A QUESTION OF ALFVEN?
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 06 2002
Edited Nov 12 2002
There now exists an important question to answer that arises from the present low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic research in conjunction with the aerosol operations. The question is:
What is the origin of the signal that is being detected with the ELF -LF circuit described on the page LF Monitoring Begins?
The signal commonly ranges between roughly 75 to 100KHz, and is usually continuously varying to some degree. The variation has been described as one of the primary topics of research, and it is expected to correlate with variations in the local electromagnetic field. These variations will be studied in depth, and particularly as they relate to the onset of aerosol operations. The identification of the source of this signal, as opposed to the variation of the signal, is not yet a critical factor in the current research that is underway. It is, nevertheless, a question which must be answered.
The question herein focuses not upon the variation, but upon the so-designated ‘reference’ signal that is being received on a continuous basis. Some thought has been given to the origin of this LF signal, and thus far I have established two plausible explanations for its existence. The first of these is the simpler of the two, it is quite possibly the more likely of the two, and it should also be the easiest of the two to prove as the proper origin. The second is considerably more esoteric, and yet is not entirely beyond the range of possibility, and it must at least be offered for consideration in the analysis.
Let us take the simpler of the two. The suggestion in this case is that the LF signal received is simply a resonant frequency of the circuit. In other words, the circuit itself is generating the reference signal which can then be evaluated with respect to variations in frequency caused by external electromagnetic influences. This is considered to be the more probable case of the two scenarios, however, this explanation will require further proof for acceptance. This is considered the likely explanation for two reasons in particular:
1. The signal is received regardless of location of the circuit or external influences deliberately imposed upon the circuit. For example, a 60Hz signal has not been received in the unit regardless of its proximity to AC powered home devices. The LF signal also continues to be received in an apparent radio pollution free zone, i.e, 20 miles into the national forest lands of rural New Mexico. This indicates either an error in circuit construction from the original plan or an unusual case of frequency domination from an unknown cause. The most likely explanation for a frequency domination would be from an internally generated signal from an internal resonance. The original circuit description makes no reference of cautions for internal resonant frequencies, however. It is also known that the circuit will receive the frequencies of local radio station broadcast towers when coupled to a frequency counter that accommodates that range of frequencies in a selective mode.
2. Internal resonance appears to be a distinct possibility when operational amplifiers are used, as they are in this circuit. This would apparently be a case of positive feedback, as is illustrated with the following excerpt from Basic Electronics, by Gene McWhorter, Master Publishing, 2000:
” In principle, nearly every oscillator is an amplifier with positive feedback. …Positive feedback is a signal from the output of an amplifier that is fed back to its input in a manner that reinforces the output. …A resistor is needed in the feedback connection… to keep from burning out a transistor in the amplifier. The circuit will oscillate at what is called its natural resonant frequency.”
This would seem to be a plausible explanation. What is needed, therefore, to accept this hypothesis, is an analysis that demonstrates the LF reference signal being received falls into this category. A detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the TL082 operational amplifier used in this circuit would appear to be necessary and beneficial under the circumstances. A call is therefore made to electrical engineers or those knowledgeable in operational amplifier feedback characteristics to assess its relevance in the circuit that has been presented. If such an analysis can be provided in detail and as it applies specifically to the circuit under examination, please feel free to forward that information to me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
One of the apparent difficulties of the internal resonant frequency hypothesis is the variation of the signal that is received; it would appear that a internal resonant frequency would exist essentially in a stable form. This is not the case, as the frequencies detected vary continuously and range as stated from approximately 75 – 100 KHz. This frequency range appears to be frequently used in military applications in the frequency spectrum tables that have been consulted thus far; this may be completely coincidental to the question that has been raised. It will be helpful if this hypothesis of internal circuit resonance can be established with solid analytical analysis; researchers are requested to provide such reasoning if it is available.
The second proposition is intriguing, more difficult to explain, and more demanding to occur -but is at least deserving of consideration. If it is relevant, it would involve a rather complicated interaction between electromagnetic theory and plasma physics. The subject will be phrased as “A Question of Alfven?”
The consideration of what are called Alfven waves begins with an earlier historical discovery of propagation that is called a Whistler wave. I am not an expert in this field, as it appears to be a discipline worthy of career devotion in its own right. My purpose at this point is to introduce the topic for consideration, and to let that discussion follow its natural course, wherever it may lead to. Regardless of this outcome in this particular case being examined, the consideration of Alfven waves and the prediction of their existence at the proper frequency as related to aerosol-plasma alterations of the atmosphere does appear to be a viable and significant topic of research.
Let us return to the originating topic of the “Whistler wave”, as it is a fascinating topic in and of itself. From the book entitled Plasma Dynamics, by R.O. Dendy, Oxford University Press, 2000, it is stated that Whistler waves are so named because of their audio characteristics, which were first detected during World War I by military signaling equipment. It is now known that these waves originated from lightning discharges, where the energy was subsequently transferred along the lines of the earth’s magnetic field.
