## A GEOENGINEERING & CLIMATE MODEL

This is a model to estimate climate change from applying changes in greenhouse gas concentrations relative to the current rates of increase. It also provides for introducing various aerosols and into the atmosphere. It also includes the simulation of random events upon climate change.

## ESTIMATED LOWER ATMOSPHERIC ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES

A web based calculator for estimating lower atmospheric magnetic properties is included on this page. By plugging values of electron density, ELF range, element and atomic mass number, and Van de Graaf spark length, this calculator estimates electromagnetic properties of the lower atmosphere, including predicted Whistler frequency, Alfven wave frequency, plasma frequency, lower atmospheric conductivity and more. Mathematical calculations for manually calculating these same values are included in a discussion also on this page.

## ATMOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY II

Citing earlier concerns about and research into the topic of changing conductivity of the atmosphere from aerosol chemicals (see the previous Carnicom paper titled ATMOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY dated July 9, 2001 for more information on this topic), Carnicom discusses a method to estimate the atmospheric conductivity using a Van de Graaf generator. This generator uses a rated voltage capacity to cause sparks using the conductivity of the air as the medium. The longer the spark that can be achieved when the generator is activated, the more conductive the atmosphere is. Results presented in this work indicate an increase in the conductivity of the lower atmosphere by a factor of approximately 3 to 20 from a baseline ‘normal’ known value of air. The benefit of the current study is that it provides an estimate as to the magnitude of the change in atmospheric conductivity using relatively simple methods and equipment. Provided on this paper is a calculator that can be used to predict the ratio of increase in conductivity relative to the expected value of a normal atmosphere, as is a detailed mathematical analysis showing the calculations used to determine how to measure conductivity of the atmosphere and the use of electron density for this determination .