; Magnification Approx. 500x
Note large crystal form, size approx. 180 microns;
occasional formation near perimeter of evaporated crystals.

RAINWATER METALS
Evaporated Crystal Form; Magnification Approx. 500x
Apparent oxide formations;
dominates center of evaporated crystal.
Single fiber visible; this size of fiber occurs intermittently.

RAINWATER METALS
Evaporated Crystal Form; Magnification Approx. 500x
Dendritic crystal form;
Occurs near perimeter of evaporated crystal.

RAINWATER METALS
Evaporated Crystal Form; Magnification Approx. 500x
Combination of spherical bodies and large crystal formation.
Occurs near perimeter of evaporated crystal.

RAINWATER METALS
Evaporated Crystal Form; Magnification Approx. 500x
Dendritic crystal form;
Occurs near perimeter of evaporated crystal.

RAINWATER METALS
Wet slide mount, magnification approx 500x.
Materials appear generally diffuse, and of extremely small size.
Smallest distinguishable unit on the order of 1-2 microns or less.


RAINWATER METALS
Wet slide mount, magnification approx 500x.
Note definite appearance of fibrous materials.
Fibers appear to measure at 1-2 microns in diameter.

RAINWATER METALS
Wet slide mount, magnification approx 500x.
Representative materials that dominate appearance in a wet mount.
Smallest unit of size appears to be on the order of 1-2 microns or less.

RAINWATER METALS
Wet slide mount, magnification approx 500x.
Note definite appearance of fibrous materials.
Fibers appear to measure at 1-2 microns in diameter.

RAINWATER METALS
Wet slide mount, magnification approx 2000x.
Note high magnification : Individual units remain difficult to discern.
Dark spotted materials measure at approx. 0.5 microns.

RAINWATER METALS

RAINWATER METALS
Clifford E Carnicom
Jul 27 2001

Extraordinary levels of metallic particulates are now in the process of being identified within rainwater samples. The particular sample shown here is from rainwater collected on Jul 26 2001 in Santa Fe NM. Distillation of rainwater is being used as the method to accumulate the metallic particulates which are now readily visible to the naked eye within a test tube under sufficient lighting. Methods of crystalline chemistry have previously been outlined; in the case shown here no chemical reagents are involved. The high levels of metallic particulates are directly visible in concentrated form after distillation occurs.

The method shown on this page uses an initial sample of approximately 30ml of rainwater in an Erlenmeyer flask. This amount of rainwater is distilled to leave a concentrate remainder of approximately 4ml. This sample is illuminated with a strong source of light and subsequently photographed.

Future analysis will submit these samples to microscopic examination.

A video file (.mpg format, ~2meg. in size, 36secs. duration) of the current analysis is available for download at the end of this page. A file of this size and resolution is required to adequately demonstrate the reflective and insoluble nature of the material.

Notes : August 1 2001:

The pH of the concentrated rainwater samples has recently been measured at 7.6 or higher (end of scale currently available). This demonstrates a level of alkalinity much higher than that expected in rainwater. The equlibrium pH of rainwater is approximately 5.6 due to the presence of carbonic acid; it is usually less in industrialized areas due to the well-known acid rain phenomenon.

RAINWATER METALS
Distilled Concentrate of Rain Water in Test Tube.
Metallic particulates are highly visible.

RAINWATER METALS
Distilled Concentrate of Rain Water in Test Tube.
Metallic particulates are highly visible.

 

Video File of Current Analysis
(.mpg format, 36secs., 2meg)
Click Here to Download

(Windows : To Save File to Hard Drive :
Right Click, Save Link As)
(Windows Media Player Option :
Use ALT+ENTER to make full screen size)

[File missing as of 2016/02/09]

SAMPLES REQUIRE IDENTIFICATION (detail 2)

SAMPLES REQUIRE
IDENTIFICATION
Posted by Clifford E Carnicom
August 9 2000

The following sample requires identification. Those with further knowledge in microbiology are encouraged to respond. If any readers believe that they are able to identify the following materials, please respond with email to info@carnicominstitute.org or post a public message on the message board. Thank you.


Sample Number 2 : Santa Fe Rain Water

rainwater
Original Rainwater Collected June 26 2000
In storage approximately 6 weeks.

A fibrous appearing material is now visible within the rainwater samples that were collected on June 26 and June 27 2000 in Santa Fe NM. This is a part of the same water sample analyzed on https://carnicominstitute.org/wp/samples-require-identification/, and in which pine pollen was identified. The photograph above shows the original jar which has remained sealed and in sunlight for the six week period. The jar was shaken to disturb the fibers which appear in suspension in the photograph above.


The microphotographs below show the fibrous-appearing material after it has dried upon a microscope slide. Drying of the material leads to a dendritic type structure as is seen below. The magnification level is insufficient to show that the smallest particles which compose this material are of extremely small size, estimated at one micron in diameter or less.

Both samples of rain water collected in two separate jars show the appearance of this same material, however the sample of June 26 shows a greater amount of the fibrous-appearing material.


dendritic

dendritic
Magnification Approx. 480x


Clifford E Carnicom
August 9 2000

SAMPLES REQUIRE IDENTIFICATION

SAMPLES REQUIRE
IDENTIFICATION
Posted by Clifford E Carnicom
August 9 2000

Each of the following samples requires identification. Those with further knowledge in microbiology or mycology are encouraged to respond. If any readers believe that they are able to identify the following materials, please respond with email to info@carnicominstitute.org or post a public message on the message board. Thank you.



Sample Number 1 : Missouri Report
“Found this on 5 different locations on our 1 acre area after a jet ‘took’ the roof loose.”
Further Description Available Here

dendritic
Sample Number 2 : Santa Fe Rain Water
Rain Water held in storage for approximately 6 weeks.
Further Description Available Here

abq
Sample Number 3 : Albuquerque
Sample reported on ground on two separate occasions.
Further Description Available Here

 

Clifford E Carnicom
August 9 2000