In addition, the following internet reference (from www.ibmpcug.co.uk/~irdial/whistler.htm) is valuable in understanding the origin and characteristics of Whistler waves:
“Whistlers are magnificent sounding bursts of ELF/VLF radio energy initiated by lightning strikes which “fall” in pitch. A whistler, as heard in the audio output from a VLF “whistler receiver”, generally falls lower in pitch, from as high as the middle-to-upper frequency range of our hearing downward to a low pitch of a couple hundred cycles-per-second (Hz). …Whistlers can tell scientists a great deal of the space environment between the Sun and the Earth and also about Earth’s magnetosphere.
The causes of whistlers are generally well known today though not yet completely understood. What is clear is that whistlers owe their existence to lightning storms…”
R.O. Dendy’s textbook on Plasma Dynamics further describes the mathematics of Whistler waves, the development of which occurs within the section entitled “High frequency waves in a cold magnetized plasma”. I have spent some time with this material, and I reach the following generalized conclusion: If a plasma state exists (please refer to earlier discussions within this site on the hypothesis of an altered atmosphere as a result of the aerosol operations), an input frequency into that system is able to output an entirely different frequency in an entirely different range. The physics and mathematics of Whistler wave generation are therefore rather complex, as may be surmised. As a further example of this input-output variation within a plasma state, refer again to the previous web site mentioned:
“Lightning stroke energy happens at all electromagnetic frequencies simultaneously that is, from “DC to Light”. Indeed, the Earth is literally bathed in lightning-stroke radio energy from an estimated 1,500 to 2,000 lightning storms in progress at any given time, triggering over a million lightning strikes daily. ….Measured in frequency terms, a whistler can begin at over 10,000 Hz and fall to less than 200 Hz, though the majority are heard from 6,000 down to 500 Hz.”
The transition to the consideration of Alfven waves, a similar but distinct phenomenon, occurs in the following manner. There is also work underway by this researcher with regard to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave detection, and initial findings from that effort will be presented in the near future as well. Alfven waves appear to be the counterpart to Whistler waves, except that the input to the plasma environment in this case is a LOW FREQUENCY wave. The Alfven waves are important because they characterize low frequency, fluid-like behavior of a plasma. The presence of ELF waves in conjunction with the aerosol operations is overdue as a serious topic of research, as there are serious implications with respect to human health and mental functioning if such propagation is ever verified. The role of HAARP and the public disclosure of ELF propagation as a part of communication objectives must be included within any analysis that is to occur. The directors of the HAARP facility present a case that such ELF propagation represents no meaningful threat to the welfare of the general populace; this hypothesis will now need to be borne out by citizen research as well.
Recall that there is no claim at this time of the detected LF frequencies as being an Alfven wave generation; the topic is only being opened up for consideration from relevant observations and research that are now underway. To demonstrate that the research of Alfven waves, the activities of HAARP, the propagation of ELF waves and the aerosol operations are a sensible topic of investigation, please be introduced to the following abstract available through the American Physical Society (http://www.aps.org/BAPSDPP98/abs/S2500009.html):
Propagation and excitation of ELF/VLF Modes in an inhomogeneous ionosphere
P. N. Guzdar, P. K. Kaw, A. S. Sharma, G. M. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)
“The excitation of ELF and VLF modes by modulating ionospheric electrojet currents using ground-based heaters is a problem of considerable interest. We investigate the excitation of these modes in an inhomogeneous ionosphere where variations in the electron number density and relevant collision frequencies are explicitly included. These variations make the effective dielectric constant for wave propagation in the magnetoplasma change continuously from a vacuum-like lower D region, to a whistler dominated upper D and lower E region and finally an Alfven wave dominated upper E and lower F region. A natural consequence of the inhomogeneity is that certain harmonics of the modulation frequency are resonantly excited thereby having larger amplitudes than lower harmonics. This is consistent with preliminary observations of ELF/VLF generation by the HAARP facility where the fifth harmonic was found to have the largest amplitude compared to the first and third. Our propagation studies are also revelant to the study of micropulsations directed towards the earth from the outer magnetosphere.”
This project study is not entirely unique in the sphere of ELF – HAARP publicly available research abstracts.
Let us look at the mathematics of Alfven wave generation, and see if it may apply in the current case:
From O.R. Dendy’s text referred to, the “wave number (k)” given for very low frequencies propagating in a cold magnetized plasma is given as:
k = ( w / c ) * ( 1 + ( ( ni*M*c2 ) / ( B2 / uo ) ) )1/2
where k = ( 2 * pi) / lambda.
A equation of the previous form is known as a “dispersion relation”, which characterizes the behavior of the plasma with respect to input and output frequencies.
and lambda is the wavelength. For further relationships between frequency, wavenumber and wavelength we have (refer to Physics of Waves, by William C. Elmore, Dover, 1969):
f * lambda = c
where c is the speed of light and f is the cyclic frequency in Hz.
lambda = ( 2 * pi ) / k
f = (c * k ) / ( 2 * pi)
w = 2 * pi * f
where w is the angular frequency of the wave.
In the equation under consideration,
w = the input angular frequency that is propagating through the plasma.
c = the speed of light in meters / sec.
ni = the ion number density, which satisfies the relation:
no / z
where no is the electron number density of the plasma (electrons / m3) and
z = ion charge / charge of an electron.
M is the mass of an ion.
B is the magnetic field strength in Teslas.
uo is the magnetic free air permeability ( 4 * pi * 10-7) (H / m)
Let us apply this equation to a hypothetical case, and assume an input of 4Hz (ELF) into the plasma.
Further assume that:
c = 3E8 m / sec
no = 5.2E14 (as a more conservative estimate than that arrived at within the previous paper The Plasma Frequency on this site)
assume a barium ion (Ba+2) so that
ni = 5.27E14 / 2 = 2.6E14
and that the radius of a Ba+2 ion is 1.4E-10m (from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82 ed)
and therefore the volume of a Ba+2 ion can be estimated as
V = ( 4 / 3) * pi * r3
V = ( 4 / 3) * pi * 1.4E-103 = 1.1494E-29m3
and since density = mass /volume
mass = density * volume
and the density of Ba is given as 3594 kg / m3
therefore the mass of a Ba+2 ion can be estimated as:
M = ( 3594 kg / m3 ) * 1.1494E-29m3 = 4.131E-26kg
The magnetic field of the earth can be approximated at 5E-5 T (Teslas).
Therefore an initial estimate of k under these circumstances can be given as:
k = ( 4 * 2 * pi radians / cycle ) / ( 3E8 m / s) * ( 1 + ( 2.6E14 * 4.131E-26kg *( 3E8 m / sec )2 ) / ( (5E-5 T)2 / ( 4 * pi * 10-7) ) ) 1/2
k = 1.847E-3
f= ( k * c ) / ( 2 * pi )
f= ( 1.847E-3 * 3E8 m/sec) / ( 2 * pi)
f = 8.817E4Hz
f = 88 KHz (approx)
This result, if correct, indicates that it is feasible to consider detected LF frequencies as potential Alfven waves. If any errors are found within these computations, it will be appreciated if notification is provided at email@example.com. The variables which will have the most influence upon any results obtained will be the electron density and the input frequency. There are many variable and feasible scenarios of both input frequency as well as electron density that may be considered.
The significance of the Alfven wave detection, should it ever be shown to be a reality, is that such a frequency would never be detected unless a significant alteration to the atmosphere (hypothesized as a plasma) had taken place. This fact affirms the need for other researchers in other locations, especially those with knowledge of electromagnetic and electrical engineering theory to examine the circuit that has been presented.
The electron densities of the ionosphere are on the order of 1010 to 1012 electrons per cubic meter. Recall from an earlier presentation on this site:
“..Although less than 1% of the upper atmosphere becomes ionised the charged particles make the gas electrically conducting, which completely changes its characteristics. The ionosphere can carry electrical currents as well as reflect, deflect and scatter radio waves”…
This statement informs us, therefore, that a low level of ionization leads to a dramatic increase in the electron density. The normal electron density of the lower atmosphere (historically speaking) is on the order of 1*108 to 5*109 (Source: American Institute of Physics Handbook 1963). It can be seen that a small increase in ionization(less than 1% as stated) (as occurs in the ionosphere) has the effect of raising the electron density by a factor of 100 to 1000. It is therefore not unreasonable to consider increases in electron density on the order of 10,000 in the lower atmosphere as a result of aerosol operations that have been and continue to be conducted without informed consent.
This paper demonstrates that detection of the Alfven wave phenomenon is a viable topic of research in association with the aerosol operations, regardless of the origin of the LF wave that is being received. It also establishes the need for positive identification of the LF signal that is currently under evaluation, both with respect to its magnitude as well as the variations of the frequencies as they have been recorded.
This paper will be revised or corrected as is appropriate.
Clifford E Carnicom
Nov 07 2002
NOTE: November 12 2002
A special note of gratitude is extended to Mr. Jim Keith for responding graciously and extensively to the appeal for assistance of research on this circuit. Mr. Keith’s extensive electronics professional experience has been invaluable helping to interpret and improve the workings of this circuit. This circuit has been modified to various extent, and it is expected to undergo further change as the state of knowledge improves. Research continues in this regard, and I offer my sincere appreciation for his contribution to this research topic.